digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For the village in eastern Poland, see Zaolzie, Lublin Voivodeship.

Zaolzie [zaˈɔlʑɛ] ( ) is the Polish name for an area now in the Czech Republic which was disputed between interwar Poland and Czechoslovakia. The name means "lands beyond the Olza River"; it is also called Śląsk zaolziański, meaning "trans-Olza Silesia". Equivalent terms in other languages include Zaolší (Zaolží) in Czech and Olsa-Gebiet in German. The Zaolzie region was created in 1920, when Cieszyn Silesia was divided between Czechoslovakia and Poland. Zaolzie forms the eastern part of the Czech portion of Cieszyn Silesia. The division did not satisfy any side, and persisting conflict over the region led to its annexation by Poland in October 1938, following the Munich Agreement. After German invasion of Poland in 1939, the area became a part of Nazi Germany until 1945. After the war, the 1920 borders were restored.

Historically, the largest specified ethnic group inhabiting this area were those identifying as Poles.[1] Under Austrian rule, Cieszyn Silesia was divided into four districts. One of them, Frýdek, had a mostly Czech population, the other three were mostly inhabited by Poles.[2] During the 19th century the number of ethnic Germans grew. After declining at the end of the 19th century,[3] at the beginning of the 20th century and later from 1920 to 1938 the Czech population grew significantly (mainly as a result of immigration and the assimilation of locals) and Poles became a minority, which they are to this day. Another significant ethnic group were the Jews, but almost the entire Jewish population was exterminated during World War II.

In addition to the Polish, Czech and German national orientations there was another group living in the area, the Ślązakowcy, who claimed a distinct Silesian national identity. This group enjoyed popular support throughout the whole of Cieszyn Silesia although its strongest supporters were among the Protestants in eastern part of the Cieszyn Silesia (now part of Poland) and not in Zaolzie itself.[4]

Name and territory[edit]

The term Zaolzie (meaning "the trans-Olza", i.e. "lands beyond the Olza") is used predominantly in Poland and also commonly by the Polish minority living in the territory. In Czech it is mainly referred to as České Těšínsko/Českotěšínsko ("land around Český Těšín"), or as Těšínsko or Těšínské Slezsko (meaning Cieszyn Silesia). The Czech equivalent of Zaolzie (Zaolší or Zaolží) is rarely used. The term of Zaolzie is also used by some foreign scholars, e.g. American ethnolinguist Kevin Hannan.[5]

The term Zaolzie denotes the territory of the former districts of Český Těšín and Fryštát, in which the Polish population formed a majority according to the 1910 Austrian census.[6] It makes up the eastern part of the Czech portion of Cieszyn Silesia. However, Polish historian Józef Szymeczek notes that the term is often mistakenly used for the whole Czech part of Cieszyn Silesia.[6]

Since the 1960 reform of administrative divisions of Czechoslovakia, Zaolzie has consisted of Karviná District and the eastern part of Frýdek-Místek District.

History[edit]

Initially the area was a part of Great Moravia.[7] From 950 to 1060 it was under the rule of Principality of Bohemia,[8] and from 1060 it was part of Poland. From 1327 the whole area of the Duchy of Cieszyn became an autonomic fiefdom of the Bohemian crown.[9] Upon the death of Elizabeth Lucretia, its last ruler from the Polish Piast dynasty in 1653, it passed directly to the Czech kings from the Habsburg dynasty together with the remainder of the Duchy of Cieszyn.[10] When most of Silesia was conquered by Prussia's Frederick the Great in 1742, the Cieszyn region was part of the small southern portion that was retained by the Habsburg monarchy (Austrian Silesia).

Up to the mid-19th century members of the local Slav population did not identify themselves as members of larger ethnolinguistic entities. In Cieszyn Silesia (as in all West Slavic borderlands) various territorial identities pre-dated ethnic and national identity. Consciousness of membership within a greater Polish or Czech nation spread slowly in Silesia.[11]

From 1848 to the end of the 19th century, local Polish and Czech people co-operated, united against the Germanizing tendencies of the Austrian Empire and later of Austria-Hungary.[12] At the end of the century, ethnic tensions arose as the area's economic significance grew. This growth caused a wave of immigration from Galicia. About 60,000 people arrived between 1880 and 1910.[13][14] The new immigrants were Polish and poor, about half of them being illiterate. They worked in coal mining and metallurgy. For these people the most important factor was material well-being; they cared little about the homeland from which they had fled. Almost all of them assimilated into the Czech population.[15] Many of them settled in Ostrava (west of the ethnic border), as heavy industry was spread through the whole western part of Cieszyn Silesia. Even today, ethnographers find that about 25,000 people in Ostrava (about 8% of the population) have Polish surnames.[16] The Czech population (living mainly in the northern part of the area: Bohumín, Orlová, etc.) declined numerically at the end of the 19th century,[3] assimilating with the prevalent Polish population. This process shifted with the industrial boom in the area.

