An illustration of Zhang Fei from a Qing Dynasty edition of Romance of the Three Kingdoms
|General of Shu Han|
|Style name||Yide (Chinese: 益德; pinyin: Yìdé; Wade–Giles: I-te)|
|Posthumous name||Marquis Huan (Chinese: 桓侯; pinyin: Huán Hóu)|
Zhang Fei (died 221), style name Yide, was a military general who served under the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. He served briefly in the state of Shu Han (founded by Liu Bei) during the Three Kingdoms period before his death.
Early career 
Zhang Fei was a native of Zhuo commandery (涿郡), which is in present-day Zhuozhou, Hebei. In the 180s, towards the end of the Han Dynasty, he and Guan Yu became Liu Bei's followers. As Guan Yu was many years older than Zhang Fei, the latter regarded him as an elder brother. When Liu Bei was later appointed as the Chancellor (相) of Pingyuan (平原) by the Han imperial court, Zhang Fei and Guan Yu served as "Majors of Separate Command" (別部司馬) under him. The three of them shared a brotherly-like relationship, to the point of sharing the same room. Zhang Fei and Guan Yu also stood guard beside Liu Bei when he sat down at meetings. They followed him on his exploits and protected him from danger.
Conflict between Liu Bei and Lü Bu 
In 194, Liu Bei succeeded Tao Qian as the Governor (牧) of Xu Province. The following year, he led his forces to Shiting (石亭), Huaiyin (淮陰), to counter an invading army sent by Yuan Shu, while leaving Zhang Fei behind to defend Xiapi (下邳; present-day Pizhou, Xuzhou, Jiangsu), the capital of Xu Province. Zhang Fei wanted to kill Cao Bao, a former officer under Tao Qian, for reasons unknown. Cao Bao fled back to his own camp and set up defences, while sending a messenger to request aid from Lü Bu, another warlord who was taking shelter under Liu Bei at that time. Lü Bu led his forces to attack Xiapi and succeeded in defeating and driving away Zhang Fei. (Another account stated that Zhang Fei killed Cao Bao in a quarrel. See Cao Bao's article for details.)
Liu Bei returned to Xu Province, which was now under Lü Bu's control, and he reluctantly accepted the latter's offer to move to Xiaopei while the latter would remain in Xiapi. Tensions between Liu Bei and Lü Bu increased until the point of conflict, when Liu Bei sought help from Cao Cao, a warlord who was the de facto head of government in the Han imperial court. Cao Cao and Liu Bei combined forces and they defeated Lü Bu at the Battle of Xiapi in 198, after which they returned to the imperial capital Xuchang together. In Xuchang, Zhang Fei was appointed as a "General of the Household" (中郎將).
Roaming the land with Liu Bei 
In 199, Liu Bei found an excuse to leave Xuchang and he travelled to Xu Province and killed Che Zhou, the provincial governor appointed by Cao Cao, and seized control of the province. The following year, Cao Cao launched an eastern campaign to take back Xu Province and he defeated Liu Bei. Liu Bei fled to northern China, where he took refuge under Cao Cao's rival, Yuan Shao. Liu Bei later left Yuan Shao on the pretext of helping Yuan recruit the rebels in Runan (汝南). He eventually found shelter under Liu Biao, the Governor of Jing Province. Liu Biao put him in charge of Xinye (新野), a commandery on the northern border of Jing Province. It is not known whether Zhang Fei followed Liu Bei to join Yuan Shao after Liu's defeat in Xu Province, or whether he, like Guan Yu, was separated from Liu during that period of time.
Red Cliffs campaign 
Battle of Changban 
In 208, following Liu Biao's death, Cao Cao started a campaign aimed at wiping out opposing forces in southern China. When his armies arrived in Jing Province, Liu Biao's younger son and successor Liu Cong surrendered. Liu Bei evacuated Xinye and headed south with his followers towards Xiakou (夏口), which was controlled by Liu Biao's elder son, Liu Qi. Cao Cao sent 5,000 riders to pursue Liu Bei, and they caught up with him at Changban (長阪), Dangyang (當陽). Liu Bei abandoned his family and fled, with only Zhuge Liang, Zhang Fei, Zhao Yun and a few tens of soldiers accompanying him. Zhang Fei led 20 horsemen to cover Liu Bei's retreat. After having a bridge destroyed, he stood guard at one end (facing the enemy), brandished his spear, glared at the enemy, and shouted, "I'm Zhang Yide. You can come forth and fight me to the death!" Cao Cao's soldiers were all afraid and did not dare to approach him. Liu Bei and his followers were hence able to retreat safely.
