digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

"Indian rice" redirects here. The wildflower Fritillaria camschatcensis is sometimes also called "Indian rice" or "wild rice". For the wild rice of India and Bangladesh, see Porteresia. For wild rice related to cultivated forms, see Rice.
Wild rice
WildRice23.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Ehrhartoideae[1]
Tribe: Oryzeae[1]
Genus: Zizania
L.
Species

Wild rice (also called Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats) are four species of grasses forming the genus Zizania, and the grain which can be harvested from them. The grain was historically gathered and eaten in both North America and China. While it is now a delicacy in North America, the grain is eaten less in China,[2]:165 where the plant's stem is used as a vegetable.

Wild rice is not directly related to Asian rice (Oryza sativa), whose wild progenitors are O. rufipogon and O. nivara, although they are close cousins, sharing the tribe Oryzeae. Wild rice grains have a chewy outer sheath with a tender inner grain that has a slightly vegetal taste.[3]

The plants grow in shallow water in small lakes and slow-flowing streams; often, only the flowering head of wild rice rises above the water. The grain is eaten by dabbling ducks and other aquatic wildlife, as well as humans.

Species[edit]

Three species of wild rice are native to North America:

One species is native to Asia:

  • Manchurian wild rice (Z. latifolia; incorrect synonym: Z. caduciflora), is a perennial native to China.

Texas wild rice is in danger of extinction due to loss of suitable habitat in its limited range and to pollution. The pollen of Texas wild rice can only travel about 30 inches away from a parent plant. If pollen does not land on a receptive female flower within that distance, no seeds are produced.[4] Manchurian wild rice has almost disappeared from the wild in its native range, but has been accidentally introduced into the wild in New Zealand and is considered an invasive species there.[5]

Use as food[edit]

Harvesting wild rice.

The species most commonly harvested as grain is the annual species Zizania palustris. Native Americans and others harvest wild rice by canoeing into a stand of plants, and bending the ripe grain heads with wooden sticks called knockers, so as to thresh the seeds into the canoe.

The size of the knockers, as well as other details, are prescribed in state and tribal law. By Minnesota statute, knockers must be at most 1 inch in diameter, 30 inches long, and one pound in weight.[6] The plants are not beaten with the knockers but require only a gentle brushing to dislodge the mature grain. The Ojibwa people call this plant manoomin, meaning "harvesting berry" but commonly explained to mean "good berry". Some seeds fall to the muddy bottom and germinate later in the year.

Ojibwa wild rice pouch, cedar bark, American Museum of Natural History

Several Native American cultures, such as the Ojibwa, consider wild rice to be a sacred component in their culture.[7] The rice is harvested with a canoe: one person vans (or "knocks") rice into the canoe with two small poles (called "knockers" or "flails") while the other paddles slowly or uses a push pole. For these groups, this harvest is an important cultural (and often economic) event. Named by the Ojibwe, the neighboring Omanoominii (the Menominee tribe, whose endonym is Mamaceqtaw, "the people") is named after this plant. Many places in Illinois, Indiana, Manitoba, Michigan, Minnesota, Ontario, Saskatchewan and Wisconsin are named after this plant, including Mahnomen, Minnesota, Menomonie, Wisconsin and many lakes and streams bearing the name "Rice", "Wildrice", "Wild Rice" or "Zizania".

Because of its nutritional value and taste, wild rice increased in popularity in the late 20th century, and commercial cultivation began in the US and Canada to supply the increased demand. In 1950 James and Gerald Godward started experimenting with wild rice in a one acre meadow north of Brainerd, Minnesota. They constructed dikes around the acre, dug ditches for drainage, and put in water controls. In the fall they tilled the soil, and in the spring of 1951 they acquired 50 pounds of seed from Wildlife Nurseries Inc. They scattered the seed onto the soil, disked it in, and flooded the paddy. Much to their surprise, since they were told that wild rice needs flowing water to grow well, the seeds spouted and produced a crop. James and Gerald continued to experiment with wild rice throughout the early 1950s and were the first to officially cultivate the previously wild crop.[8]

