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Xinhai Revolution (Revolution of 1911)
Xinhai Revolution in Shanghai.jpg
Double Ten Revolution in Shanghai. The picture above is Nanjing Road after the Shanghai Uprising, hung with the Five Races Under One Union flags then used by the revolutionaries.
Date October 10, 1911 – February 12, 1912
(4 months and 2 days)
Location China
Result
Belligerents
 Qing dynasty Republic of China (1912–49) Tongmenghui
Republic of China (1912–49) Gelaohui
Commanders and leaders
Qing dynasty Xuantong Emperor,
Qing dynasty Yuan Shikai,
Qing dynasty Feng Guozhang
Qing dynasty Ma Anliang,
Qing dynasty Duan Qirui,
Qing dynasty Yang Zengxin,
Qing dynasty Ma Qi,
Various other nobles of the Qing dynasty
Republic of China (1912–49) Sun Yat-sen,
Republic of China (1912–49) Huang Xing,
Republic of China (1912–49) Song Jiaoren,
Republic of China (1912–49) Chen Qimei,
Republic of China (1912–49) Li Yuanhong
Strength
200,000 100,000
Casualties and losses
~170,000 ~50,000
Xinhai Revolution
Chinese 辛亥革命
Literal meaning Xinhai stem-branch revolution

The Xinhai Revolution, or the Hsin-hai Revolution, also known as the Revolution of 1911 or the Chinese Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty, the Qing dynasty, and established the Republic of China. The revolution was named Xinhai (Hsin-hai) because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar.[1]

The revolution consisted of many revolts and uprisings. The turning point was the Wuchang Uprising on October 10, 1911, that was a result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement. The revolution ended with the abdication of the "Last Emperor" Puyi on February 12, 1912, that marked the end of over 2,000 years of imperial rule and the beginning of China's republican era.[2]

The revolution arose mainly in response to the decline of the Qing state, which had proven ineffective in its efforts to modernize China and confront foreign aggression, and was exacerbated by ethnic resentment against the ruling Manchu minority. Many underground anti-Qing groups, with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile, tried to overthrow the Qing. The brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai, the late Qing military strongman, and Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui (United League). After the Qing court transferred power to the newly founded republic, a provisional coalition government was created along with the National Assembly. However, political power of the new national government in Beijing was soon thereafter monopolized by Yuan and led to decades of political division and warlordism, including several attempts at imperial restoration.

Today, both the Republic of China in Taiwan and the People's Republic of China on the mainland consider themselves to be successors to the Xinhai Revolution and continue to pay homage to the ideals of the revolution including nationalism, republicanism, modernization of China and national unity. October 10 is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day, the National Day of the Republic of China. In mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau, the same day is usually celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution.[3] Many overseas Chinese also celebrate the anniversary in Chinatowns across the world.

Contents

Background[edit]

The Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), who personified the conservative Qing court and controlled court politics for 47 years, halted the attempt of her nephew Guangxu Emperor (1871–1908), the penultimate Qing emperor, to institute reforms in 1898.
After the failure of the Hundred Days' Reform in 1898, Guangxu's advisors Kang Youwei (left, 1858–1927) and Liang Qichao (1873–1929) fled into exile, while Tan Sitong (right, 1865–1898) was executed. In Canada, Kang and Liang formed the Emperor Protection Society to promote constitutional monarchy for China. In 1900, they supported an unsuccessful uprising in central China to rescue Guangxu. After the Xinhai Revolution, Liang became a Minister of Justice of the Republic of China. Kang remained a royalist and supported restoring the last Qing emperor Puyi in 1917.

After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War in 1842, the Qing court struggled to contain foreign intrusions into China. Efforts to adjust and reform the traditional methods of governance were constrained by a deeply conservative court culture where ethnic Manchu rulers did not want to give too much authority to the Han Chinese majority.

In the wars against the Taiping (1851–64), Nien (1851–68), Muslims of Yunnan (1856–68) and the Northwest (1862–77), the traditional Manchu armies proved themselves incompetent, and the court came to rely on local Han armies.[4]

Following defeat in the Second Opium War, the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement from 1861.[5] In 1895, China suffered a serious defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War.[6] This demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society also needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898, Emperor Guangxu was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao for a drastic reform in education, military and economy under the Hundred Days' Reform.[6] The reform was a failure, as it was ended prematurely by a conservative coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi.[7] Emperor Guangxu, who had always been a puppet emperor dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898.[4] Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled. While in Canada, in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society in an attempt to restore the emperor.[4] Empress Cixi mainly controlled the Qing dynasty from this point on. The Boxer Rebellion prompted another foreign invasion of Beijing in 1900 and the imposition of unequal treaty terms, which carved away territories, created extraterritorial concessions and gave away trade privileges. Under internal and external pressure, the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms. The Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on political power by suppressing, often with great brutality, all domestic rebellions. Dissidents could operate only in secret societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas.

Organization for revolution[edit]

From left to right: Tse Tsan-tai, Yeung Ku-wan (President), Sun Yat-sen, three of the earliest revolutionaries

Earliest groups[edit]

There were many revolutionaries and groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to re-establish a Han Chinese government. The earliest revolutionary organizations were founded outside of China, such as Yeung Ku-wan's Furen Literary Society, created in Hong Kong in 1890. There were fifteen members, including Tse Tsan-tai, who did political satire such as "The Situation in the Far East", one of the first ever Chinese manhua, and who later became one of the core founders of the South China Morning Post.[8]

Sun Yat-sen's Xingzhonghui (Revive China Society) was established in Honolulu in 1894 with the main purpose of raising funds for revolutions.[9] The two organizations were merged in 1894.[10]

Smaller groups[edit]

The Huaxinghui (China Revival Society) was founded in 1904 with notables like Huang Xing, Zhang Shizhao, Chen Tianhua and Song Jiaoren, along with 100 others. Their motto was "Take one province by force, and inspire the other provinces to rise up".[11]

The Guangfuhui (Restoration Society) was also founded in 1904, in Shanghai with Cai Yuanpei. Other notable members include Zhang Binglin and Tao Chengzhang.[12] Despite professing the anti-Qing cause, the Guangfuhui was highly critical of Sun Yat-sen.[13] One of the most famous female revolutionaries was Qiu Jin, who fought for women's rights and was also from Guangfuhui.[13]

There were also many other minor revolutionary organizations, such as Lizhi Xuehui (勵志學會) in Jiangsu, Gongqianghui (公強會) in Sichuan, Yiwenhui (益聞會) and Hanzudulihui (漢族獨立會) in Fujian, Yizhishe (易知社) in Jiangxi, Yuewanghui (岳王會) in Anhui and Qunzhihui (群智會/群智社) in Guangzhou.[14]

There were also criminal organizations that were anti-Manchu, including the Green Gang and Hongmen Zhigongtang (致公堂).[15] Sun Yat-sen himself came in contact with the Hongmen, also known as Tiandihui (Heaven and Earth society).[16][17]

Gelaohui (Elder Brother society) was another group, with Zhu De, Wu Yuzhang, Liu Zhidan (劉志丹) and He Long. This is the revolutionary group that would eventually develop a strong link with the later Communist Party.