Battle of Red Cliffs and after 
In 208, Liu Bei and Sun Quan combined forces and defeated Cao Cao at the decisive Battle of Red Cliffs and the follow-up Battle of Jiangling, after which Liu took control of southern Jing Province. Zhang Fei was appointed as "General Who Attacks Barbarians" (征虜將軍), Administrator (太守) of Yidu (宜都), and granted the title of "Marquis of Xin Village" (新亭侯). He was later reassigned to Nan commandery (南郡).
Yi Province campaign 
Earlier defence of Jing Province 
In 211, Liu Bei led an army to Yi Province (益州; covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing) to assist the provincial governor Liu Zhang in countering a rival warlord, Zhang Lu of Hanzhong. He left Zhang Fei and others behind to guard Jing Province in his absence. Earlier in 209, Liu Bei married Sun Quan's younger sister Lady Sun to strengthen the alliance between him and Sun Quan. Because of her brother's strong influence, Lady Sun was arrogant and she allowed her close aides to behave lawlessly. Even Liu Bei was afraid of her. When Sun Quan heard that Liu Bei had left for Yi Province, he sent a vessel to Jing Province to fetch his sister home. Lady Sun attempted to bring along Liu Bei's son Liu Shan with her, but Zhang Fei and Zhao Yun led their men to blockade the river and they retrieved Liu Shan.
Conquest of Yi Province 
Around 212, relations between Liu Bei and Liu Zhang deteriorated to the point of conflict, where Liu Bei started a campaign aimed at seizing Yi Province from Liu Zhang. Liu Bei ordered Zhuge Liang, Zhao Yun, Zhang Fei and others to lead reinforcements into Yi Province to help him, while Guan Yu would remain behind to defend Jing Province.
Along the way, Zhang Fei attacked Jiangzhou (江州), which was defended by Yan Yan, the Administrator of Ba commandery (巴郡) under Liu Zhang, and captured Yan alive. Zhang Fei said to Yan Yan, "When my army showed up, why did you put up resistance instead of surrendering?" Yan Yan replied, "You people launched an unwarranted attack on my home province. There may be generals in my province who will lose their heads, but there are none who will surrender." Zhang Fei was enraged and he ordered Yan Yan's execution. Yan Yan was expressionless, and he said, "If you want to chop off my head, then do it! What's with all that outburst of anger?" Zhang Fei was so impressed with Yan Yan's courage that he spared and released the latter and treated him like an honoured guest.
Zhang Fei's army then proceeded to break through Liu Zhang's defences until they reached Chengdu (Yi Province's capital), where they rendezvoused with Liu Bei and the others. In 215, Liu Zhang surrendered and yielded Yi Province to Liu Bei. Liu Bei rewarded Zhuge Liang, Fa Zheng, Zhang Fei and Guan Yu each with 500 jin of gold, 1,000 jin of silver, 50 million coins and 1,000 rolls of silk. Zhang Fei was also appointed as the Administrator (太守) of Baxi (巴西) commandery.
Hanzhong Campaign 
Battle of Baxi 
In around 216, Cao Cao attacked and defeated Zhang Lu, after which Hanzhong commandery came under Cao's control. Cao Cao left Xiahou Yuan, Zhang He and others behind to defend Hanzhong while he returned to Ye (鄴). During that time, Zhang He led his forces to attack Baxi (巴西) with the aim of forcing Baxi's residents to relocate to Hanzhong. His army passed through Dangqu (宕渠), Mengtou (蒙頭) and Dangshi (盪石), and encountered Zhang Fei's troops. Both sides held their positions for over 50 days, after which Zhang Fei led about 10,000 elite soldiers and took an alternative route to attack Zhang He. As the mountain paths were very narrow and inaccessible, Zhang He's army was effectively divided into two because the troops at the front and the rear were unable to contact and assist each other, resulting in a victory for Zhang Fei. Zhang He and about ten of his men escaped on foot through a shortcut and retreated back to Nanzheng (南鄭). Peace was restored in Baxi.