Decision time (1918–1920)[edit]

Map of the plebiscite area of Cieszyn Silesia with various demarcation lines

Originally, both national councils (the Polish Rada Narodowa Księstwa Cieszyńskiego in its declaration "Ludu śląski!" of 30 October 1918 and the Czech Zemský národní výbor pro Slezsko in its declaration of 1 November 1918) claimed the whole Cieszyn Silesia for themselves.[17]

On 31 October 1918, at the dusk of World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the majority of the area was taken over by local Polish authorities supported by armed forces.[18] The interim agreement of 2 November 1918 reflected the inability of the two national councils to come to final delimitation.[17] On 5 November 1918, the area was divided between Poland and Czechoslovakia by an interim agreement of two local self-government councils (Czech Zemský národní výbor pro Slezsko and Polish Rada Narodowa Księstwa Cieszyńskiego).[19] Before that, the majority of the area was taken over by Polish local authorities. In 1919 both councils were absorbed by the newly created and independent central governments in Prague and Warsaw. The former was not satisfied with this compromise and on 23 January 1919 invaded the area[20][21] while Poland was engaged in its war against the West Ukrainian National Republic.

The reason for the Czech invasion in 1919 was primarily the organisation of elections to the Sejm (parliament) of Poland in the disputed area.[22] The elections were to be held in the whole of Cieszyn Silesia. The Czechs claimed that the polls must not be held in the disputed area as the delimitation was only interim and no sovereign rule should be executed there by any party. When the Czech demand was rejected by the Poles, the Czechs decided to resolve the issue by force.[17]

Czech units were held up near Skoczów and a ceasefire was signed on 3 February. The new Czechoslovakia claimed the area partly on historic and ethnic grounds, but especially on economic grounds.[23] The area was important for the Czechs as the crucial railway line connecting Czech Silesia with Slovakia crossed the area (the Košice-Bohumín Railway, which was one of only two railroads that linked the Czech provinces to Slovakia at that time).[23] The area is also very rich in black coal. Many important coal mines, facilities and metallurgy factories are located there. The Polish side based its claim to the area on ethnic criteria: a majority of the area's population was Polish according to the last (1910) Austrian census.[24]

In this very tense atmosphere it was decided that a plebiscite would be held in the area asking people which country this territory should join. Plebiscite commissioners arrived there at the end of January 1920, and after analysing the situation declared a state of emergency in the territory on 19 May 1920. The situation in the area remained very tense, with mutual intimidation, acts of terror, beatings and even killings.[25] A plebiscite could not be held in this atmosphere. On 10 July both sides renounced the idea of a plebiscite and entrusted the Conference of Ambassadors with the decision.[26] Eventually, on 28 July 1920, by a decision of the Spa Conference, Czechoslovakia received 58.1% of the area of Cieszyn Silesia, containing 67.9% of the population.[26] It was this territory that became known, originally from the Polish standpoint, as Zaolzie – the Olza River marked the boundary between the Polish and Czechoslovak parts of the territory.

The most vocal support for union with Poland had come from within the territory awarded to Czechoslovakia, while some of the strongest opponents of Polish rule came from the territory awarded to Poland.[27]

1918-19[edit]

Historian Richard M. Watt writes, "On 5 November 1918, the Poles and the Czechs in the region disarmed the Austrian garrison (...) The Poles took over the areas that appeared to be theirs, just as the Czechs had assumed administration of theirs. Nobody objected to this friendly arrangement (...) Then came second thoughts in Prague. It was observed that under the agreement of 5 November, the Poles controlled about a third of the duchy's coal mines. The Czechs realized that they had given away rather a lot (...) It was recognized that any takeover in Teschen would have to be accomplished in a manner acceptable by the victorious Allies (...), so the Czechs cooked up a tale that the Teschen area was becoming Bolshevik (...) The Czechs put together a substantial body of infantry – about 15,000 men – and on 23 January 1919, they invaded the Polish-held areas. To confuse the Poles, the Czechs recruited some Allied officers of Czech background and put these men in their respective wartime uniforms at the head of the invasion forces. After a little skirmishing, the tiny Polish defense force was nearly driven out."[28]