Sun Yat-sen with his Tongmenghui

Tongmenghui[edit]

Sun Yat-sen successfully united the Revive China Society, Huaxinghui and Guangfuhui in the summer of 1905, thereby establishing the unified Tongmenghui (United League) in August 1905 in Tokyo.[18] While it started in Tokyo, it had loose organizations distributed across and outside the country. Sun Yat-sen was the leader of this unified group. Other revolutionaries who worked with the Tongmenghui include Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin. When the Tongmenhui was established, more than 90% of the Tongmenhui members were between 17 and 26 years of age.[19] Some of the work in the era includes manhua publications, such as the Journal of Current Pictorial.[20]

Later groups[edit]

In February 1906, Rizhihui (日知會) also had many revolutionaries, including Sun Wu (孫武), Zhang Nanxian (張難先), He Jiwei and Feng Mumin.[21][22] A nucleus of attendees of this conference evolved into the Tongmenhui's establishment in Hubei.

In July 1907, several members of Tongmenhui in Tokyo advocated a revolution in the area of the Yangtze River. Liu Quiyi (劉揆一), Jiao Dafeng (焦達峰), Zhang Boxiang (張伯祥) and Sun Wu (孫武) established Gongjinhui (Progressive Association) (共進會).[23][24] In January 1911, the revolutionary group Zhengwu Xueshe (振武學社) was renamed as Wenxueshe (Literary society) (文學社).[25] Jiang Yiwu (蔣翊武) was chosen as the leader.[26] These two organizations would play a big role in the Wuchang Uprising.

Views[edit]

Main article: Anti-Qing sentiment

Many revolutionaries promoted anti-Qing/anti-Manchu sentiments and revived memories of conflict between the ethnic minority Manchu and the ethnic majority Han Chinese from the late Ming dynasty. Leading intellectuals were influenced by books that had survived from the last years of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), the last dynasty of Han Chinese. In 1904, Sun Yat-sen announced that his organization's goal was "to expel the Tatar barbarians, to revive Zhonghua, to establish a Republic, and to distribute land equally among the people." (驅除韃虜, 恢復中華, 創立民國, 平均地權).[18] Many of the underground groups promoted the ideas of "Resist Qing and restore Ming" (反清復明) that had been around since the days of the Taiping Rebellion.[27] Others, such as Zhang Binglin, supported straight-up lines like "slay the manchus" and concepts like "Anti-Manchuism" (興漢滅胡 / 排滿主義).[28]

Strata and groups[edit]

The Xinhai Revolution was supported by many groups, including students and intellectuals who returned from abroad, as well as participants of the revolutionary organizations, overseas Chinese, soldiers of the new army, local gentry, farmers and others.

Overseas Chinese[edit]

Assistance from overseas Chinese was important in the Xinhai Revolution. In 1894, the first year of the Revive China Society, the first meeting ever held by the group was held in the home of Ho Fon, an overseas Chinese who was the leader of the first Chinese Church of Christ.[29] Overseas Chinese supported and actively participated in the funding of revolutionary activities, especially the Southeast Asia Chinese of Malaya (Singapore and Malaysia).[30] Many of these groups were reorganized by Sun, who was referred to as the "father of the Chinese revolution".[30]

Newly emerged intellectuals[edit]

In 1906, after the abolition of the imperial examinations, the Qing government established many new schools and encouraged students to study abroad. Many young people attended the new schools or went abroad to study in places like Japan.[31] A new class of intellectuals emerged from those students, who contributed immensely to the Xinhai Revolution. Besides Sun Yat-sen, key figures in the revolution, such as Huang Xing, Song Jiaoren, Hu Hanmin, Liao Zhongkai, Zhu Zhixin and Wang Jingwei, were all Chinese students in Japan. Some were young students like Zou Rong, known for writing the book Revolutionary Army, in which he talked about the extermination of the Manchus for the 260 years of oppression, sorrow, cruelty and tyranny and turned the sons and grandsons of Yellow Emperor into George Washingtons.[32]

Before 1908, revolutionaries focused on coordinating these organizations in preparation for uprisings that these organizations would launch; hence, these groups would provide most of the manpower needed for the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. After the Xinhai Revolution, Sun Yat-sen recalled the days of recruiting support for the revolution and said, "The literati were deeply into the search for honors and profits, so they were regarded as having only secondary importance. By contrast, organizations like Sanhehui were able to sow widely the ideas of resisting the Qing and restoring the Ming."[33]

Gentry and businessmen[edit]

Prince Qing with some royal cabinet members

The strength of the gentry in local politics had become apparent. From December 1908, the Qing government created some apparatus to allow the gentry and businessmen to participate in politics. These middle-class people were originally supporters of constitutionalism. However, they became disenchanted when the Qing government created a cabinet with Prince Qing as prime minister.[34] By early 1911, an experimental cabinet had thirteen members, nine of whom were Manchus selected from the imperial family.[35]

Foreigners[edit]

Besides Chinese and overseas Chinese, some of the supporters and participants of the Xinhai Revolution were foreigners; among them, the Japanese were the most active group. Some Japanese even became members of Tongmenghui. Miyazaki Touten was the closest Japanese supporter; others included Heiyama Shu and Ryōhei Uchida. British soldier Rowland J. Mulkern also took part in the revolution.[36] Some foreigners, such as English explorer Arthur de Carle Sowerby, led expeditions to rescue foreign missionaries in 1911 and 1912.[37]

Yuan Shikai (1859–1916)
Yuan, who betrayed the Guangxu reformers to the Empress Dowager, rose to power in north China and built the Beiyang Army.

Soldiers of the new armies[edit]

The New Army was formed in 1901 after the defeat of the Qings in the First Sino-Japanese War.[31] They were launched by a decree from eight provinces.[31] New Army troops were by far the best trained and equipped.[31] The recruits were of a higher quality than the old army and received regular promotions.[31] Beginning in 1908, the revolutionaries began to shift their call to the new armies. Sun Yat-sen and the revolutionaries infiltrated the New Army.[38]

Uprisings and incidents[edit]

The general focus of the uprisings were those that surrounded the Tongmenghui and Sun Yat-sen, including the smaller groups within. Some uprisings below involve groups that never merged with the Tongmenghui. Sun Yat-sen may have participated in 8–10 uprisings; all uprisings prior to the Wuchang Uprising had failed.