Conquest of Hanzhong 
In 217, Liu Bei mobilised his forces and personally led a campaign to seize control of Hanzhong from Cao Cao. He ordered Zhang Fei and Ma Chao to supervise Wu Lan (吳蘭), Lei Tong and Ren Kui (任夔) to attack Wudu (武都), which was defended by Cao Hong. Zhang Fei attempted to trick Cao Hong into believing that they were planning to seal his retreat route, but Cao Xiu saw through the ruse, and Zhang suffered a defeat which absolved him from continuing the campaign - Lei Tong and Ren Kui were killed in action while Wu Lan fled to Yinping (陰平) and was killed by a Di chieftain Qiangduan (強端).
In 219, Liu Bei emerged victorious in the Hanzhong Campaign and proceeded to proclaim himself "King of Hanzhong" (漢中王). He appointed Zhang Fei as "General of the Right" (右將軍). Liu Bei later planned to return to Chengdu and he wanted to leave a seasoned general behind to guard Hanzhong. Many people believed that Zhang Fei would receive this responsibility and even Zhang himself thought so too. However, much to everyone's surprise, Liu Bei chose Wei Yan instead and appointed the latter as the Administrator (太守) of Hanzhong.
Service in Shu Han 
In 221, Liu Bei declared himself emperor and founded the state of Shu Han. He promoted Zhang Fei to "General of Chariots and Cavalry" (車騎將軍) and "Director of Retainers" (司隸校尉), and granted the latter the title of "Marquis of Xi District" (西鄉侯). His imperial edict read: "I have received the Mandate of Heaven and inherited the noble work of my ancestors. I am obliged to restore peace and purge the Empire of chaos. As of now, there are villains and barbarians causing destruction and harm to the people, while those who miss the Han Dynasty eagerly hope for its restoration. I feel distressed, I can neither rest well nor have my meals in peace. I have prepared the armies and made an oath to bring Heaven's punishment upon those evildoers. You are loyal and resolute, your deeds are comparable to those of Shao Hu, your fame spreads near and far. As such, I give you special appointments, grant you a title of nobility, and put you in charge of affairs in the capital. You are born with Heaven's might, you use virtue to win over others, and you dish out punishments to wrongdoers. I am very pleased with you. The Classic of Poetry stated: 'Not to distress the people, nor with urgency, but making them conform to the royal state. You have commenced and earnestly displayed your merit, and I will make you happy.' How can I not give encouragement to you?"
Earlier in late 219, Sun Quan broke his alliance with Liu Bei and sent his general Lü Meng to lead an invasion on Jing Province, which resulted in the death of Guan Yu and the loss of Jing Province. In 222, Liu Bei launched a campaign against Sun Quan to take revenge and seize back Jing Province. Zhang Fei was ordered to lead 10,000 troops from Langzhong (閬中) to rendezvous with Liu Bei's main force at Jiangzhou (江州). However, before departing, Zhang Fei was assassinated by his subordinates Fan Qiang (范彊) and Zhang Da (張達). They cut off Zhang Fei's head and brought it along with them when they defected to Sun Quan's side. Zhang Fei's camp commandant wrote a report to Liu Bei. When Liu Bei heard that Zhang Fei's camp commandant had sent him a report, he exclaimed, "Oh! (Zhang) Fei is dead."
In 200 CE, Zhang Fei chanced upon Xiahou Yuan's niece while she was out gathering firewood and he took her home. She was 12 or 13 years old at that time. Zhang Fei knew that she was of good upbringing, so he married her. She bore him a daughter, who later married Liu Shan and became known as Empress Jing'ai in the state of Shu. Empress Jing'ai had a younger sister who also married Liu Shan and was known as Empress Zhang.
