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Mass evacuation, forced displacement, expulsion, and deportation of millions of people took place across most countries involved in World War II. A number of these phenomena were categorised as violations of fundamental human values and norms by the Nuremberg Tribunal after the war ended. The mass movement of people – most of them refugees – has either been caused by the hostilities, or enforced by the former Axis and the Allied powers based on ideologies of race and ethnicity, culminating in the postwar border changes enacted by the international settlements. The refugee crisis created across formerly occupied territories in World War II provided the context for much of the new international refugee and global human rights architecture existing today.[1]

The belligerents on both sides have engaged in ethnic cleansing of people perceived as being associated with the enemy. The major location for the wartime displacements was the East-Central and Eastern Europe, although Japanese people were expelled during and after the war by Allied powers from locations in Asia including India. The Holocaust also involved deportations and expulsions of Jews aside from the subsequent genocide perpetrated by Nazi Germany under the auspices of Aktion Reinhard.[1]

World War II deportations, expulsions and displacements[edit]

Following the invasion of Poland in September 1939 which marked the beginning of World War II, the campaign of ethnic cleansing became the goal of military operations for the first time since the end of World War I.

Origin of German colonisers settled in annexed Polish territories in action "Heim ins Reich"
Expulsion of Poles from Reichsgau Wartheland following the German invasion of 1939
Jews expelled from the Warsaw ghetto in 1943

Aftermath of the invasion of Poland[edit]

World War II[edit]

Defeat of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan[edit]

Establishment of refugee organisations[edit]

The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration was set up in 1943, to provide humanitarian relief to the huge numbers of potential and existing refugees in areas facing Allied liberation. UNRRA provided billions of US dollars of rehabilitation aid, and helped about 8 million refugees. It ceased operations in Europe in 1947, and in Asia in 1949, upon which it ceased to exist. It was replaced in 1947 by the International Refugee Organization (IRO), which in turn evolved into United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 1950.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Neil Durkin, Amnesty International (9 December 1998). "Our century's greatest achievement". On the 50th Anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights. BBC News. Archived from the original on November 11, 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2015 – via Internet Archive. 
  2. ^ Janusz Gumkowski and Kazimierz Leszczynski, Poland Under Nazi Occupation, (Warsaw, Polonia Publishing House, 1961) pp. 7-33, 164-178.
  3. ^ Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era
  4. ^ a b "Zwangsumsiedlung, Flucht und Vertreibung 1939 - 1959 : Atlas zur Geschichte Ostmitteleuropas", Witold Sienkiewicz, Grzegorz Hryciuk, Bonn 2009, ISBN 978-83-7427-391-6
  5. ^ Davies (1986), p. 451.
  6. ^ a b Polian (2004), p. 119.
  7. ^ Hope (2005), p. 29.
  8. ^ "Holocaust Victims: Five Million Forgotten - Non Jewish Victims of the Shoah". 
  9. ^ Malcher (1993), pp. 8-9.
  10. ^ a b c d e Piesakowski (1990), pp. 50-51.
  11. ^ Mikolajczyk (1948).
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 20, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2010. 
  13. ^ a b Piotrowski (2004).
  14. ^ Gross (2002), p. xiv.
  15. ^ a b c d Cienciala (2007), p. 139.
  16. ^ a b Polian (2004), p. 118.
  17. ^ http://people.brandeis.edu/~nika/schoolwork/Poland%20Lectures/Lecture%252017.pdf
  18. ^ Applebaum (2004), p. 407.
  19. ^ Krupa (2004).
  20. ^ Rees (2008), p. 64.
  21. ^ Jolluck (2002), pp. 10-11.
  22. ^ Hope (2005), p. 23.
  23. ^ Ferguson (2006), p. 419.
  24. ^ a b c Malcher (1993), p. 9.
  25. ^ Hope (2005), p. 25.
  26. ^ Hope (2005), p. 27.
  27. ^ Article about expulsions from Oświęcim in Polish
  28. ^ Joseph Poprzeczny, Odilo Globocnik, Hitler's Man in the East, McFarland, 2004, ISBN 0-7864-1625-4, Google Print, p. 110–111
  29. ^ Lynn H. Nicholas, Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p. 335 ISBN 0-679-77663-X
  30. ^ Lukas, Richard C (2001). "2, 3". Germanization. New York: Hippocrene Books. http://www.projectinposterum.org/docs/lucas3.htm. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  31. ^ Gitta Sereny "Stolen children" Jewish virtual library https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/children.html
  32. ^ Lynn H. Nicholas, Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p. 334-5 ISBN 0-679-77663-X
  33. ^ Sybil Milton (1997). "Non-Jewish Children in the Camps". Multimedia Learning Center Online (Annual 5, Chapter 2). The Simon Wiesenthal Center. http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/site/pp.asp?c=gvKVLcMVIuG&b=395115. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
  34. ^ a b c Krizman.
  35. ^ a b Nikolić et al. (2002), p. 182.
  36. ^ Annexe I, by the Serbian Information Centre-London to a report of the Select Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
  37. ^ Ustasa, Croatian nationalist, fascist, terrorist movement created in 1930.
  38. ^ "World War II -- 60 Years After: For Victims Of Stalin's Deportations, War Lives On". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 
  39. ^ Raoul Pupo, Il lungo esodo. Istria: le persecuzioni, le foibe, l'esilio, Rizzoli, Milano 2005.
  40. ^ Lapin sodan ja evakoitumisen muistojuhlassa Pudasjärvellä 3.10.2004. Hannes Manninen. Retrieved 2009-9-7-(Finnish)
  41. ^ Tibor Cseres: Serbian vendetta in Bacska
  42. ^ Mazower, Mark (2000). After The War Was Over: Reconstructing the Family, Nation and State in Greece, 1943-1960. Princeton University Press. pp. 155, 181. ISBN 978-0-691-05842-9. 
  43. ^ Close, David H. (1995), The Origins of the Greek Civil War, p. 248, retrieved 2008-03-29, p. 161: "EDES gangs massacred 200-300 of the Cham population, who during the occupation totalled about 19,000 and forced all the rest to flee to Albania" 
  44. ^ The Expulsion of 'German' Communities from Eastern Europe at the end of the Second World War, European University Institute, Florense. EUI Working Paper HEC No. 2004/1, edited by Steffen Prauser and Arfon Rees, p. 4.
  45. ^ http://z-g-v.de/doku/archiv/frameset05.htm
  46. ^ http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2003-07/21/content_539034.htm
  47. ^ Jozo Tomasevich War and revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: occupation and collaboration, Stanford University Press, 2001 p.165