In the US, the main producers are California and Minnesota (where it is the official state grain) and it is mainly cultivated in paddy fields. In Canada, it is usually harvested from natural bodies of water; the largest producer is the province of Saskatchewan. Wild rice is also produced in Hungary and Australia. In Hungary, cultivation started in 1974 on the rice field of Szarvas.[citation needed] The Indian Rice Ltd. was founded in 1990. Now, the Hungarian wild rice growing and processing is managed only by this company. In Australia production is controlled by Ricewild Pty. Ltd. at Deniliquin in Southern New South Wales.[9]

Manchurian wild rice (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), gathered from the wild, was once an important grain in ancient China.[2]:165 Because of the difficulty of its domestication, it gradually lost importance with increasing population density, as its habitat was converted for use in raising rice.[citation needed] It is now very rare in the wild, and its use as a grain has completely disappeared in China, though it continues to be cultivated for its stems.[2]:165

Wild rice, cooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 423 kJ (101 kcal)
21.34 g
Sugars 0.73 g
Dietary fiber 1.8 g
0.34 g
3.99 g
Other constituents
Water 73.93 g

Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Cooked wild rice.

Nutrition and safety[edit]

Typically sold as a dried whole grain, wild rice is high in protein, the amino acid lysine and dietary fiber, and low in fat. Nutritional analysis shows wild rice to be second only to oats (quinoa was third) in protein content per 100 calories.[10] Like true rice, it does not contain gluten. It is also a good source of certain minerals and B vitamins. One cup of cooked wild rice provides 5% or more of the daily value of thiamin, riboflavin, iron, and potassium; 10% or more of the daily value of niacin, b6, folate, magnesium, phosphorus; 15% of zinc; and over 20% of manganese.[11]

Wild rice seeds can be infected by the highly toxic fungus ergot, which is dangerous if eaten. Infected grains have pink or purplish blotches or growths of the fungus, from the size of a seed to several times larger.[12]

Stems[edit]

Wild rice stems before and after peeling.

The swollen crisp white stems of Manchurian wild rice are grown as a vegetable, popular in East and Southeast Asia. The swelling occurs because of infection with the smut fungus Ustilago esculenta.[2]:165 The fungus prevents the plant from flowering, so the crop is propagated asexually, the infection being passed from mother plant to daughter plant. Harvest must be made between about 120 days and 170 days after planting, after the stem begins to swell but before the infection reaches its reproductive stage, when the stem will begin to turn black and eventually disintegrate into fungal spores.

The vegetable is especially common in China, where it is known as gaosun or jiaobai (茭白). Other names which may be used in English include coba and water bamboo. Importation of the vegetable to the United States is prohibited in order to protect North American species from the fungus.

Ornamental use[edit]

Wild rice is also grown as an ornamental plant in garden ponds.

Diseases[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kellogg, Elizabeth A. (30 January 2009). "The Evolutionary History of Ehrhartoideae, Oryzeae, and Oryza". Rice 2: 1–14. doi:10.1007/s12284-009-9022-2. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d Simoons, Frederick J. (1991). Food in China: a cultural and historical inquiry. CRC Press. p. 559. ISBN 978-0-8493-8804-0. 
  3. ^ Reinagel, Monica (19 April 1010). "What Type of Rice is Healthiest?". Retrieved 28 January 2010. 
  4. ^ Pollination Habits of Endangered Rice Revealed to Help Preservation Newswise, Retrieved on July 15, 2008.
  5. ^ NIWA: Stopping the freshwater wild rice invader
  6. ^ Minnesota statute 84.111, subd. 1.
  7. ^ Minnesota Public Radio: Wild rice at the center of a cultural dispute
  8. ^ Oelke, Ervin. Saga of the Grain. 2007. 29-33. Print.
  9. ^ http://www.ricewild.com.au
  10. ^ Lustgarten, Michael (2013-05-20). "Wild Rice: The Protein-Rich Grain that Almost Nobody Knows About!". Retrieved 2013-06-07. 
  11. ^ "Nutrition Facts: Wild Rice, cooked". 2013-06-07. Retrieved 2013-06-07. 
  12. ^ Peterson, Lee, A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants of Eastern and Central North America, p. 228, Houghton Mifflin Company, New York City, accessed 2010-09-06. ISBN 0-395-20445-3

13. ^ Oelke, Ervin. Saga of the Grain. 2007. 29-33. Print.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_rice — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1000000 videos foundNext > 

How to Cook Wild Rice

Learn how to cook wild rice with Chef Cesar from LearnToCook.com. For the complete recipe to accompany this video please visit http://learntocook.com/rice/ho...