Flag of the First Guangzhou Uprising

First Guangzhou Uprising[edit]

In the spring of 1895, the Revive China Society, which was based in Hong Kong, planned the First Guangzhou Uprising (廣州起義). Lu Haodong was tasked with designing the revolutionaries' Blue Sky with a White Sun flag.[30] On October 26, 1895, Yeung Ku-wan and Sun Yat-sen led Zhen Shiliang and Lu Haodong to Guangzhou, preparing to capture Guangzhou in one strike. However, the details of their plans were leaked to the Qing government.[39] The government began to arrest revolutionaries, including Lu Haodong, who was later executed.[39] The first Guangzhou uprising was a failure. Under pressure from the Qing government, the government of Hong Kong forbade these two men to enter the territory for five years. Sun Yat-sen went into exile, promoting the Chinese revolution and raising funds in Japan, the United States, Canada and Britain. In 1901, following the Huizhou uprising, Yeung Ku-wan was assassinated by Qing agents in Hong Kong.[40] After his death, his family protected his identity by not putting his name on his tomb, just a number: 6348.[40]

Independence Army Uprising[edit]

In 1901, after the Boxer Rebellion started, Tang Caichang (唐才常) and Tan Sitong of the previous Foot Emancipation Society organised the Independence Army. The Independence Army Uprising (自立軍起義) was planned to occur on August 23, 1900.[41] Their goal was to overthrow Empress Dowager Cixi to establish a constitutional monarchy under Emperor Guangxu. Their plot was discovered by the governor general of Hunan and Hubei. About twenty conspirators were arrested and executed.[41]

Huizhou Uprising[edit]

On October 8, 1900, Sun Yat-sen ordered the launch of the Huizhou Uprising (惠州起義).[42] The revolutionary army was led by Zheng Shiliang and initially included 20,000 men, who fought for half a month. However, after the Japanese Prime Minister prohibited Sun Yat-sen from carrying out revolutionary activities on Taiwan, Zheng Shiliang had no choice but to order the army to disperse. This uprising therefore also failed. British soldier Rowland J. Mulkern participated in this uprising.[36]

Two important Qing figures at the time

Great Ming Uprising[edit]

A very short uprising occurred from January 25 to 28, 1903, to establish a "Great Ming Heavenly kingdom" (大明順天國).[43] This involved Tse Tsan-tai, Li Jitang (李紀堂), Liang Muguang (梁慕光) and Hong Quanfu (洪全福), who formerly took part in the Jintian Uprising during the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom era.[44]

Ping-liu-li Uprising[edit]

Ma Fuyi (馬福益) and Huaxinghui was involved in an uprising in the three areas of Pingxiang, Liuyang and Liling, called "Ping-liu-li Uprising", (萍瀏醴起義) in 1905.[45] The uprising recruited miners as early as 1903 to rise against the Qing ruling class. After the uprising failed, Ma Fuyi was executed.[45]

Beijing Zhengyangmen East Railway assassination attempt[edit]

Wu Yue (吳樾) of Guangfuhui carried out an assassination attempt at the Beijing Zhengyangmen East Railway station (正陽門車站) in an attack on five Qing officials on September 24, 1905.[13][46]

Huanggang Uprising[edit]

The Huanggang Uprising (黃岡起義) was launched on May 22, 1907, in Chaozhou.[47] The Revolutionary party, along with Xu Xueqiu (許雪秋), Chen Yongpo (陳湧波) and Yu Tongshi (余通實), launched the uprising and captured Huanggang city.[47] Other Japanese that followed include (萱野長知) and (池亨吉).[47] After the uprising began, the Qing government quickly and forcefully suppressed it. Around 200 revolutionaries were killed.[48]

Huizhou Seven Women Lake Uprising[edit]

In the same year, Sun Yat-sen sent more revolutionaries to Huizhou to launch the "Huizhou Seven Women Lake Uprising" (惠州七女湖起義).[49] On June 2, Deng Zhiyu (鄧子瑜) and Chen Chuan (陳純) gathered some followers, and together, they seized Qing arms in the lake, 20 km (12 mi) from Huizhou.[50] They killed several Qing soldiers and attacked Taiwei (泰尾) on the 5th.[50] The Qing army fled in disorder, and the revolutionaries exploited the opportunity, capturing several towns. They defeated the Qing army once again in Bazhiyie. Many organizations voiced their support after the uprising, and the number of revolutionary forces increased to two hundred men at its height. The uprising, however, ultimately failed.

A statue to honor female revolutionary Qiu Jin

Anqing Uprising[edit]

On July 6, 1907, Xu Xilin of Guangfuhui led an uprising in Anqing, Anhui, which became known as the Anqing Uprising (安慶起義).[25] Xu Xilin at the time was the police commissioner as well as the supervisor of the police academy. He led an uprising that was to assassinate the provincial governor of Anhui, En Ming (恩銘).[51] They were defeated after four hours of fighting. Xu was captured, and En Ming's bodyguards cut out his heart and liver and ate them.[51] His cousin Qiu Jin was executed a few days later.[51]

Qinzhou Uprising[edit]

From August to September 1907, the Qinzhou Uprising occurred (欽州防城起義).,[52] to protest against heavy taxation from the government. Sun Yat-sen sent Wang Heshun (王和順) there to assist the revolutionary army and captured the county in September.[53] After that, they attempted to besiege and capture Qinzhou, but they were unsuccessful. They eventually retreated to the area of Shiwandashan, while Wang Heshun returned to Vietnam.

Zhennanguan Uprising[edit]

On December 1, 1907, the Zhennanguan Uprising (鎮南關起事) took place at Zhennanguan, a pass on the Chinese-Vietnamese border. Sun Yat-sen sent Huang Mintang (黃明堂) to monitor the pass, which was guarded by a fort.[53] With the assistance of supporters among the fort's defenders, the revolutionaries captured the cannon tower in Zhennanguan. Sun Yat-sen, Huang Xing and Hu Hanmin personally went to the tower to command the battle.[54] The Qing government sent troops to counterattack, and the revolutionaries were forced to retreat into mountainous areas. After the failure of this uprising, Sun was forced to move to Singapore due to anti-Sun sentiments within the revolutionary groups.[55] He would not return to the mainland until after the Wuchang Uprising.

Qin-lian Uprising[edit]

On March 27, 1908, Huang Xing launched a raid, later known as the Qin-lian Uprising (欽廉上思起義), from a base in Vietnam and attacked the cities of Qinzhou and Lianzhou in Guangdong. The struggle continued for fourteen days but was forced to terminate after the revolutionaries ran out of supplies.[56]

Hekou Uprising[edit]

In April 1908, another uprising was launched in Yunnan, Hekou, called the Hekou Uprising (雲南河口起義). Huang Mingtang (黃明堂) led two hundred men from Vietnam and attacked Hekou on April 30. Other revolutionaries who participated include Wang Heshun (王和順) and Guan Renfu (關仁甫). They were outnumbered and defeated by government troops, however, and the uprising failed.[57]

Mapaoying Uprising[edit]

On November 19, 1908, the Mapaiying Uprising (馬炮營起義) was launched by revolutionary group Yuewanghui (岳王會) member Xiong Chenggei (熊成基) at Anhui.[58] Yuewanghui, at this time, was a subset of Tongmenghui. This uprising also failed.