In 1919, the matter went to consideration in Paris before the World War I Allies. Watt claims the Poles based their claims on ethnographical reasons and the Czechs based their need on the Teschen coal, useful in order to influence the actions of Austria and Hungary, whose capitals were fuelled by coal from the duchy. The Allies finally decided that the Czechs should get 60 percent of the coal fields and the Poles were to get most of the people and the strategic rail line. Watt writes: "Czech envoy Edvard Beneš proposed a plebiscite. The Allies were shocked, arguing that the Czechs were bound to lose it. However, Beneš was insistent and a plebiscite was announced in September 1919. As it turned out, Beneš knew what he was doing. A plebiscite would take some time to set up, and a lot could happen in that time – particularly when a nation's affairs were conducted as cleverly as were Czechoslovakia's."[29]

Watt argues that Beneš strategically waited for Poland's moment of weakness, and moved in during the Polish-Soviet War crisis in July 1920. As Watt writes, "Over the dinner table, Beneš convinced the British and French that the plebiscite should not be held and that the Allies should simply impose their own decision in the Teschen matter. More than that, Beneš persuaded the French and the British to draw a frontier line that gave Czechoslovakia most of the territory of Teschen, the vital railroad and all the important coal fields. With this frontier, 139,000 Poles were to be left in Czech territory, whereas only 2,000 Czechs were left on the Polish side".[29]

"The next morning Beneš visited the Polish delegation at Spa. By giving the impression that the Czechs would accept a settlement favorable to the Poles without a plebiscite, Beneš got the Poles to sign an agreement that Poland would abide by any Allied decision regarding Teschen. The Poles, of course, had no way of knowing that Beneš had already persuaded the Allies to make a decision on Teschen. After a brief interval, to make it appear that due deliberation had taken place, the Allied Council of Ambassadors in Paris imposed its 'decision'. Only then did it dawn on the Poles that at Spa they had signed a blank check. To them, Beneš' stunning triumph was not diplomacy, it was a swindle (...) As Polish Prime Minister Wincenty Witos warned: 'The Polish nation has received a blow which will play an important role in our relations with the Czechoslovak Republic. The decision of the Council of Ambassadors has given the Czechs a piece of Polish land containing a population which is mostly Polish... The decision has caused a rift between these two nations which are ordinarily politically and economically united' (...)."[30]

The affair soured the Prague-Warsaw relationship.

View by Victor S. Mamatey[edit]

Another account of the situation in 1918–1919 is given by historian Victor S. Mamatey. He notes that when the French government recognised Czechoslovakia's right to the "boundaries of Bohemia, Moravia, and Austrian Silesia" in its note to Austria of 19 December, the Czechoslovak government acted under the impression it had French support for its claim to Cieszyn Silesia as part of Austrian Silesia. However, Paris believed it gave that assurance only against German-Austrian claims, not Polish ones. Paris, however, viewed both Czechoslovakia and Poland as potential allies against Germany and did not want to cool relations with either. Mamatey writes that the Poles "brought the matter before the peace conference that had opened in Paris on 18 January. On 29 January, the Council of Ten summoned Beneš and the Polish delegate Roman Dmowski to explain the dispute, and on 1 February obliged them to sign an agreement redividing the area pending its final disposition by the peace conference. Czechoslovakia thus failed to gain her objective in Teschen."[23]

With respect to the arbitration decision itself, Mamatey writes that "On 25 March, to expedite the work of the peace conference, the Council of Ten was divided into the Council of Four (The "Big Four") and the Council of Five (the foreign ministers). Early in April the two councils considered and approved the recommendations of the Czechoslovak commission without a change – with the exception of Teschen, which they referred to Poland and Czechoslovakia to settle in bilateral negotiations."[31] When the Polish-Czechoslovak negotiations failed, the Allied powers proposed plebiscites in the Cieszyn Silesia and also in the border districts of Orava and Spiš (now in Slovakia) to which the Poles had raised claims. In the end, however, no plebiscites were held due to the rising mutual hostilities of Czechs and Poles in Cieszyn Silesia. Instead, on 28 July 1920 the Spa Conference (also known as the Conference of Ambassadors) divided each of the three disputed areas between Poland and Czechoslovakia.

