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William Borah
William Edgar Borah cph.3b19589.jpg
United States Senator
from Idaho
In office
March 4, 1907 – January 19, 1940
Preceded by Fred Dubois
Succeeded by John W. Thomas
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
In office
1924–1933
Preceded by Henry Cabot Lodge
Succeeded by Key Pittman
Dean of the United States Senate
In office
March 4, 1933 – January 19, 1940
Preceded by Reed Smoot
Succeeded by Ellison D. Smith
Personal details
Born William Edgar Borah
(1865-06-29)June 29, 1865
near Fairfield, Illinois
Died January 19, 1940(1940-01-19) (aged 74)
Washington, D.C.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Mary McConnell
Residence Boise
Alma mater University of Kansas
Profession Attorney
Religion Protestant
Nickname(s) The Lion of Idaho[1]
The Big Potato[2]
Bill
[2]

William Edgar Borah (June 29, 1865 – January 19, 1940) was a prominent Republican United States Senator from Idaho, noted for his oratorical skills and isolationist views. Progressive, independent, and often outspoken, he was internationally known as "The Lion of Idaho."[1]

Early life and career[edit]

Borah was born near Fairfield, Illinois, the son of Elizabeth (West) and William Nathan Borah. Borah's schooling included the Wayne County common schools and the Southern Illinois Academy at Enfield. According to a drawing published by H. T. Webster in 1916, he had a boyhood ambition to be a railway conductor.[3] He attended University of Kansas in 1885 but was forced to leave after contracting tuberculosis in his freshman year. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in September 1887.

Career[edit]

After practicing law in Lyons, Kansas, Borah headed for Seattle in 1890, but only had fare at the time to get to Idaho, with plans to work and move on.[2] He decided to stay in the growing capital city of Boise, where he became the most prominent attorney in the new state. Borah once wrote a letter to the Board of Pardons protesting the change of sentence in hanging "Diamondfield Jack" Davis, a man charged with killing a sheepherder who was working for a cattle company.[4]

Borah ran for the U.S. Senate in 1902, but was defeated in the Idaho Legislature by Weldon B. Heyburn, a Republican attorney from Wallace. In 1907, shortly after being elected to the Senate, Borah served as the prosecuting attorney in the nationally publicized trial of "Big Bill" Haywood and two other labor union officials for the 1905 murder of former Idaho Governor Frank Steunenberg. Clarence Darrow defended Haywood.

In 1907, a federal grand jury indicted him for conspiracy to defraud the U.S. by procuring timberlands through fraudulent means. At the time he was the attorney for the Barber Lumber Company. The trial of the case was deferred until the conclusion of the Haywood case.

Marriage and family[edit]

In 1895, Borah married Mary McConnell (1870–1976) of Moscow, Idaho, daughter of Governor William J. McConnell. They had no children, and she died at the age of 105 in Beaverton, Oregon.[5] She is buried next to Borah at Morris Hill Cemetery in Boise.[6]

Later in life in Washington, Borah had a relationship with Alice Roosevelt Longworth, with whom he had one daughter, Paulina Longworth (1925–1957).[7] And according to one family friend, "everybody called her [love child Paulina] 'Aurora Borah Alice.' " [8]

U.S. Senate[edit]

Borah's former residence in Washington, D.C.

On January 15, 1907, the Idaho Legislature elected William Borah to the U.S. Senate over the controversial Democratic incumbent, Fred Dubois. Borah was reelected by the Idaho Legislature in 1912, and four more times by popular vote (1918, 1924, 1930 and 1936) after the 17th Amendment changed the way senators were selected. He remains the longest-serving member of the United States Congress in Idaho history.

A member of the Republican National Committee from 1908 to 1912, Borah was a delegate to the 1912 Republican National Convention. As a senator, Borah was dedicated to principles rather than party loyalty, a trait which earned him the nickname "the Great Opposer." He disliked entangling alliances in foreign policy and became a prominent anti-imperialist and nationalist, favoring a continued separation of American liberal and European Great Power politics. He encouraged the formation of a series of world economic conferences and favored a low tariff.