Gengxu New Army Uprising[edit]

In February 1910, the Gengxu New Army Uprising (庚戌新軍起義), also known as the Guangzhou New Army Uprising (廣州新軍起義), took place.[59] This involved a conflict between the citizens and local police against the New Army. After revolutionary leader Ni Yingdian was killed by Qing forces, the remaining revolutionaries were quickly defeated, causing the uprising to fail.

The memorial for the 72 martyrs

Second Guangzhou Uprising[edit]

On April 27, 1911, an uprising occurred in Guangzhou, known as the Second Guangzhou Uprising (辛亥廣州起義) or Yellow Flower Mound Revolt (黃花岡之役). It ended in disaster, as only 72 bodies were ever found.[60] The 72 revolutionaries were remembered as martyrs.[60] Revolutionary Lin Juemin (林覺民) was one of the 72. On the eve of battle, he wrote the legendary "A Letter to My Wife" (與妻訣別書), later to be considered as a masterpiece in Chinese literature.[61]

Wuchang Uprising[edit]

The Iron blood 18-star flag
Paths of the uprising

The Literary Society (文學社) and the Progressive Association (共進會) were revolutionary organizations involved in the uprising that mainly began with a Railway Protection Movement protest.[24] In the late summer, some Hubei New Army units were ordered to neighboring Sichuan to quell the Railway Protection Movement, a mass protest against the Qing government's seizure and handover of local railway development ventures to foreign powers.[62] Banner officers like Duanfang, the railroad superintendent,[63] and Zhao Erfeng led the New Army against the Railway Protection Movement.

The New Army units of Hubei had originally been the Hubei Army, which had been trained by Qing official Zhang Zhidong.[2] On September 24, the Literary Society and Progressive Association convened a conference in Wuchang, along with sixty representatives from local New Army units. During the conference, they established a headquarters for the uprising. The leaders of the two organizations, Jiang Yiwu (蔣翊武) and Sun Wu (孫武), were elected as commander and chief of staff. Initially, the date of the uprising was to be October 6, 1911.[64] It was postponed to a later date due to insufficient preparations.

Revolutionaries intent on overthrowing the Qing dynasty had built bombs, and on October 9, one accidentally exploded.[64] Sun Yat-sen himself had no direct part in the uprising and was traveling in the United States at the time in an effort to recruit more support from among overseas Chinese. The Qing Viceroy of Huguang, Rui Cheng (瑞澂), tried to track down and arrest the revolutionaries.[65] Squad leader Xiong Bingkun (熊秉坤) and others decided not to delay the uprising any longer and launched the revolt on October 10, 1911, at 7 pm.[65] The revolt was a success; the entire city of Wuchang was captured by the revolutionaries on the morning of October 11. That evening, they established a tactical headquarters and announced the establishment of the "Military Government of Hubei of Republic of China".[65] The conference chose Li Yuanhong as the governor of the temporary government.[65] Qing officers like the bannermen Duanfang and Zhao Erfeng were killed by the revolutionary forces.

Provincial Uprisings[edit]

Uprising map during the Xinhai Revolution

After the success of the Wuchang Uprising, many other uprisings occurred in other cities and towns in other provinces. Many of the uprisings were followed up with restorations (光復). Some uprisings were more of a revolt for independence, and some were protests or rebellions against local officials, but the outcome was that basically all provinces in the country renounced the Qing dynasty and joined the Republic of China.

Changsha restoration[edit]

On October 22, 1911, the Hunan Tongmenghui were led by Jiao Dafeng (焦達嶧) and Chen Zuoxin (陳作新).[66] They headed an armed group, consisting partly of revolutionaries from Hongjiang and partly of defecting New Army units, in a campaign to extend the uprising into Changsha.[66] They captured the city and killed the local Imperial general. Then they announced the establishment of the Hunan Military Government of the Republic of China and announced their opposition to the Qing Empire.[66]

Shaanxi Uprising[edit]

On the same day, Shaanxi's Tongmenghui, led by Jing Dingcheng (景定成) and Qian ding (錢鼎) as well as Jing Wumu (井勿幕) and others including Gelaohui, launched an uprising and captured Xi'an after two days of struggle.[67] The Muslim general Ma Anliang led more than twenty battalions of Hui Muslim troops to defend the Qings and attacked Shaanxi, held by revolutionary Zhang Fenghui (張鳳翽).[68] The attack was successful, but when news arrived that the Qing emperor Puyi was about to abdicate, Ma agreed to join the new Republic.[68] The revolutionaries established the "Qinlong Fuhan Military Government" and elected Zhang Fenghui, a member of the Yuanrizhi Society (原日知會), as new governor.[67] Xi'an Manchu city (滿城) finally fell on October 24, after a massacre of its Manchu residents.[69] Many of its Manchu defenders committed suicide, including Qing general Wenrui (文瑞), who threw himself down a well.[69]

Jiujiang Uprising[edit]

On October 23, Lin Sen, Jiang Qun (蔣群), Cai Hui (蔡蕙) and other members of the Tongmenghui in the province of Jiangxi plotted a revolt of New Army units.[66][70] After they achieved victory, they announced their independence. The Jiujiang Military Government was then established.[70]

Shanxi Taiyuan Uprising[edit]

On October 29, Yan Xishan of the New Army led an uprising in Taiyuan, the capital city of the province of Shanxi, along with Yao Yijie (姚以價), Huang Guoliang (黃國梁), Wen Shouquan (溫壽泉), Li Chenglin (李成林), Zhang Shuzhi (張樹幟) and Qiao Xi (喬煦).[70][71] They managed to kill the Qing Governor of Shanxi, Lu Zhongqi (陸鍾琦).[72] They then announced the establishment of Shanxi Military Government with Yan Xishan as the military governor.[67] Yan Xishan would later become one of the warlords that plagued China during what was known as "the warlord era".