Part of Czechoslovakia (1920–1938)[edit]

The local Polish population felt that Warsaw had betrayed them and they were not satisfied with the division of Cieszyn Silesia. About 12,000 to 14,000 Poles were forced[32] to leave to Poland.[33] It is not quite clear how many Poles were in Zaolzie in Czechoslovakia. Estimates (depending mainly whether the Silesians are included as Poles or not)[33] range from 110,000 to 140,000 people in 1921.[34] The 1921 and 1930 census numbers are not accurate since nationality depended on self-declaration and many Poles filled in Czech nationality mainly as a result of fear of the new authorities and as compensation for some benefits. Czechoslovak law guaranteed rights for national minorities but reality in Zaolzie was quite different.[35] Local Czech authorities made it more difficult for local Poles to obtain citizenship, while the process was expedited when the applicant pledged to declare Czech nationality and send his children to a Czech school.[36] Newly built Czech schools were often better supported and equipped, thus inducing some Poles to send their children there. Czechs schools were built in ethnically almost entirely Polish municipalities.[37] This and other factors contributed to the cultural assimilation of Poles and also to significant emigration to Poland. After few years, the heightened nationalism typical for the years around 1920 receded and local Poles increasingly co-operated with Czechs. Still, Czechization was supported by Prague, which did not follow certain laws related to language, legislative and organizational issues.[35] Polish deputies in Czechoslovak National Assembly frequently tried to put that issues on agenda. One way or the other, increasingly local Poles thus assimilated into the Czech population.

Part of Poland (1938–1939)[edit]

Polish Army capturing Český Těšín (Czeski Cieszyn) in 1938
"For 600 years we have been waiting for you (1335–1938)." Ethnic Polish band welcoming the annexation of Zaolzie by the Polish Republic in Karviná, October 1938.
Decree on the official language on the annexed territory

Within the region originally demanded from Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in 1938 was the important railway junction city of Bohumín (Polish: Bogumin). The Poles regarded the city as of crucial importance to the area and to Polish interests. On 28 September, Edvard Beneš composed a note to the Polish administration offering to reopen the debate surrounding the territorial demarcation in Těšínsko in the interest of mutual relations, but he delayed in sending it in hopes of good news from London and Paris, which came only in a limited form. Beneš then turned to the Soviet leadership in Moscow, which begun a partial mobilisation in eastern Belarus and the Ukrainian SSR and threatened Poland with the dissolution of the Soviet-Polish non-aggression pact.[38]

Nevertheless, the Polish leader, Colonel Józef Beck, believed that Warsaw should act rapidly to forestall the German occupation of the city. At noon on 30 September, Poland gave an ultimatum to the Czechoslovak government. It demanded the immediate evacuation of Czechoslovak troops and police and gave Prague time until noon the following day. At 11:45 a.m. on 1 October the Czechoslovak foreign ministry called the Polish ambassador in Prague and told him that Poland could have what it wanted. The Polish Army, commanded by General Władysław Bortnowski, annexed an area of 801.5 km² with a population of 227,399 people.

The Germans were delighted with this outcome, and were happy to give up the sacrifice of a small provincial rail centre to Poland in exchange for the ensuing propaganda benefits. It spread the blame of the partition of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, made Poland a participant in the process and confused political expectations. Poland was accused of being an accomplice of Nazi Germany – a charge that Warsaw was hard-put to deny.[39]

„Zaolzie is ours!” – Polish newspaper Ilustrowany Kuryer Codzienny on 3 October 1938.

The Polish side argued that Poles in Zaolzie deserved the same ethnic rights and freedom as the Sudeten Germans under the Munich Agreement. The vast majority of the local Polish population enthusiastically welcomed the change, seeing it as a liberation and a form of historical justice,[40] but they quickly changed their mood. The new Polish authorities appointed people from Poland to various key positions from which locals were fired.[41] The Polish language became the sole official language. Using Czech (or German) by Czechs (or Germans) in public was prohibited and Czechs and Germans were being forced to leave the annexed area or become subject to Polonization.[41] Rapid Polonization policies then followed in all parts of public and private life. Czech organizations were dismantled and their activity was prohibited.[41] The Roman Catholic parishes in the area belonged either to the Archdiocese of Breslau (Archbishop Bertram) or to the Archdiocese of Olomouc (Archbishop Leopold Prečan), respectively, both traditionally comprising cross-border diocesan territories in Czechoslovakia and Germany. When the Polish government demanded after its takeover that the parishes there be disentangled from these two archdioceses, the Holy See complied. Pope Pius XI, former nuncio to Poland, subjected the Catholic parishes in Zaolzie to an apostolic administration under Stanisław Adamski, Bishop of Katowice.[42]

Czechoslovak education in the Czech and German language ceased to exist.[43] About 35,000 Czechoslovaks emigrated to core Czechoslovakia (the later Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia) by choice or forcibly.[44] The behaviour of the new Polish authorities was different but similar in nature to that of the Czechoslovak ones before 1938. Two political factions appeared: socialists (the opposition) and rightists (loyal to the new Polish national authorities). Leftist politicians and sympathizers were discriminated against and often fired from work.[45] The Polish political system was artificially implemented in Zaolzie. The local Poles continued to feel like second-class citizens and a majority of them were dissatisfied with the situation after October 1938.[46] Zaolzie remained a part of Poland for only 11 months until the invasion of Poland started on 1 September 1939.