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Applebaum, A. (2004). GULAG A History, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-028310-2.
  • Cienciala, M. (2007). Katyn A Crime Without Punishment, Yale University, ISBN 978-0-300-10851-4.
  • Davies, N. (1986). God's Playground A History of Poland Volume II, Clarendon, ISBN 0-19-821944-X.
  • Douglas, R.M.: Orderly and Humane. The Expulsion of the Germans after the Second World War. Yale University Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0300166606.
  • Feferman Kiril, “A Soviet Humanitarian Action?: Centre, Periphery and the Evacuation of Refugees to the North Caucasus, 1941-1942.” In Europe-Asia Studies 61, 5 (July 2009), 813-831.
  • Ferguson, N. (2006). The War of the World, Allen Lane, ISBN 0-7139-9708-7.
  • Gross, J. T. (2002). Revolution from Abroad, Princeton, ISBN 0-691-09603-1.
  • Hope, M. (2005). Polish Deportees in the Soviet Union, Veritas, ISBN 0-948202-76-9.
  • Jolluck, K. (2002). Exile & Identity, University of Pittsburgh, ISBN 0-8229-4185-6.
  • Krizman, Serge. Maps of Yugoslavia at War, Washington 1943.
  • Krupa, M. (2004). Shallow Graves in Siberia, Birlinn, ISBN 1-84341-012-5.
  • Malcher, G. C. (1993). Blank Pages, Pyrford, ISBN 1-897984-00-6.
  • Mikolajczyk, S. (1948). The Pattern of Soviet Domination, Sampsons, low, Marston & Co.
  • Naimark, Norman: Fires of Hatred. Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth - Century Europe. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2001.
  • Nikolić, Kosta; Žutić, Nikola; Pavlović, Momčilo; Špadijer, Zorica (2002): Историја за трећи разред гимназије природно-математичког смера и четврти разред гимназије општег и друштвено-језичког смера, Belgrade, ISBN 86-17-09287-4.
  • Piesakowski, T. (1990). The Fate of Poles in the USSR 1939~1989, Gryf, ISBN 0-901342-24-6.
  • Piotrowski, T. (2004). The Polish Deportees of World War II, McFarland, ISBN 978-0-7864-3258-5.
  • Polian, P. (2004). Against their Will, CEU Press, ISBN 963-9241-73-3.
  • Prauser, Steffen and Rees, Arfon: The Expulsion of the "German" Communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War. Florence, Italy, Europe, University Institute, 2004.
  • Rees, L. (2008). World War Two Behind Closed Doors, BBC Books, ISBN 978-0-563-49335-8.
  • Roudometof, Victor. Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian Question.

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