In 1919 Borah and other Senate Republicans, notably Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts and Hiram W. Johnson of California, clashed with President Woodrow Wilson over Senate ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. It ended World War I and established the League of Nations. Borah emerged as leader of the "Irreconcilables," a group of senators noted for their uncompromising opposition to the treaty and the League. During 1919, Borah and Johnson toured the country speaking against the treaty in response to Wilson's speaking tour supporting it. Borah's impassioned November 19, 1919, speech on the Senate floor in opposition to the treaty and League of Nations contributed to the Senate's ultimate rejection of it.[9]

In 1922 and 1923, Borah spoke against passage of the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, which had passed the House. A strong supporter of state sovereignty, he believed that its clause authorizing federal authorities to punish state officials for failure to suppress lynchings was unconstitutional. The bill was defeated by filibuster in the Senate by Southern Democrats. When another bill was introduced in 1935 and 1938, Borah continued to speak against it, by that time saying that it was no longer needed, as the number of lynchings had dropped sharply.[10]

From 1925 to 1933, Borah served as the Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. As Chairman, he became known for his pro-Soviet views, favoring recognition of the Soviet Union, and sometimes interceded with that government in an unofficial capacity during the period when Moscow had no official relations with the United States. Purportedly, Kremlin officials held Borah in such high esteem that American citizens could gain permission to travel throughout the Soviet Union with nothing more than a letter from the Senator.[11]

Domestically, he sponsored bills that created the Department of Labor and the Children's Bureau. He was one of the Senators responsible for uncovering the scandals of the Harding Administration.[citation needed] In 1932, unhappy with the misguided policies of President Herbert Hoover, such as a doubling of revenues with no positive results, in light of the Great Depression Borah refused to publicly endorse Hoover's reelection campaign.

After Hoover's defeat by the Democratic candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt, Borah as the Dean of the United States Senate supported certain components of the New Deal. These included old-age pensions and the confiscation of U.S. citizens' gold by executive order, but he opposed the National Industrial Recovery Act and the Agricultural Adjustment Act.

Personality and views[edit]

Borah was a progressive Republican who often had strong differences of opinion with the conservative wing of the party. Borah also had a reputation for being headstrong and independent. When conservative President Calvin Coolidge was told of Borah's fondness for horseback riding, the president is said to have replied, "It's hard to imagine Senator Borah going in the same direction as his horse."[2]

Conservative Republicans in Idaho, notably Governor and later Senator Frank R. Gooding, often feuded with Borah as well. Nevertheless, Borah became a strong political force in Idaho and elsewhere, often in spite of opposition from his own party.

Wallace E. Olson, then president of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants in mocking the United States income tax system and rates reported on the debates held in Congress that,

A fear expressed by a number of opponents was that the proposed law, with its low rates was the camel's nose under the tent that once a tax on incomes was enacted, rates would tend to rise. Sen. William E. Borah of Idaho was outraged by such anxieties, and derided a suggestion that the rate might eventually climb as high as 20 percent. Who, he asked, could impose such socialistic, confiscatory rates? Only Congress. And how could Congress, the Representatives of the American People, be so lacking in fairness, justice and patriotism?.[12]

In 1931 Borah declared he was in favor of the revision of the Versailles Treaty and the Polish corridor, and the revision of the Treaty of Trianon that divided lands from the old Hungarian Kingdom between Austria, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia.[13]

In 1932 Borah strongly disagreed with the suggestion of the drafters of the London Economic Conference of 1933, who met in Geneva, that the United States should settle intergovernmental debts as a step to recover from the Great Depression.[14]

Borah became the dean of the U.S. Senate in 1933, an informal term used to refer to the Senator with the longest continuous service.

Borah positioned himself as the Republican expert on foreign affairs. When Hitler came to power in January 1933, he was not alarmed. He told the press the combination of President von Hindenburg and the Nazi leader should be able to administer the affairs of the German people.[15]

"I think Hindenburg one of the greatest men, not alone of this time, but of all time,” he said. “I am impressed with the fact that Hitler speaks more and more with the voice of the German people, with reference to certain matters growing out of the World war and Versailles, which will have to be revised in the interest of peace."

1936 Presidential campaign[edit]

In an attempt to revitalize the progressive wing of the Republican Party, in 1936 a 71-year-old Borah ran for nomination as candidate for President of the United States, becoming the first Idahoan to do so. Borah's candidacy was opposed by the conservative Republican leadership and dismissed by Roosevelt. He managed to win only a handful of delegates. Borah won a majority of delegates in only one state, Wisconsin, where he had the endorsement of Progressive United States Senator Robert M. La Follette, Jr. Borah refused to endorse the eventual Republican nominee, Alf Landon, leading some to believe he might cross party lines and support Roosevelt's reelection. Ultimately, as he had four years earlier, he chose to support neither candidate.[16] Even more significantly, Borah announced:

Unless the Republican party is delivered from its reactionary leadership and reorganized in accord with its one-time liberal principles, it will die like the Whig party of sheer political cowardice...[The people] are offered the Constitution. But the people can't eat the Constitution.[8]

Final years[edit]

Despite his failed presidential run, throughout his long career Borah remained personally popular among Idaho voters. While in the Senate in Idaho he never faced a serious political challenge from either the Republicans or Democrats.[citation needed] After abandoning his presidential campaign, later in 1936 at the height of Democratic power during the New Deal era, Borah ran for reelection against three-term Idaho Governor C. Ben Ross, a Roosevelt ally, and won with well over 60 percent of the vote.