Kunming Double Ninth Uprising[edit]

On October 30, Li Genyuan (李根源) of the Tongmenghui in Yunnan province joined with Cai E, Luo Peijin (羅佩金), Tang Jiyao, and other officers of the New Army to launch the Double Ninth Uprising (重九起義).[73] They captured Kunming the next day and established the Yunnan Military Government, electing Cai E as the military governor.[70]

Nanchang restoration[edit]

On October 31, the Nanchang branch of the Tongmenghui led New Army units in a successful uprising. They established the Jiangxi Military Government.[66] Li Liejun was elected as the military governor.[70] Li declared Jiangxi as independent and launched an expedition against Qing official Yuan Shikai.[61]

Chen Qimei, military governor of Shanghai

Shanghai Armed Uprising[edit]

On November 3, Shanghai's Tongmenghui, Guangfuhui and merchants led by Chen Qimei(陳其美), Li Pingsu (李平書), Zhang Chengyou (張承槱), Li Yingshi (李英石), Li Xiehe (李燮和) and Song Jiaoren organized an armed rebellion in Shanghai.[70] They received the support of local police officers.[70] The rebels captured the Jiangnan Workshop on the 4th and captured Shanghai soon after. On November 8, they established the Shanghai Military Government and elected Chen Qimei as the military governor.[70] He would eventually become one of the founders of the ROC four big families, along with some of the most well-known families of the era.[74]

Guizhou Uprising[edit]

On November 4, Zhang Bailin (張百麟) of the revolutionary party in Guizhou led an uprising along with New Army units and students from the military academy. They immediately captured Guiyang and established the Great Han Guizhou Military Government, electing Yang Jincheng (楊藎誠) and Zhao Dequan (趙德全) as the chief and vice governor.[75]

Zhejiang Uprising[edit]

Also on November 4, revolutionaries in Zhejiang urged the New Army units in Hangzhou to launch an uprising.[70] Zhu Rui (朱瑞), Wu Siyu (吳思豫), Lu Gongwang (吕公望) and others of the New Army captured the military supplies workshop.[70] Other units, led by Chiang Kai-shek and Yin Zhirei (尹銳志), captured most of the government offices.[70] Eventually, Hangzhou was under the control of the revolutionaries, and the constitutionist Tang Shouqian (湯壽潛) was elected as the military governor.[70]

Jiangsu restoration[edit]

On November 5, Jiangsu constitutionists and gentry urged Qing governor Cheng Dequan (程德全) to announce independence and established the Jiangsu Revolutionary Military Government with Cheng himself as the governor.[70][76] Unlike some of the other cities, anti-Manchu violence began after the restoration on November 7 in Zhenjiang.[77] Qing general Zaimu (載穆) agreed to surrender, but because of a misunderstanding, the revolutionaries were unware that their safety was guaranteed.[77] The Manchu quarters were ransacked, and an unknown number of Manchus were killed.[77] Zaimu, feeling betrayed, committed suicide.[77] This is regarded as the Zhenjiang Uprising (鎮江起義).[78][79]

Anhui Uprising[edit]

Members of Anhui's Tongmenghui also launched an uprising on that day and laid siege to the provincial capital. The constitutionists persuaded Zhu Jiabao (朱家寶), the Qing Governor of Anhui, to announce independence.[80]

Guangxi Uprising[edit]

On November 7, the Guangxi politics department decided to secede from the Qing government, announcing Guangxi's independence. Qing Governor Shen Bingkun (沈秉堃) was allowed to remain governor, but Lu Rongting would soon become the new governor.[53] Lu Rongting would later rise to prominence during the "warlord era" as one of the warlods, and his bandits controlled Guangxi for more than a decade.[81]

One of the old Guangfuhui addressing in Lianjiang County, Fujian

Fujian independence[edit]

In November, members of Fujian's branch of the Tongmenghui, along with Sun Daoren (孫道仁) of the New Army, launched an uprising against the Qing army.[82][83] The Qing viceroy, Song Shou (松壽), committed suicide.[84] On November 11, the entire Fujian province declared independence.[82] The Fujian Military Government was established, and Sun Daoren was elected as the military governor.[82]

Guangdong independence[edit]

Near the end of October, Chen Jiongming, Deng Keng (鄧鏗), Peng Reihai (彭瑞海) and other members of Guangdong's Tongmenghui organized local militias to launch the uprising in Huazhou, Nanhai, Sunde and Sanshui in Guangdong Province.[67][85] On November 8, after being persuaded by Hu Hanmin, General Li Zhun (李準) and Long Jiguang (龍濟光) of the Guangdong Navy agreed to support the revolution.[67] The Qing viceroy of Liangguang, Zhang Mingqi (張鳴岐), was forced to discuss with the local representatives a proposal for Guangdong's independence.[67] They decided to announce it the next day. Chen Jiongming then captured Huizhou. On November 9, Guangdong announced its independence and established a military government.[86] They elected Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming as the chief and vice governor.[87] Qiu Fengjia is known to have helped make the independence declaration more peaceful.[86]

Shandong independence[edit]

On November 13, persuaded by revolutionary Din Weifen (丁惟汾) and several other officers of the New Army, the Qing governor of Shandong, Sun Baoqi, agreed to secede from the Qing government and announced Shandong's independence.[67]

Ningxia Uprising[edit]

On November 17, Ningxia the Tongmenghui launched the Ningxia Uprising (寧夏會黨起義). The revolutionaries sent Yu Youren to Zhangjiachuan to meet Dungan Sufi master Ma Yuanzhang to persuade him not to support the Qing. However, Ma did not want to endanger his relationship with the Qings. He sent the eastern Gansu Muslim militia under the command of one of his sons to help Ma Qi crush the Ningxia Gelaohui.[88][89] The Ningxia Revolutionary Military Government was established on November 23.[67] Some of the revolutionaries involved included Huang Yue (黃鉞) and Xiang Shen (向燊), who gathered New Army forces at Qinzhou (秦州).[90][91]

Sichuan independence[edit]

On November 21, Guang'an organized the Great Han shu northern Military Government.[67][92]

On November 22, Chengdu and Sichuan began to declare independence. By the 27th, the Great Han Sichuan Military Government was established, headed by revolutionary Pu Dianzun (蒲殿俊).[67] Qing official Duan Fang (端方) would also be killed.[67]

Nanking Uprising[edit]

1911 battle at Ta-ping gate, Nanking. Painting by T. Miyano.

On November 8, supported by the Tongmenghui, Xu Shaozhen (徐紹楨) of the New Army announced an uprising in Molin Pass (秣陵關), 30 km (19 mi) away from Nanking City.[67] Xu Shaozhen, Chen Qimei and other generals decided to form a united army under Xu to strike Nanking together. On November 11, the united army headquarters was established in Zhenjiang. Between November 24 and December 1, under the command of Xu Shaozhen, the united army captured Wulongshan (烏龍山), Mufushan (幕府山), Yuhuatai (雨花臺), Tianbao City (天保城) and many other strongholds of the Qing army.[67] On December 2, Nanking City was captured by the revolutionaries after the Battle of Nanking.[67] On December 3, revolutionary Su Liangbi led troops in a massacre of a large number of Manchus (the exact number is not known).[93] He was shortly afterward arrested, and his troops disbanded.[93]

Tibetan independence[edit]