Richard M. Watt describes the Polish capture of Teschen in these words: "Amid the general euphoria in Poland – the acquisition of Teschen was a very popular development – no one paid attention to the bitter comment of the Czechoslovak general who handed the region over to the incoming Poles. He predicted that it would not be long before the Poles would themselves be handing Teschen over to the Germans."[39]

Watt also writes that "the Polish 1938 ultimatum to Czechoslovakia and its acquisition of Teschen were gross tactical errors. Whatever justice there might have been to the Polish claim upon Teschen, its seizure in 1938 was an enormous mistake in terms of the damage done to Poland's reputation among the democratic powers of the world."[47]

World War II[edit]

On 1 September 1939 Nazi Germany invaded Poland, starting World War II, and subsequently made Zaolzie part of the Military district of Upper Silesia. On 26 October 1939 Nazi Germany unilaterally annexed Zaolzie as part of Landkreis Teschen. During the war, strong Germanization was introduced by the authorities. The Jews were in the worst position, followed by the Poles.[48] Poles received lower food rations, they were supposed to pay extra taxes, they were not allowed to enter theatres, cinemas, etc.[48] Polish and Czech education ceased to exist, Polish organizations were dismantled and their activity was prohibited. So also Katowice's Bishop Adamski was deposed as apostolic administrator for the Catholic parishes in Zaolzie and on 23 December 1939 Cesare Orsenigo, nuncio to Germany, returned them to their original archdioceses of Breslau or Olomouc, respectively, with effect of 1 January 1940.[49]

The German authorities introduced terror into Zaolzie. The Nazis especially targeted the Polish intelligentsia, many of whom died during the war. Mass killings, executions, arrests, taking locals to forced labour and deportations to concentration camps all happened on a daily basis.[48] The most notorious war crime was a murder of 36 villagers in and around Żywocice on 6 August 1944.[50] This massacre is known as Tragedia Żywocicka (the Żywocice tragedy). The resistance movement, mostly composed of Poles, was fairly strong in Zaolzie. Volkslists – a document in which a non-German citizen declared that he had some German ancestry by signing it; refusal to sign this document could lead to deportation to a concentration camp – were introduced. Local people who took them were later on enrolled in the Wehrmacht. Many local people with no German ancestry were also forced to take them. The World War II death toll in Zaolzie is estimated at about 6,000 people: about 2,500 Jews, 2,000 other citizens (80% of them being Poles)[51] and more than 1,000 locals who died in the Wehrmacht (those who took the Volksliste).[51] Also a few hundred Poles from Zaolzie were murdered by Soviets in the Katyn massacre.[52] Percentage-wise, Zaolzie suffered the worst human loss from the whole of Czechoslovakia – about 2.6% of the total population.[51]

Since 1945[edit]

Polish Gorals from Jablunkov during PZKO festival in Karviná, 2007

Immediately after World War II, Zaolzie was returned to Czechoslovakia within its 1920 borders, although local Poles hoped it would again be given to Poland.[53] While most Czechoslovaks of German ethnicity were expelled, the local Polish population again suffered discrimination, as many Czechs blamed them for the discrimination by the Polish authorities in 1938–1939.[54] Polish organizations were banned, and the Czechoslovak authorities carried out many arrests and dismissed many Poles from work.[55] The situation had somehow improved when the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia took power in February 1948. Polish property deprived by the German occupants during the war was never returned.

As to the Catholic parishes in Zaolzie pertaining to the Archdiocese of Breslau Archbishop Bertram, then residing in the episcopal Jánský vrch castle in Czechoslovak Javorník (Jauernig), appointed František Onderek (1888–1962) as vicar general for the Czechoslovak portion of the Archdiocese of Breslau on 21 June 1945. In July 1946 Pope Pius XII elevated Onderek to Apostolic Administrator for the Czechoslovak portion of the Archdiocese of Breslau (colloquially: Apostolic Administration of Český Těšín; Czech: Apoštolská administratura českotěšínská), seated in Český Těšín, thus disentangling the parishes from Breslau's jurisdiction.[56] On 31 May 1978 Pope Paul VI merged the apostolic administration into the Archdiocese of Olomouc through his Apostolic constitution Olomoucensis et aliarum.[57]

Poland signed a treaty with Czechoslovakia in Warsaw on 13 June 1958 confirming the border as it existed on 1 January 1938. After the Communist takeover of power, the industrial boom continued and many immigrants arrived in the area (mostly from other parts of Czechoslovakia, mainly from Slovakia). The arrival of Slovaks significantly changed the ethnic structure of the area, as almost all the Slovak immigrants assimilated into the Czech majority in the course of time.[58] The number of self-declared Slovaks is rapidly declining. The last Slovak elementary school was closed in Karviná several years ago.[59] Since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, Zaolzie has been part of the independent Czech Republic. However a significant Polish minority still remains there.

