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For a water flow, see Zmeu River. For the village in Iaşi County, see Lungani.

The Zmeu (plural: zmei, feminine: zmeoaică/zmeoaice) is a fantastic creature of Romanian folklore and Romanian mythology. Sometimes compared to other fantastic creatures, such as the balaur or the vârcolac, the zmeu is nevertheless distinct, because it usually has clear anthropomorphic traits: it is humanoid and has legs, arms, the ability to create and use artifacts such as weapons, or the desire to marry young girls. In some stories, Zmeu appears in the sky and spits fire. In other stories, it has a magical precious stone on its head that shines like the sun. It likes beautiful young girls, whom it kidnaps, usually for the purpose of marrying them. It is almost always defeated by a daring prince or knight-errant. Its natural form is that of a dragon or balaur.

Name[edit]

Most scholars agree that Zmeu's name and appearance is derived from the Slavic Zmey. However, the linguist Sorin Paliga challenges the notion that the Romanian word Zmeu is of Slavic origin, and hypothesizes that the pan-Slavic forms were an early Slavic loan from the Dacian language.[1] The relation with Romanian zmeură ("raspberry") has been deemed to be possible, but rather unlikely, by Alexandru Ciorănescu.[2]

The word also refers to the kites that children fly.

Role and functions[edit]

The "zmeu" figures prominently in many Romanian folk tales as the manifestation of the destructive forces of greed and selfishness. Often, the zmeu steals something of great value, which only Făt-Frumos (the Romanian "Prince Charming"; literally: "handsome youth") can retrieve through his great, selfless bravery. For example, in the ballad of the knight Greuceanu, the zmeu steals the sun and the moon from the sky, thereby enshrouding all humanity in darkness. In the story of Prâslea the Brave and the Golden Apples, the zmeu robs the king of the precious "golden apples"; a parallel can be drawn to the German fairy tale The Golden Bird, the Russian Tsarevitch Ivan, the Fire Bird and the Gray Wolf, and the Bulgarian The Nine Peahens and the Golden Apples — although in all these other cases, the thief was a bird (nevertheless, in some versions of the Romanian story, the zmeu does transform into a bird to steal the golden apples). Usually, the zmeu resides in the "other world" (celǎlalt tǎrâm) and sometimes Făt-Frumos has to descend into his dark kingdom, implying that the zmeu lives underground.

The zmeu has a plethora of magical, destructive powers at his disposal. He can fly, shapeshift, and has tremendous supernatural strength. Ultimately, the abilities of the zmeu are of no avail, as Făt-Frumos defeats him through martial skill and daring.

Some English translations refer to the "zmeu" as the ogre or giant from western European mythologies. Like the ogre, the zmeu likes to kidnap a maiden to be his wife in his otherworldly realm. After Făt-Frumos slays the zmeu, he takes the maiden as his bride-to-be. Similarly, like the giant in the popular British stories of Jack and the Beanstalk, the zmeu returns home to his fortress from his raids into human lands sensing that a human (Făt-Frumos) is lying in ambush somewhere nearby. A Zmeu is also sometimes pictured as a flame who goes in the room of a young girl or widow and once inside, becomes a man and seduces her.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ S. Paliga, Lingvistica si arheologia slavilor timpurii. O alta vedere de la Dunarea de Jos.Ed. Cetatea de Scaun 2009
  2. ^ Zmeură, in Alexandru Ciorănescu, Dicționarul etimologic român, Universidad de la Laguna, Tenerife, 1958-1966.

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zmeu — Please support Wikipedia.
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34 news items

New York Times

New York Times
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 10:48:45 -0700

The knight Fat-Frumos, who rescues her from a zmeu, a shapeshifting part-human, part-multi-headed dragon, presides over steamed dumplings with similarly hearty fillings but delicate skins, crimped like gyoza. Also worthy are the less heroically ...
 
ProSport
Sun, 31 Aug 2014 23:32:42 -0700

Kitesurfingul presupune folosirea unui zmeu drept ”motor” pentru placa de surf, iar acest sport a început să devină cunoscut la începutul anilor '90. Recordul de viteză este deţinut de francezul Sebastien Cattelan care a atins 50,26 noduri pe 3 ...
 
Radio Eska
Sun, 24 Aug 2014 01:28:02 -0700

25.08.2014 | 04:52: ~Gość9514629(gość): c\zmeu miley nie wyszla po nagrode? 25.08.2014 | 04:52: ~biaaaaaa(gość): fajna zapowiedz faking it. 25.08.2014 | 04:52: ~Gość9515715(gość): jimmy. 25.08.2014 | 04:53: ~Gość9511518(gość): zamiast miley ...
 
Adevărul
Mon, 18 Aug 2014 23:58:43 -0700

Ajungem în Şaua Cleopatrei, aici sunt două pietre mari care numesc Acele Cleopatrei, cele cu cu care i-a împuns inima unui zmeu, aşa se zice că ar fi legenda”, explică Andrei Buta. Din Piatra Prânzului până în Şaua Cleopatrei mergeţi încă 30 de minute ...

Romania Libera

RomaniaTV.net
Fri, 22 Aug 2014 03:33:28 -0700

Tot despre Florin Blănărescu, actriţa Constanţa Zmeu, spunea cu acelaşi prilej că ,,are o naturaleţe extraordinară şi în viaţă şi pe scenă, un simţ al umorului deosebit, o inteligenţă scenică rară', iar Traian Valeriu, fost director al Teatrului ...
 
RomaniaTV.net
Mon, 18 Aug 2014 03:53:27 -0700

Daca stramosii nostri, dragii mei barbati care m-au facut prost si zmeu pentru reactia mea ar fi avut mentalitatea voastra, voi in ziua de astazi ati fi fost sclavi la unguri in Transilvania. Romania nu ar fi fost nici un stat independent si nici unul ...
 
Onlinesport
Mon, 11 Aug 2014 12:57:48 -0700

"Cap de Zmeu" isi putea lua revansa spre finalul primei reprize, cand a fost la un pas sa il surprinda pe Plopeanu cu un lob spectaculos, spre vinclu, din marginea careului. "Stegarii" au fortat egalarea in partea secunda, prin Catalin Munteanu (56) si ...
 
Ziarul de Iaşi
Tue, 12 Aug 2014 13:45:43 -0700

Unii văd un crocodil, alţii un dragon, iar alţii un zmeu. E dreptul lor. Cu cine vreţi să se lupte Făt-Frumos sau Don Quijote de la Mancha? Cu soacră-mea? Cine să o salveze pe Dulcineea, chiar dacă ea face parte din altă realitate? Asemenea eroi ...
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