White Earth Wild Rice Harvest- Manoominikewag

Manoomin, "The Food That Grows on the Water", Harvest Season 2013... Manoominike Giizis (The Ricing Moon) is a time of age-old traditions filled with memorie...

Minnestalgia Wild Rice Harvesting

Minnesota is one of the major producers of Wild Rice in the world. Wild Rice grows wild mostly in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Canada. This video will show you ...

Minnesota Wild Rice Processing

Processing wild rice by hand in Ojibwe tradition near the shores of Mille Lacs Lake.

How to Cook Wild Rice

(Does Cynthia really measure up?) Wild rice is a native North American whole grain harvested from an aquatic grass plant. It has higher concentration of B vi...

How To Boil Wild Rice

This guide shows you How To Boil Wild Rice. Watch this and other related films here - http://www.videojug.com/film/how-to-cook-wild-rice-2 Subscribe! http://...

Wild Rice: harvest and preparation from the waters of Maine

Wild rice (Zizania palustris) represents one of our important wild plant staples. We have learned the methods of harvesting and processing this wild grain, p...

Wild Rice Pilaf Recipe - Laura Vitale - Laura in the Kitchen Episode 499

To get this recipe with measurements: http://www.LauraintheKitchen.com PREVIOUS EPISODE: http://litk.us/previous NEXT EPISODE: http://litk.us/next Official F...

Harvesting Wild Rice

Harvesting Wild Rice out on Rice Lake, White Earth Minnesota. Ojibwe style!!

How to Make "Bloomed" Wild Rice Raw Vegan Style

Free raw and vegan recipes: http://www.leegaines.com/recipes SUBSCRIBE: http://bit.ly/subtolee Learn how to prepare wild rice without using any heat. This is...

1000000 videos foundNext > 

1199 news items

 
Agri-View
Mon, 15 Sep 2014 17:00:00 -0700

Reports on the abundance of wild rice across northern Wisconsin vary for the 2014 ricing season, but the season outlook is generally fair, according to state and tribal biologists. Overall, rice maturity will be later due to this year's weather ...
 
Indian Country Today Media Network
Sat, 13 Sep 2014 04:03:39 -0700

The annual Wild Rice Festival and the Last Dance at the Old Bowl Pow Wow will be held this Saturday, September 13th, in Lac du Flambeau. The festivities will kick-off with the Circle of Life 5K Walk/Run. Registration for the Walk/Run begins at 8:00 am.

Minneapolis Star Tribune

Minneapolis Star Tribune
Fri, 22 Aug 2014 16:27:30 -0700

That includes Minnesota's official state grain: wild rice. Wild rice harvesting opened last weekend, but most rice stands are not ripe yet. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources estimates that peak harvesting dates will be in early to mid ...
 
Sawyer County Record
Sat, 13 Sep 2014 07:36:01 -0700

With a cooler-than-average summer, featuring numerous rains and higher water levels on area rivers, flowages and lakes, wild rice is maturing later in the season, but the potential for good harvest remains. In most years, by the end of August much of ...
 
Lillie News
Wed, 10 Sep 2014 19:26:15 -0700

Cool fall days also herald the arrival of the wild rice season. August and September are the big harvest months for wild rice in Minnesota. In fact, September is National Rice Month. While many of us associate wild rice dishes with entertaining and the ...
 
WXPR
Thu, 11 Sep 2014 12:41:15 -0700

As Lac du Flambeau spokesperson Brandon Thoms explains, wild rice has been an important part of Ojibwe culture since the tribes first migrated to the area. A prophecy had foretold that the people should settle in a place where the food grows on the water.
 
Wjjq
Fri, 12 Sep 2014 07:15:00 -0700

The Lac du Flambeau will celebrate the wild rice harvest tomorrow while saying goodbye to a longtime landmark. The tribe are hosting their annual Wild Rice Festival which features harvesting demonstrations, along with cooking contests and a 5k run.
 
U-T San Diego
Fri, 12 Sep 2014 18:28:36 -0700

Wild rice, not a botanically true rice, rather the seed of a North American grass is rich, dark, robust and chewy, making a wonderful stuffing for squabs, turkey and other fowls. Finally, the “forbidden” Chinese black rice is firm yet tender and not ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Wild rice

You can talk about Wild rice with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!