In 1905, the Qing sent Zhao Erfeng to Tibet to retaliate against rebellions.[94] By 1908, Zhao was appointed imperial resident in Lhasa.[94] Zhao was beheaded in December 1911 by pro-Republican forces.[95] The bulk of the area that was historically known as Kham was now the Xikang Administrative District, created by the Republican revolutionaries.[96] By the end of 1912, the last Manchu troops were escorted out of Tibet. Thubten Gyatso, the 13th Dalai Lama, returned to Tibet in January 1913 from Sikkim, where he had been residing.[97] When the new ROC government apologised for the actions of the Qing and offered to restore the Dalai Lama to his former position, he replied that he was not interested in Chinese ranks, that Tibet had never been subordinated to China, that Tibet was an independent country, and that he was assuming the spiritual and political leadership of Tibet.[97] Because of this, many have read this reply as a formal declaration of independence. The Chinese side ignored the response, and Tibet had thirty years free of interference from China.[97]

Mongolian independence[edit]

At the end of 1911, the Mongols took action with an armed revolt against the Manchu authorities but was unsuccessful in the attempt.[98] An independence movement took place that was not limited to just North (outer) Mongolia but was a pan-Mongolian phenomenon.[98] On December 29, 1911, Bogd Khan became the leader of the Mongol empire. Inner Mongolia became a contested terrain between Khan and the Republic.[99] In general, Russia supported the Independence of Outer Mongolia (including Tannu Uriankhai) during the time of the Xinhai Revolution.[100] Tibet and Mongolia then recognized each other in a treaty.

Dihua and Yili Uprising[edit]

In Xinjiang on December 28, Liu Xianzun (劉先俊) and the revolutionaries started the Dihua Uprising (迪化起義).[101] This was led by more than 100 members of Geilaohui.[102] This uprising failed. On January 7, 1912, the Yili Uprising (伊犁起義) with Feng Temin (馮特民) began.[101][102] Qing governor Yuan Dahua (袁大化) fled and handed over his resignation to Yang Zengxin, because he could not handle fighting the revolutionaries.[103]

In the morning of January 8, a new Yili government was established for the revolutionaries,[102] but the revolutionaries would be defeated at Jinghe in January and February.[103][104] Eventually because of the abdication to come, Yuan Shikai recognized Yang Zengxin's rule, appointed him Governor of Xinjiang and had the province join the Republic.[103] Eleven more former Qing officials would be assassinated in Zhenxi, Karashahr, Aksu, Kucha, Luntai and Kashgar in April and May 1912.[103]

Taiwan Uprising[edit]

In 1911 as part of the Xinhai Revolution, Tongmenghui sent Luo Fu-xing (羅福星) to the island of Taiwan to free it from being occupied by the Japanese.[105] The goal was to bring Taiwan island back to the Chinese Republic by having the Taiwan Uprising (台灣起義).[106] Luo was caught and killed on March 3, 1914.[107] What was left was known as the "Miaoli incident", (苗栗事件) where more than 1,000 Taiwanese were executed by the Japanese police.[108] Luo's sacrifice is commemorated in Miaoli.[107]

Change of government[edit]

Seal for the provisional government president of Republic of China

North: Qing court last transformation attempt[edit]

On November 1, 1911, the Qing government appointed Yuan Shikai as the prime minister of the imperial cabinet, replacing Prince Qing.[109] On November 3, the Qing court passed the Nineteen Articles (憲法重大信條十九條), which turned the Qing from an autocratic system with the emperor having unlimited power to a constitutional monarchy.[110][111] On November 9, Huang Xing even cabled Yuan Shikai and invited him to join the Republic.[112] The court changes were too late, and the emperor was about to have to step down.

South: Government in Nanking[edit]

On November 28, 1911, Wuchang and Hanyang had fallen back to the Qing army. So for safety, the revolutionaries convened their first conference at the British concession in Hankou on November 30.[113] By December 2, the revolutionary forces were able to capture Nanking in the uprising; the revolutionaries decided to make it the site of the new provisional government.[114] At the time, Beijing was still the Qing capital.

Tang Shaoyi, left. Edward Selby Little, middle. Wu Tingfang, right.

North-South Conference[edit]

On December 18, the North-South Conference (南北議和) was held in Shanghai to discuss the north and south issues.[115] Yuan Shikai selected Tang Shaoyi as his representative.[115] Tang left Beijing for Wuhan to negotiate with the revolutionaries.[115] The revolutionaries chose Wu Tingfang.[115] With the intervention of six foreign powers, the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, Russia, Japan, and France, Tang Shaoyi and Wu Tingfang began to negotiate a settlement at the British concession.[116] Foreign businessman Edward Selby Little (李德立) acted as the negotiator and facilitated the peace agreement.[117] They agreed that Yuan Shikai would force the Qing Emperor to abdicate in exchange for the southern provinces' support of Yuan as the president of the Republic. After considering the possibility that the new republic might be defeated in a civil war or by foreign invasion, Sun Yat-sen agreed to Yuan's proposal to unify China under Yuan Shikai's Beijing government. Further decisions were made to let the emperor rule over his little court in the New Summer Palace. He would be treated as a ruler of a separate country and have expenses of several million taels in silver.[118]

Establishment of the Republic[edit]

Sun Yat-sen in 1912 at one of the historic crossroads with the Five Races Under One Union flag and the Blue Sky with a White Sun flag

Republic of China declared and national flag issue[edit]

On December 29, 1911, Sun Yat-sen was elected as the first provisional president.[119] January 1, 1912, was set as the first day of the First Year of the Republic of China.[120] On January 3, the representatives recommended Li Yuanhong as the provisional vice president.[121]

During and after the Xinhai Revolution, many groups that participated wanted their own pennant as the national flag. During the Wuchang Uprising, the military units of Wuchang wanted the nine-star flag with Taijitu.[122] Others in competition included Lu Hao-tung's Blue Sky with a White Sun flag. Huang Xing favored a flag bearing the mythical "well-field" system of village agriculture. In the end, the assembly compromised: the national flag would be the banner of Five Races Under One Union.[122] The Five Races Under One Union flag with horizontal stripes represented the five major nationalities of the republic.[123] The red represented Han, the yellow represented Manchus, the blue for Mongols, the white for Muslims, and the black for Tibetans.[122][123] Despite the general target of the uprisings to be the Manchus, Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren and Huang Xing unanimously advocated racial integration to be carried out from the mainland to the frontiers.[124]

Donghuamen incident[edit]

On January 16, while returning to his residence, Yuan Shikai was ambushed in a bomb attack organized by the Tongmenghui in Donghuamen (東華門), Tientsin, Beijing.[125] A total of eighteen revolutionaries were involved. About ten of the guards died, but Yuan himself was not seriously injured.[125] He sent a message to the revolutionaries the next day pledging his loyalty and asking them not to organize any more assassination attempts against him.