Zhang Fei's eldest son Zhang Bao died at a young age. Zhang Fei's second son, Zhang Shao (張紹), inherited his father's marquis title and served as a "Palace Attendant and Deputy Director in the Imperial Secretariat" (侍中尚書僕射) in Shu.
Zhang Bao's son, Zhang Zun (張遵), served as an Imperial Secretary (尚書). In 263, during the Conquest of Shu by Wei, he followed Zhuge Zhan to defend Mianzhu Pass (綿竹關) from the Wei general Deng Ai but was killed in action.
Chen Shou, who wrote Zhang Fei's biography in Records of the Three Kingdoms, commented on the latter as such: "(Guan Yu and) Zhang Fei were referred to as mighty warriors capable of fighting thousands of enemies. They were like tigers among (Liu Bei's) subjects. [...] Zhang Fei had the style of a guoshi when he released Yan Yan out of righteousness. However, [...] Zhang Fei was brutal and heartless, and these shortcomings resulted in their downfalls. This was not something uncommon."
Cheng Yu, an advisor to Cao Cao, also once mentioned that Guan Yu and Zhang Fei were "capable of fighting thousands of enemies". In the main text of Zhang Fei's biography, Chen Shou wrote that Zhang Fei respected virtuous persons and detested those of vile character. Liu Bei had constantly warned Zhang Fei about his barbaric behaviour as he once told the latter, "You have dealt out far too excessive punishments. You often flog your men, who are actually the ones who will carry out your orders. Your behaviour will get you into trouble." Zhang Fei did not change his ways.
In fiction 
In the novel, Zhang Fei's style name is written as 翼德 in Chinese instead of 益德, but both names have the same pronunciation. Zhang Fei was also described to be an alcoholic, and his obsession with wine caused his judgement to be affected from time to time. Throughout the novel, Zhang Fei was shown as an exceedingly loyal and formidable warrior, but also a short-tempered man, who often got into trouble more often when he was not on the battlefield.
See the following for some fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms involving Zhang Fei:
- Oath of the Peach Garden
- List of fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms#Zhang Fei thrashes the imperial inspector
- Battle of Hulao Pass
- Battle of Changban#In fiction
- Battle of Jiameng Pass
Modern references 
The Kuomintang general Zhang Fakui was nicknamed "Zhang Fei". In 1959, the People's Liberation Army marshal Peng Dehuai identified himself with Zhang Fei. Because Mao Zedong was popularly associated with Cao Cao, Mao and other members of the Chinese Communist Party interpreted Peng's identification with Zhang as confrontational, eventually leading to Mao ending Peng's career.
Zhang Fei is featured as a playable character in all instalments of Koei's Dynasty Warriors video game series, as well as Warriors Orochi, a crossover between Dynasty Warriors and Samurai Warriors. He also appears in other video games produced by Koei, such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Dynasty Tactics and Kessen II. Other non-Koei titles that he is featured in include Clash of Kingdoms, Three Kingdoms: Fate of the Dragon and Destiny of an Emperor.
In the collectible card game Magic: The Gathering, there is a card named "Zhang Fei, Fierce Warrior" in the Portal Three Kingdoms set. In Koihime Musō, Zhang Fei is portrayed as a young female character who was given the real name "Rinrin".
See also 
- ^ Duke Mu of Shao (召穆公), personal name Shao Hu (召虎), was a noble who lived in the Western Zhou Dynasty during the reigns of King Li and King Xuan. He was known for assisting King Xuan in governing the state, and once led troops to defeat barbarian forces in the Huai River area.
- ^ Guoshi (國士) could loosely translated as "gentleman of the state". It was used to refer to very outstanding persons in a country.
- Liu Bei's biography in Records of the Three Kingdoms stated that Zhang Fei was killed by his subordinates in the sixth lunar month in the first year of the Zhangwu era (221-223) of Liu Bei's reign. ([章武元年]六月， ... 車騎將軍張飛為其左右所害。)
- de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Brill. p. 1042. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0.