In the European Union[edit]

The entry of both the Czech Republic and Poland to the European Union in May 2004, and especially the entry of the countries to the EU's passport-free Schengen zone in late 2007, reduced the significance of territorial disputes, ending systematic controls on the border between the countries. Signs prohibiting passage across the state border were removed, with individuals now allowed to cross the border freely at any point of their choosing.

Census data[edit]

Ethnic structure of Zaolzie based on census results:

Year Total Poles Czechs Germans Slovaks
1880[3] 94,370 71,239 16,425 6,672
1890[3] 107,675 86,674 13,580 7,388
1900[3] 143,220 115,392 14,093 13,476
1910[3] 179,145 123,923 32,821 22,312
1921[60] 177,176 68,034 88,556 18,260
1930[61] 216,255 76,230 120,639 17,182
1939[62] 213,867 51,499 44,579 38,408
1950[63] 219,811 59,005 155,146 4,388
1961[63] 281,183 58,876 205,785 13,233
1970[64] 350,825 56,075 263,047 26,806
1980[63] 366,559 51,586 281,584 28,719
1991[63] 368,355 43,479 263,941 706 26,629

Sources: Zahradnik 1992, 178–179. Siwek 1996, 31–38.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 16–17.
  2. ^ Watt 1998, 161.
  3. ^ a b c d e f The 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 Austrian censuses asked people about the language they use. (Siwek 1996, 31.)
  4. ^ Hannan 1996, 47.
  5. ^ Hannan 1999, 191–203.
  6. ^ a b Szymeczek 2008, 63.
  7. ^ Žáček 2004, 12–13.
  8. ^ Žáček 2004, 14–20.
  9. ^ Panic 2002, 7.
  10. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 13.
  11. ^ Hannan 1996, 76–77.
  12. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 40.
  13. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 48.
  14. ^ Baron, Roman (August 2007). "Czesi i Polacy – zaczarowany krąg stereotypów". Zwrot: 32–34. 
  15. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 51.
  16. ^ Siwek, Tadeusz (not dated). "Statystyczni i niestatystyczni Polacy w Republice Czeskiej". Wspólnota Polska. 
  17. ^ a b c Gawrecká 2004, 21.
  18. ^ Kovtun 2005, 51.
  19. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 52.
  20. ^ Długajczyk 1993, 7.
  21. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 59.
  22. ^ Gawrecká, 23, in particular the quotation of Dąbrowski: "Czesi uderzyli na nas kilka dni przed 26 stycznia 1919, w którym to dniu miały się odbyć wybory do Sejmu w Warszawie. Nie chcieli bowiem między innemi dopuścić do przeprowadzenia tych wyborów, któreby były wykazały bez wszelkiej presyi i agitacyi, że Śląsk jest polskim.".
  23. ^ a b c Mamatey 1973, 34.
  24. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 178–179.
  25. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 62–63.
  26. ^ a b Zahradnik 1992, 64.
  27. ^ Hannan 1996, 46.
  28. ^ Watt 1998, 161–162.
  29. ^ a b Watt 1998, 163.
  30. ^ Watt 1998, 164.
  31. ^ Mamatey 1973, 36.
  32. ^ Chlup, Danuta (2 September 2010). "Zaolziańskie dzieci na zdjęciu z Oświęcimia". Głos Ludu. pp. 4–5. 
  33. ^ a b Gabal 1999, 120.
  34. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 72.
  35. ^ a b Zahradnik 1992, 76–79.
  36. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 76.
  37. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 75–76.
  38. ^ The Munich Crisis, 1938 by Igor Lukes and Erik Goldstein, page 61
  39. ^ a b Watt 1998, 386.
  40. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 86.
  41. ^ a b c Gabal 1999, 123.
  42. ^ Jerzy Pietrzak, "Die politischen und kirchenrechtlichen Grundlagen der Einsetzung Apostolischer Administratoren in den Jahren 1939–1942 und 1945 im Vergleich", in: Katholische Kirche unter nationalsozialistischer und kommunistischer Diktatur: Deutschland und Polen 1939–1989, Hans-Jürgen Karp and Joachim Köhler (eds.), (=Forschungen und Quellen zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte Ostdeutschlands; vol. 32), Cologne: Böhlau, 2001, pp. 157–174, here p. 160. ISBN 3-412-11800-1.
  43. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 87.
  44. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 89–90.
  45. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 88–89.
  46. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 96.
  47. ^ Watt 1998, 458.
  48. ^ a b c Zahradnik 1992, 99.
  49. ^ Jerzy Pietrzak, "Die politischen und kirchenrechtlichen Grundlagen der Einsetzung Apostolischer Administratoren in den Jahren 1939–1942 und 1945 im Vergleich", in: Katholische Kirche unter nationalsozialistischer und kommunistischer Diktatur: Deutschland und Polen 1939–1989, Hans-Jürgen Karp and Joachim Köhler (eds.), (=Forschungen und Quellen zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte Ostdeutschlands; vol. 32), Cologne: Böhlau, 2001, pp. 157–174, here p. 162. ISBN 3-412-11800-1.
  50. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 102–103.
  51. ^ a b c Zahradnik 1992, 103.
  52. ^ Borák, Mečislav and Petra Všelichová (2007). Zločin jménem Katyň (documentary). Czech Republic: Česká televize. 
  53. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 116.
  54. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 111.
  55. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 116–120.
  56. ^ Biographisches Handbuch der Tschechoslowakei, Heinrich Kuhn and Otto Böss (compil.), Munich: Lerche 1961, (Veröffentlichungen des Collegium Carolinum), p. 115.
  57. ^ Emil Valasek, "Veränderungen der Diözesangrenzen in der Tschechoslowakei seit 1918", in: Archiv für Kirchengeschichte von Böhmen – Mähren – Schlesien, vol. 6 (1982), pp. 289–296, here p. 292.
  58. ^ Hannan 1996, 163–164.
  59. ^ Photo of the school
  60. ^ The 1921 Czechoslovak census asked people about their native language. (Siwek 1996, 32.)
  61. ^ People could declare a nationality other than that indicated by their native language. (Siwek 1996, 32.)
  62. ^ The German occupational census based nationality on self-declaration of citizens. The census was distorted by the occupational regime. (Siwek 1996, 32.)
  63. ^ a b c d The 1950, 1961, 1980 and 1991 Czechoslovak censuses based nationality on self-declaration of citizens. (Siwek 1996, 37–38.)
  64. ^ The 1970 Czechoslovak census asked people about their native language. (Siwek 1996, 37.)