Imperial edict for abdication

Abdication of the emperor[edit]

Main article: Puyi § Abdication

On January 20, Wu Tingfang of the Nanking Provisional Government officially delivered the imperial edict of abdication to Yuan Shikai the terms for the abdication of Qing Emperor Xuantong Puyi.[111] It was drafted by Zhang Jian, and was approved by the Provisional senate. On January 22, Sun Yat-sen announced that if Yuan Shikai supported the emperor's abdication, he (Sun Yat-sen) would resign the presidency in favor of Yuan Shikai.[126] After Yuan received this promise, he sped up the process. He threatened Empress Longyu that if the revolutionaries come to Beijing, the lives of the royal family would not be spared, but if they agree to abdicate, the terms for their abdication would be honored.

On February 3, Empress Longyu gave Yuan Shikai full permission to negotiate the terms for the abdication of the Qing Emperor. Yuan then drew up his own version and forwarded it back to the revolutionaries on February 3.[111] His version consisted of three sections instead of two.[111] On February 12, 1912, after being persuaded and pressured by Yuan Shikai and other ministers, Puyi (age six) and Empress Longyu accepted the terms for the imperial family's abdication.[120]

Debate over the capital[edit]

As a condition for ceding leadership to Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen insisted that the provisional government remain in Nanjing. On February 14, the Provisional Senate initially voted 20-5 in favor of making Beijing the capital over Nanjing, with two votes going for Wuhan and one for Tianjin.[127] The Senate majority wanted to secure the peace agreement by taking power in Beijing.[127] Zhang Jian and others reasoned that having the capital in Beijing would check against Manchu restoration and Mongol secession. But Sun and Huang Xing argued in favor of Nanjing to balance against Yuan's power base in the north.[127] Li Yuanhong presented Wuhan as a compromise.[128] The next day, the Provisional Senate voted again, this time, 19-6 in favor of Nanjing with two votes for Wuhan.[127] Sun sent a delegation led by Cai Yuanpei and Wang Jingwei to persuade Yuan to move to Nanjing.[129] Yuan welcomed the delegation and agreed to accompany the delegates back to the south.[130] Then on the evening of February 29, riots and fires broke out in all over the city.[130] They were allegedly started by disobedient troops of Cao Kun, a loyal officer of Yuan.[130] The disorder gave Yuan the pretext to stay in the north to guard against unrest. On March 10, Yuan was inaugurated in Beijing as the provisional president of the Republic of China.[131] On April 5, the Provisional Senate in Nanjing voted to make Beijing the capital of the Republic and convened in Beijing at the end of the month.

Republican government in Beijing[edit]

Main article: Beiyang Government
Yuan Shikai sworn as the Provisional president in Beijing

On March 10, 1912, Yuan Shikai was sworn as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China in Beijing.[132] The government based in Beijing, called the Beiyang Government, was internationally recognized as the legitimate government of the Republic of China until 1928, so the period from 1912 until 1928 was known simply as the "Beiyang Period". The first National Assembly election took place according to the Provisional Constitution. While in Beijing, the Kuomintang (KMT) was formed on August 25, 1912.[133] The KMT won the majority seats after the election. Song Jiaoren was elected as premier. However, Song was assassinated in Shanghai on March 20, 1913, under the secret order of Yuan Shikai.[134]

Legacy[edit]

Social influence[edit]

After the revolution, there was a huge outpouring of anti-Manchu sentiment through China, but particularly in Beijing where thousands died in anti-Manchu violence as Imperial restrictions on Han residency and behavior within the city crumbled as Manchu Imperial power crumbled.[135] Anti-Manchu violence is also documented in Wang Xiuchu's graphical account of the ten-day Chinese massacre in Yangzhou,[136] while anti-Manchu sentiment is otherwise well recorded in other books like A Short History of Slaves (奴才小史) and The Biographies of Avaricious Officials and Corrupt Personnel (貪官污吏傳) by Laoli (老吏).[136][137]

During the abdication of the last emperor, Empress Longyu, Yuan Shikai and Sun Yat-sen both tried to adopt the concept of "Manchu and Han as one family" (滿漢一家).[136] People started exploring and debating with themselves on the root cause of their national weakness. This new search of identity was the New Culture Movement.[138] Manchu culture and language, on the contrary, has become virtually extinct by 2007.[139]

Unlike revolutions in the West, the Xinhai Revolution did not restructure society. The participants of the Xinhai Revolution were mostly military personnel, old-type bureaucrats, and local gentries. These people still held regional power after the Xinhai Revolution. Some became warlords. There were no major improvements in the standard of living. Writer Lu Xun commented in 1921 during the publishing of The True Story of Ah Q, ten years after the Xinhai Revolution, that basically nothing changed except "the Manchus have left the kitchen".[140] The economic problems were not addressed until the governance of Chiang Ching-kuo in Taiwan and Deng Xiaoping on the mainland.[141]

The Xinhai Revolution mainly got rid of feudalism (fengjian) from Late Imperial China. In the usual view of historians, there are two restorations of feudal power after the revolution: the first was Yuan Shikai; the second was Zhang Xun.[142] Both were unsuccessful, but the "feudal remnants" returned to China with the Cultural Revolution in a concept called guanxi, where people relied not on feudal relationships, but personal relationships, for survival.[143] While guanxi is helpful in Taiwan, on the mainland, guanxi is necessary to get anything done.[144]

Historical significance[edit]

The Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing government and two thousand years of monarchy.[2] Throughout Chinese history, old dynasties had always been replaced by new dynasties. The Xinhai Revolution, however, was the first to overthrow a monarchy completely and attempt to establish a republic to spread democratic ideas throughout China. Though in 1911 at the provisional government welcome ceremony, Sun Yat-sen said, "The revolution is not yet successful, the comrades still need to strive for the future." (革命尚未成功,同志仍需努力).[145]

Since the 1920s, the two dominant parties–the KMT and CPC–see the Xinhai Revolution quite differently.[146] Both sides recognize Sun Yat-sen as the Father of the Nation, but in Taiwan, they mean "Father of the Republic of China".[146] On the mainland, Sun Yat-sen was seen as the man who helped bring down the Qing, a pre-condition for the Communist state founded in 1949.[146] The PRC views Sun's work as the first step towards the real revolution in 1949, when the communists set up a truly independent state that expelled foreigners and built a military and industrial power.[146] The father of New China is seen as Mao Zedong.[146] In 1954, Liu Shaoqi was quoted as saying that the "Xinhai Revolution inserted the concept of a republic into common people".[147][148] Zhou Enlai pointed out that the "Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing rule, ended 2000 years of monarchy, and liberated the mind of people to a great extent, and opened up the path for the development of future revolution. This is a great victory."[149]

Modern evaluation[edit]

Commemorative coin, minted in Taiwan in 2011

A change in the belief that the revolution had been a generally positive change began in late 1980s and 1990s, but Zhang Shizhao was quoted as arguing that "When talking about the Xinhai Revolution, the theorist these days tends to overemphasize. The word 'success' was way overused."[150]