- (張飛字益德，涿郡人也，少與關羽俱事先主。羽年長數歲，飛兄事之。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (先主於鄉里合徒衆，而羽與張飛為之禦侮。先主為平原相，以羽、飛為別部司馬，分統部曲。先主與二人寢則同牀，恩若兄弟。而稠人廣坐，侍立終日，隨先主周旋，不避艱險。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Guan Yu.
- (英雄記曰：備留張飛守下邳，引兵與袁術戰於淮陰石亭，更有勝負。陶謙故將曹豹在下邳，張飛欲殺之。豹衆堅營自守，使人招呂布。布取下邳，張飛敗走。) Annotations from the Yingxiong Ji (英雄記) to Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 32, Biography of Liu Bei.
- (先主從曹公破呂布，隨還許，曹公拜飛為中郎將。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (... 先主還紹軍，陰欲離紹，乃說紹南連荊州牧劉表。紹遣先主將本兵復至汝南，與賊龔都等合，衆數千人。 ... 曹公旣破紹，自南擊先主。先主遣麋笁、孫乾與劉表相聞，表自郊迎，以上賔禮待之，益其兵，使屯新野。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 32, Biography of Liu Bei.
- (先主背曹公依袁紹、劉表。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (曹公以江陵有軍實，恐先主據之，乃釋輜重，輕軍到襄陽。聞先主已過，曹公將精騎五千急追之，一日一夜行三百餘里，及於當陽之長坂。先主棄妻子，與諸葛亮、張飛、趙雲等數十騎走，曹公大獲其人衆輜重。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 32, Biography of Liu Bei.
- (表卒，曹公入荊州，先主奔江南。曹公追之，一日一夜，及於當陽之長阪。先主聞曹公卒至，棄妻子走，使飛將二十騎拒後。飛據水斷橋，瞋目橫矛曰：「身是張益德也，可來共決死！」敵皆無敢近者，故遂得免。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (先主旣定江南，以飛為宜都太守、征虜將軍，封新亭侯，後轉在南郡。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (先主入益州，雲領留營司馬。此時先主孫夫人以權妹驕豪，多將吳吏兵，縱橫不法。先主以雲嚴重，必能整齊，特任掌內事。權聞備西征，大遣舟船迎妹，而夫人內欲將後主還吳，雲與張飛勒兵截江，乃得後主還。) Annotations from the Yun Biezhuan (雲別傳) to Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhao Yun.
- (先主軍益強，分遣諸將平下屬縣，諸葛亮、張飛、趙雲等將兵溯流定白帝、江州、江陽，惟關羽留鎮荊州。) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms, Volume 32, Biography of Liu Bei.
- (先主入益州，還攻劉璋，飛與諸葛亮等泝流而上，分定郡縣。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (至江州，破璋將巴郡太守嚴顏，生獲顏。飛呵顏曰：「大軍至，何以不降，而敢拒戰？」顏荅曰：「卿等無狀，侵奪我州，我州但有斷頭將軍，無有降將軍也。」飛怒，令左右牽去斫頭，顏色不變，曰：「斫頭便斫頭，何為怒邪！」飛壯而釋之，引為賔客。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (飛所過戰克，與先主會于成都。益州旣平，賜諸葛亮、法正、飛及關羽金各五百斤，銀千斤，錢五千萬，錦千匹，其餘頒賜各有差，以飛領巴西太守。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (曹公破張魯，留夏侯淵、張郃守漢川。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (郃別督諸軍下巴西，欲徙其民於漢中，進軍宕渠、蒙頭、盪石，與飛相拒五十餘日。飛率精卒萬餘人，從他道邀郃軍交戰，山道迮狹，前後不得相救，飛遂破郃。郃棄馬緣山，獨與麾下十餘人從間道退，引軍還南鄭，巴土獲安。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (二十三年，先主率諸將進兵漢中。分遣將軍吳蘭、雷銅等入武都，皆為曹公軍所沒。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 32, Biography of Liu Bei.
- (曹洪破吳蘭，斬其將任夔等。三月，張飛、馬超走漢中，陰平氐強端斬吳蘭，傳其首。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 1, Biography of Cao Cao.