References[edit]

  • Gabal, Ivan; collective (1999). Etnické menšiny ve Střední Evropě. Praha: G plus G; supported by the Nadace rozvoje občanské společnosti of the European Commission. ISBN 80-86103-23-4. 
  • Gawrecká, Marie (2004). Československé Slezsko mezi světovými válkami 1918–1938. Opava: Silesian University in Ostrava. ISBN 80-7248-233-5. 
  • Kovtun, Jiří (2005). Republika v nebezpečném světě; Éra prezidenta Masaryka 1918–1933. Praha: Torst; published in co-operation with Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic. ISBN 80-7215-254-8. 
  • Žáček, Rudolf (2004). Dějiny Slezska v datech. Praha: Libri. ISBN 80-7277-172-8. 
  • Zahradnik, Stanisław; Marek Ryczkowski (1992). Korzenie Zaolzia. Warszawa – Praga – Trzyniec: PAI-press. OCLC 177389723. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Badziak, Kazimierz; Giennadij Matwiejew and Paweł Samuś (1997). "Powstanie" na Zaolziu w 1938 r.: Polska akcja specjalna w świetle dokumentów Oddziału II Sztabu Głównego WP. Warszawa: ADIUTOR. ISBN 83-86100-21-4. 

External links[edit]


Coordinates: 49°45′N 18°30′E / 49.750°N 18.500°E / 49.750; 18.500


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaolzie — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
676 videos foundNext > 

Zaolzie zachodnia część Śląska Cieszyńskiego

Czeska agresja w styczniu 1919 r. i rozstrzygnięcie Rady Ambasadorów Ententy spowodowały, że w 1920 r. zachodnia część Śląska Cieszyńskiego, zamieszkała prze...

Zaolzie Potrafi - osobistości Zaolzia (1 )/ Polacy w Czechach / osobnosti polské menšiny v ČR

Pierwsze migawki z przygotowywanego filmu o bardziej lub mniej znanych postaciach polskiej mniejszości narodowej w Czechach. W filmie zostanie zaprezentowane...

Odzyskanie Zaolzia 02.10.1938

Film dokumentalny wyemitowany przez TVP2 ukazujący odzyskanie przez Polskę Zaolzia w dn. 02.10.1938 r.