Known for his public integrity, eloquent speaking ability, and genuine concern for his constituents, his private affairs were less straightforward; his romantic relationship with the irascible and none-too-discreet Alice Roosevelt Longworth was unseemly, especially for the time, but it apparently did him no lasting political harm.[17]

Death[edit]

Borah Peak, Idaho's highest

Still in office, Borah died in his sleep at his home in Washington, D.C., on January 19, 1940 of a cerebral hemorrhage at age 74.[18][19] His state funeral at the U.S. Capitol was held in the Senate chamber on Monday, January 22.[20] A second state funeral in Idaho was held three days later at the Idaho State Capitol in Boise, where Borah's casket lay in state beneath the rotunda for six hours prior to the funeral at three o'clock. An estimated 23,000 passed by the bier or attended the funeral service,[21] nearly equal to Boise's population (26,130) in 1940. He is buried in Morris Hill Cemetery in Boise.[22]

Legacy[edit]

In 1947, the state of Idaho donated a bronze statue of Borah to the National Statuary Hall Collection. Idaho's highest point, Borah Peak, at 12,662 feet (3,859 m) was named for him in 1934,[23] six years before his death. Two public schools are named for him: Borah High School in Boise, and Borah Elementary School[24] in Coeur d'Alene. At the University of Idaho in Moscow, his wife's hometown, an annual symposium on foreign affairs, a residence hall, and a theater in the student union building bear his name. Borah Avenue in Twin Falls is also named in his honor.

William E. Borah Apartment, Windsor Lodge, a home of his in Washington, D.C., was designated a U.S. National Historic Landmark in 1976.[25]

Bora Laskin, the Chief Justice of Canada from 1973–1984, was named after Borah.[26]

"If I could have talked to Hitler" quote[edit]

Borah may be best known today for having reportedly said, in September 1939, after Germany invaded Poland, "Lord, if I could only have talked to Hitler—all this might have been averted." The source of this quote was a 1940 Senate Document, News Articles on the Life and Works of Honorable William E. Borah, compiled and written by William Kinsey Hutchinson, then International News Service's Washington Bureau Chief. Hutchinson indicated that Borah said it to him in private "in words that ran like a prayer."[27] There is no other public record of Borah saying this; Borah died before Hutchinson published the document, and thus could not deny or confirm it; its veracity is therefore unknown.

The quote has been repeatedly cited as evidence of the alleged naivete of a belief in the power of pure diplomacy. Conservative commentator Charles Krauthammer has referred to the quote in at least three of his columns, making an analogy to negotiating with China in 1989, with North Korea in 1994 and with Iran in 2006.[28] In August 2006 United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld referred to the quote when decrying those who want to "negotiate a separate peace with terrorists".[29]

On May 15, 2008, U.S. President George W. Bush referred to the quote in a speech to the Knesset in Israel commemorating that nation's 60th anniversary, after stating, "some seem to believe that we should negotiate with the terrorists and radicals, as if some ingenious argument will persuade them they have been wrong all along."[30] Some, including Barack Obama himself, interpreted Bush's comment to be a criticism of Obama, who was about to become the Democratic nominee for president, for his stated willingness to negotiate with the leaders of Iran. White House staff stated that the reference was meant more as a criticism of former president Jimmy Carter, who had argued that the U.S. should be willing to meet with Hamas.[31]

Other quotations[edit]

  • "No more fatuous chimera has ever infested the brain than that you can control opinions by law or direct belief by statute, and no more pernicious sentiment ever tormented the heart than the barbarous desire to do so. The field of inquiry should remain open, and the right of debate must be regarded as a sacred right." —1917[32]
  • "America has arisen to a position where she is respected and admired by the entire world. She did it by minding her own business... the European and American systems do not agree." —1919 speech in Brooklyn opposing the League of Nations.[33]
United States Senate
Preceded by
Fred Dubois
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Idaho
March 4, 1907 – January 19, 1940
Served alongside: Weldon B. Heyburn, Kirtland I. Perky, James H. Brady, John F. Nugent, Frank R. Gooding, John W. Thomas, James P. Pope, D. Worth Clark
Succeeded by
John W. Thomas
Party political offices
Preceded by
Pre-17th Amendment
Republican Party nominee, U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Idaho
1918 (won), 1924 (won), 1930 (won), 1936 (won)
Succeeded by
John W. Thomas
Political offices
Preceded by
Henry Cabot Lodge
Massachusetts
Chair of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
1924–1933
Succeeded by
Key Pittman
Nevada
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Reed Smoot
Utah
Dean of the United States Senate
March 4, 1933 – January 19, 1940
Succeeded by
Ellison D. Smith
South Carolina
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Gelasio Caetani
Cover of Time Magazine
May 5, 1924
Succeeded by
Homer Saint-Gaudens