The success of the democracy gained from the revolution can vary depending on one's view. Even after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925, for sixty years, the KMT controlled all five branches of the government; none were independent.[141] Yan Jiaqi, founder of the Federation for a Democratic China, has said that Sun Yat-sen is to be credited as founding China's first republic in 1912, and the second republic is the people of Taiwan and the political parties there now democratizing the region.[142]

Meanwhile, the ideals of democracy are far from realised on the mainland. For example, the Chinese premier Wen Jiabao once said in a speech that without real democracy, there is no guarantee of economic and political rights; but he led a 2011 crackdown against the peaceful Chinese jasmine protests.[151] Liu Xiaobo, a pro-democracy activist who received the global 2010 Nobel Peace Prize, is in prison.[152] Others, such as Qin Yongmin (秦永敏) of the Democracy Party of China, who was only released from prison after twelve years, do not praise the Xinhai Revolution.[153][154] Qin Yogmin said the revolution only replaced one dictator with another, that Mao Zedong was not an emperor, but he is worse than the emperor.[153][154][155]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^ a: Many of the Qing soldiers with Han background turned to support the revolution during the uprisings, so the actual casualties are hard to trace.
^ b: Clipping from Min Bao (People's Papers). Originally the publishing of Hua Xin Hui and named China of the Twentieth Century, it was renamed after the establishment of Tongmenhui.

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Further reading[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

  • Wu Xinghan (Chinese: 吳醒漢), Three Day Journal of Wuchang Uprising (Chinese: 武昌起義三日記).

Contemporary accounts[edit]

  • Dingle, Edwin J. (1912). China's Revolution: 1911–1912. A Historical and Political Record of the Civil War. Shanghai, China: Commercial Press. 
  • Kent, P. H. B. (1912). The Passing of the Manchus. London: E. Arnold. 

Secondary sources[edit]

English[edit]

  • Esherick, Joseph W. (1976). Reform and revolution in China : the 1911 revolution in Hunan and Hubei. Berkeley: Univ. of Calif. P. ISBN 0-520-03084-2. 
  • Shinkichi, / edited Eto; Schiffrin, Harold Z. (1994). China's republican revolution. [Tokyo]: University of Tokyo Press. ISBN 4-13-027030-3. 
  • Fung, Edmund S. K. (1980). The military dimension of the Chinese revolution : the New Army and its role in the revolution of 1911. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0129-8. 
  • Goldstein, Melvyn C. (1991). A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951:The Demise of the Lamaist state. University of California Prp. ISBN 978-0-520-07590-0. 
  • Ma, L. Eve Armentrout (1990). Revolutionaries, monarchists, and Chinatowns : Chinese politics in the Americas and the 1911 revolution. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1239-5. 
  • Rankin, Mary Backus (1986). Elite activism and political transformation in China : Zhejiang Province, 1865-1911. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1321-9. 
  • Wright, Mary Clabaugh (1978). China in revolution : the first phase 1900-1913 (4. printing. ed.). New Haven [u.a.]: Yale Univ. Pr. ISBN 0-300-01460-0. 
  • Hsieh, Winston (1975). Chinese historiography on the Revolution of 1911 : a critical survey and a selected bibliography. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University. ISBN 0-8179-3341-7. 
  • Young, Ernest P. (1977). The Presidency of Yuan Shih-K'ai : Liberalism and Dictatorship in Early Republican China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, Michigan Studies on China. 

Chinese[edit]

  • Tang (唐), Degang (德剛) (1998). The Late 50 years of Qing: Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen and Xinhai Revolution. Taipei: Yuanliu (遠流). ISBN 957-32-3513-7. 
  • Tang (唐), Degang (德剛) (2002). The Rule of Yuan Shikai (袁氏當國). Taipei: Yuanliu (遠流). ISBN 957-32-4680-5. 
  • Zhang (張), Yufa (玉法) (1998). The History of the Republic of China (中華民國史稿). Taipei: Lianjin (聯經). ISBN 957-08-1826-3. 
  • Lin (林), Yusheng (毓生) (1983). <The Anti-tradition Trends of May Forth Era and the Future of Libertarianism in China> included in "Personage and their thoughts" (<五四時代的激烈反傳統思想與中國自由主義的前途> 收入"思想與人物"). Taipei: Lianjin (聯經). ISBN 957-08-0384-3. 
  • Zhou (周), Weimin (伟民); Tang (唐), Linlin (玲玲) (2002). The History of Cultural Interactions of China and Malaysia (中国和马来西亚文化交流史). Haikou: Hainan (海南). ISBN 7-5443-0682-8. 
  • Li (李), Zehou (澤厚); Liu (劉), Zhaifu (再復) (1999). A Farewell to the Revolutions – Records of Discussions in 20th century China (告別革命-二十世紀中國對談錄). Taipei: Maitian (麥田). ISBN 957-708-735-3. 


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6 news items

the Diplomat

the Diplomat
Thu, 31 Jul 2014 10:37:30 -0700

From this came the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 and the founding of Asia's first republic. Those events, in turn, led to present-day Taiwan's democratic model and the rise of an economic power on the mainland under the leadership of the Chinese Communist ...

Santa Fe Reporter

Santa Fe Reporter
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 00:07:30 -0700

Four years in the making, the work was commissioned by Opera Hong Kong to be both a centennial commemoration of the 1911 Xinhai Revolution that overthrew China's imperial Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China as well as a tribute to Dr.
 
Burnaby NewsLeader
Thu, 10 Jul 2014 09:41:15 -0700

The statue was created to commemorate the centennial of the 1911 Xinhai Revolution. The foundation plans to celebrate that anniversary by creating 100 bronze statue memorials in cities around the world that have both historic and symbolic connections ...

VietNamNet Bridge

VietNamNet Bridge
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 20:11:15 -0700

The Xinhai Revolution (1911) occurred in China and the Qing Dynasty was overthrown. The Republic of China was formed. The plan to occupy Hoang Sa was promoted on a larger scale so the Indochinese press started to raise a bigger voice. On November ...
 
Burnaby NewsLeader
Thu, 03 Jul 2014 11:00:00 -0700

The statue was created by renowned Chinese sculptor Coa Chong Eng to commemorate the centennial of the 1911 Xinhai Revolution, said a city staff report. The foundation plans to celebrate that anniversary by creating 100 bronze statue memorials in ...
 
FinanzNachrichten.de (Pressemitteilung)
Mon, 14 Jul 2014 04:03:45 -0700

Geheimnisvolle Orte Das amerikanische Hauptquartier - Eine Machtzentrale im Kalten Krieg Film von Grit Lederer, RBB / 2012 Eine Machtzentrale in West-Berlin: Das Hauptquartier der amerikanischen Streitkräfte in der Clayallee. Hier wurde fast 50 Jahre ...
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