4. Mariusz Wałach: Nie lubię słowa Zaolzie

16 marca 2012 Spotkanie z Mariuszem Wałachem w ramach projektu "Zaolzie teraz" Moderacja: Mirosław Sokół Relacja: http://www.kc-cieszyn.pl/index.php/news,107/

Odzyskanie Zaolzia - 1938

Film ten chyba gdzieś był na YT, ale zamieszczam go, gdyż pewnym wydarzeniom należy nadać historyczny kontekst. Zajęcie Zaolzia przez WP w 1938 jest sprawą k...

Battle of the Zaolzie

Dwa nejlepsze LoL teamy ze Zaolzia proci sobie: LATE JE NASZ a eSuka. Totu je pjyrwszy zapas z trzech, graje se na dwa zwyciynski, narazie to je 1:0 dlo eSuk...

Zaolzie potrafi 2013 - talk show

Izabela Wałaska autorka projektów z cyklu "Zaolzie potrafi" Więcej informacji nt. „Zaolzie potrafi" na www.zaolziepotrafi.cz.

Driving in ISTEBNA - Stecówka to Zaolzie - HD

Droga ze Stecówki na Zaolzie Driving in Istebna from Stecówka to Zaolzie.

Zniszczone mosty - Zaolzie i Tczew - wrzesień 1939

Nagranie niemieckie z I tygodnia walk we wrześniu 1939. Na filmie w zasadzie dwie miejscowości ze zniszczonymi mostami. Dzięki "Cieszyn4psp" wiemy co to za m...

Zaolzie potrafi

Jan Kufa.

676 videos foundNext > 

7 news items

Polskie Radio

Polskie Radio
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 09:30:00 -0700

Zaolzie przed 1920 r. było zamieszkanie głównie przez Polaków i Niemców. Czesi byli raczej przyjezdnymi. Potem jednak proporcje szybko się odwróciły - mówił w Dwójce dziennikarz i etnograf Jarosław Jot-Drużycki, autor książki "Hospicjum Zaolzie".
 
Gazeta Wyborcza
Sun, 03 Aug 2014 06:07:30 -0700

16 czerwca 1945 r. na rynku w polskim Cieszynie odbyła się wielotysięczna manifestacja Polaków z obu stron granicy. Gen. Aleksander Zawadzki (na pierwszym planie) razem z marszałkiem Michałem Rolą-Żymierskim (z lewej) obiecywali: nie zostawimy ...

Dziennik.pl

Dziennik.pl
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 21:05:03 -0700

"Operacja Dunaj", czyli inwazja wojsk Układu Warszawskiego na Czechosłowację ruszyła w nocy z 20 na 21 sierpnia 1968 roku. W najeździe na naszych południowych sąsiadów brało udział 28,6 tysiąca polskich żołnierzy. Ogółem w operacji wzięło udział ...

Niezalezna.pl

Niezalezna.pl
Mon, 18 Aug 2014 05:41:45 -0700

Są tacy, dla których Zaolzie jest synonimem „polskiej agresji na rozrywaną przez Hitlera Czechosłowację” i „krótkowzrocznej sanacyjnej polityki ministra Józefa Becka i marszałka Edwarda Śmigłego-Rydza”. Niektórzy pamiętają jednak ten przedwojenny ...
 
Interia360.pl
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 05:12:38 -0700

... Czesi wspólnie ze Słowakami Zaolzie, Orawę i Karwinę, zaś zatrudniony w brytyjskiej dyplomacji Żyd Lewis Bernstein-Niemierowski vel lord Namier, jeszcze fałszował na niekorzyść Polaków Linię Curzona, pozbawiają Polskę okolic Lwowa i Drohobycza.

Kultura z Wiarą

Kultura z Wiarą
Sun, 03 Aug 2014 21:07:30 -0700

Te umocnienia Czesi wznosili tu od 1935 roku w obawie, że Polska upomni się o Zaolzie. Mieli czego się bać, bo przecież sami zagarnęli tę część Śląska 16 lat wcześniej, w 1919 roku, na drodze zbrojnej agresji. Tamten atak im się udał, bo większość ...
 
Krytyka Polityczna
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 07:29:46 -0700

W międzywojniu, kiedy wilsonowska zasada dowartościowania małych i średnich nacjonalizmów zakończyła się piekłem, też zamiast wzajemnej solidarności mieliśmy w naszym regionie wzajemną nienawiść, jako narzędzia której Polacy (Zaolzie) i Węgrzy ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Zaolzie

You can talk about Zaolzie with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!