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Idaho governor sets Borah day". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Associated Press. November 23, 1957. p. 7. 
  2. ^ a b c d Bates, Kirk (January 25, 1940). "The Senator who traveled alone". Milwaukee Journal. p. 22. 
  3. ^ "The Best of H. T. Webster" (Simon and Schuster, 1953), page 104
  4. ^ Grover, David H. Diamondfield Jack; A Study in Frontier Justice (University of Nevada Press, 1968)
  5. ^ "Mrs. Borah dies". Spokesman-Review. Associated Press. January 16, 1976. p. 7. 
  6. ^ "Mary Mamie McConnell Borah". Find a Grave.com. Retrieved October 24, 2012. 
  7. ^ Cordery, Stacy A. Alice: Alice Roosevelt Longworth, From White House Princess to Washington Power Broker. New York: Penguin Group, Viking Adult (2007). ISBN 0-670-01833-3 ISBN 978-0-670-01833-8
  8. ^ a b Brands, H.W. (2008). Traitor to his Class. New York, NY: Doubleday. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-385-51958-8. 
  9. ^ Classic Senate Speeches: Notes on William E. Borah to The League of Nations on November 19, 1919. Retrieved May 15, 2008. Text of the speech also here.
  10. ^ "Proceedings of the U.S. Senate on June 13, 2005 regarding the "Senate Apology" as Reported in the 'Congressional Record'", "Part 3, Mr. Craig", at African American Studies, University of Buffalo. Retrieved July 26, 2011
  11. ^ "At The Hinge Of History: A Reporter's Story" Accounts of Joseph C. Harsch regarding certain issues. Retrieved March 6th, 2014.
  12. ^ The Wall Street Journal. October 5, 1973. p. 8 col. 4-6. 
  13. ^ Show Stolen?, Time Magazine, November 2, 1931
  14. ^ The World Economic Conference, Herbert Samuel, International Affairs (1933) 12#4 p 445.
  15. ^ Keesing's Contemporary Archives Volume I, (January, 1933) p 655
  16. ^ A Lion Among The Liberals, by Kevin C. Murphy. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
  17. ^ McKenna, Marian, Borah, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1961.
  18. ^ "Senator Borah dies; state funeral Monday". Toledo Blade. Associated Press. January 20, 1940. p. 1. 
  19. ^ Wilson, Lyle C. (January 20, 1940). "Borah is mourned by nation". Berkeley Daily Gazette. United Press International. p. 1. 
  20. ^ "Leaders grieve at state rites for Sen. Borah". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Associated Press. January 23, 1940. p. 1. 
  21. ^ Bottcher, Walter R. (January 26, 1940). "Senator Borah rests in mountain's shadow". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Associated Press. p. 1. 
  22. ^ Cemetery Walking Tour: William E. Borah, published by City of Boise. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
  23. ^ "Named for solon: Idaho's highest mountain be called "Borah Peak"". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Associated Press. February 12, 1934. p. 1. 
  24. ^ "Borah Elementary School". Coeur d'Alene School District. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  25. ^ Cathy A. Alexander, Ralph Christian, and George R. Adams (January 1976), National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: William Edgar Borah Apartment, Number 21, Windsor Lodge / William Edgar Borah Apartment, Number 21, Chancellery Cooperative (PDF), National Park Service, retrieved June 22, 2009  and Accompanying three photos, exterior, from 1975 and 1978 PDF (1.56 MB)
  26. ^ Girard, Philip (2005), Bora Laskin: Bringing Law to Life, Toronto: Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History, ISBN 0-8020-9044-3 
  27. ^ William Kinsey Hutchinson, News Articles on the Life and Works of Honorable William E. Borah, Late a Senator from the State of Idaho, Senate Document 150 (Washington, D.C., 1940), p. 37.
  28. ^ "Why the Nazi Analogy Is on the Rise", Brendan Nyhan, Time Magazine, August 31, 2006
  29. ^ Address at the 88th Annual American Legion National Convention, Donald Rumsfeld, August 29, 2006
  30. ^ John Yang (May 15, 2008). "Bush's 'Nazi' swipe at Obama". NBC. 
  31. ^ CNN, "The Situation Room," May 15, 2008 at 5 PM EDT.
  32. ^ William E. Borah Quote/Quotation at quotes.liberty-tree.ca
  33. ^ U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > Classic Senate Speeches

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Borah — Please support Wikipedia.
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1123 videos foundNext > 

US Senator from Idaho William Edgar Borah talks to another official in the United...HD Stock Footage

Link to order this clip: http://www.criticalpast.com/video/65675065693_William-Edgar-Borah_seated-in-car_people-gather_talks-to-official Historic Stock Foota...