- (劉備遣將吳蘭屯下辯，太祖遣曹洪征之，以休為騎都尉，參洪軍事。太祖謂休曰：「汝雖參軍，其實帥也。」洪聞此令，亦委事於休。備遣張飛屯固山，欲斷軍後。衆議狐疑，休曰：「賊實斷道者，當伏兵潛行。今乃先張聲勢，此其不能也。宜及其未集，促擊蘭，蘭破則飛自走矣。」洪從之，進兵擊蘭，大破之，飛果走。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 9, Biography of Cao Xiu.
- (先主為漢中王，拜飛為右將軍、假節。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (先主為漢中王，遷治成都，當得重將以鎮漢川，衆論以為必在張飛，飛亦以心自許。先主乃拔延為督漢中鎮遠將軍，領漢中太守，一軍盡驚。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 40, Biography of Wei Yan.
- Classic of Poetry translation
- (章武元年，遷車騎將軍，領司隷校尉，進封西鄉侯，策曰：「朕承天序，嗣奉洪業，除殘靖亂，未燭厥理。今寇虜作害，民被荼毒，思漢之士，延頸鶴望。朕用怛然，坐不安席，食不甘味，整軍誥誓，將行天罰。以君忠毅，侔蹤召、虎，名宣遐邇，故特顯命，高墉進爵，兼司于京。其誕將天威，柔服以德，伐叛以刑，稱朕意焉。詩不云乎，『匪疚匪棘，王國來極。肇敏戎功，用錫爾祉』。可不勉歟！」) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (先主伐吳，飛當率兵萬人，自閬中會江州。臨發，其帳下將張達、范彊殺飛，持其首，順流而奔孫權。飛營都督表報先主，先主聞飛都督之有表也，曰：「噫！飛死矣。」) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (追謚飛曰桓侯。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- ([景耀]三年秋九月，追謚故將軍關羽、張飛、馬超、龐統、黃忠。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 33, Biography of Liu Shan.
- (初，建安五年，時霸從妹年十三四，在本郡，出行樵採，為張飛所得。飛知其良家女，遂以為妻，產息女，為劉禪皇后。) Annotations from the Weilue (魏略) to Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 9, Biography of Xiahou Yuan.
- (後主敬哀皇后，車騎將軍張飛長女也。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 34, Biography of Empress Jing'ai.
- (後主張皇后，前后敬哀之妹也。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 34, Biography of Empress Zhang (Empress Jing'ai's sister).
- (長子苞，早夭。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (次子紹嗣，官至侍中尚書僕射。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (苞子遵為尚書，隨諸葛瞻於綿竹，與鄧艾戰，死。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (忠、纂馳還更戰，大破之，斬瞻及尚書張遵等首，進軍到雒。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 28, Biography of Deng Ai.
- (評曰：關羽、張飛皆稱萬人之敵，為世虎臣。羽報效曹公，飛義釋嚴顏，並有國士之風。然羽剛而自矜，飛暴而無恩，以短取敗，理數之常也。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36.
- (初，飛雄壯威猛，亞於關羽，魏謀臣程昱等咸稱羽、飛萬人之敵也。羽善待卒伍而驕於士大夫，飛愛敬君子而不恤小人。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- (先主常戒之曰：「卿刑殺旣過差，又日鞭檛健兒，而令在左右，此取禍之道也。」飛猶不悛。) Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Volume 36, Biography of Zhang Fei.
- Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association, JSTOR (Organization) (1944). The Journal of Asian studies, Volumes 3-4. Association for Asian Studies. p. 163. Retrieved 2011-06-04.
- Domes, Jurgen. Peng Te-huai: The Man and the Image, London: C. Hurst & Company. 1985. ISBN 0-905838-99-8. p.91
- (Chinese) Dictionary definition of guoshi
- Chen Shou (2002). Records of the Three Kingdoms. Yue Lu Shu She. ISBN 978-7-80665-198-8.
- Luo Guanzhong (1986). Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Yue Lu Shu She. ISBN 978-7-80520-013-2.
- Lo Kuan-chung; tr. C.H. Brewitt-Taylor (2002). Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8048-3467-4.
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