Senator William Edgar Borah in a conference in Washington DC. HD Stock Footage

Link to order this clip: http://www.criticalpast.com/video/65675028721_Senator-William-Edgar-Borah_Monroe-Doctrine_Militant-Republican Historic Stock Footage...

US Senator William Edgar Borah tells fellow legislators "enforcement system is de...HD Stock Footage

Link to order this clip: http://www.criticalpast.com/video/65675056177_William-Edgar-Borah_prohibition-sleuths_destroy-moonshine-barrels_documents Historic S...

United States Senator from Idaho William Edgar Borah poses in front of a plant in...HD Stock Footage

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APA Awards 2010: William E. Borah

National Planning Leadership Award for a Distinguished Contribution William E. Borah Land use planning in New Orleans has traditionally been described as "pl...

Borah 2

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Chicken Out Ridge, Borah Peak, Idaho

Borah Peak, Idaho's high point, sits at an elevation of 3859 metres (12662 feet). "Chicken Out Ridge," a common turnaround point for those in doubt about r...

Borah Peak, Idaho - 3,859 metres (12,662 feet)

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BORAH BERGMAN - VISION FESTIVAL 2006

BORAH BERGMAN - piano LOUIS BELOGENIS - saxophone WILLIAM PARKER - bass RASHIED ALI - drums June 13th, 2006 Vision Festival, NYC video & audio by Robert O'Ha...

Dialogue: Repeal the 17th Amendment?

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1123 videos foundNext > 

145 news items

 
Politico
Tue, 18 Nov 2014 21:15:00 -0800

William Borah (R-Neb.), known as the “irreconcilables,” opposed the treaty on any terms. In a two-hour speech, Borah said, that by accepting it, “We [would] have forfeited and surrendered, once and for all, the great policy of 'no entangling alliances ...

The Blue Review

The Blue Review
Thu, 04 Sep 2014 10:37:30 -0700

On April 4, 1917, Senator William Borah, Idaho Republican, left his apartment on Wyoming Street and walked his usual route to the U.S. Capitol for one of the most difficult and important votes of his career: supporting America's entry into World War I ...

The Blue Review

The Blue Review
Mon, 26 Aug 2013 12:23:57 -0700

Led by William Borah, the “Lion of Idaho” and a constitutional expert, they created a powerful states' rights alliance with Dixiecrats to stop Dyer. Much like onlookers at a mob lynching, the impassioned actions of these forces drew the lukewarm apathy ...
 
The knoxville focus
Sun, 06 Jan 2013 16:08:35 -0800

William Borah moved west and settled in Boise, Idaho in 1890 where he soon became one of the leading lawyers in the state. Borah possessed a remarkable ability to sway jurors with his oratory, as he would in the United States Senate. Bill Borah would ...

The Blue Review

The Blue Review
Mon, 06 Oct 2014 14:22:29 -0700

Population size heavily influenced such tactics. In fact, the activism of black Idahoans is all the more impressive because some took action despite few numbers, considerable fear and sparse political support. See, for example, articles here on William ...
 
Slate Magazine (blog)
Fri, 25 Jan 2013 09:02:35 -0800

In her 2008 biography of Alice, Stacy A. Cordery published family documents that show that Paulina's father was not Nicholas Longworth but Idaho Senator William Borah. This fact wasn't public when Paulina was born; Cordery speculates that Longworth ...
 
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
Sat, 19 Jul 2014 20:56:15 -0700

William Borah of Idaho, an isolationist and colorful progressive known more for what he opposed than for what he favored and probably too old to pose a real challenge; he was born only two months after the end of the Civil War. Landon prevailed by a ...

Twin Falls Times-News

Twin Falls Times-News
Sun, 12 Oct 2014 11:00:00 -0700

Cassia County Prosecuting Attorney John C. Rogers brought in William Borah — who would later become a U.S. senator from Idaho — and Orlando Power, a former Supreme Court Justice in Utah Territory. Davis' defense team included future governor of ...
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