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A widowed line: the last line of a paragraph, all alone on the other side of a page break.

At the end of the first paragraph, the word "lorem" is an orphan in the second sense: a very short final line that, because the rest of its line is white, creates an impression of two lines of whitespace between the paragraphs.

In typesetting, widows and orphans are words or short lines at the beginning or end of a paragraph, which are left dangling at the top or bottom of a column, separated from the rest of the paragraph. There is some disagreement about the definitions of widow and orphan; what one source calls a widow another calls an orphan.[1][2] The Chicago Manual of Style uses these definitions:[2]

Widow
  • A paragraph-ending line that falls at the beginning of the following page/column, thus separated from the rest of the text.
Orphan
  • A paragraph-opening line that appears by itself at the bottom of a page/column.
  • A word, part of a word, or very short line that appears by itself at the end of a paragraph. Orphans result in too much white space between paragraphs or at the bottom of a page.

Remembering the terms[edit]

A common mnemonic is "An orphan has no past; a widow has no future"[3] or "An orphan is left behind, whereas a widow must go on alone".

Another way is to think of orphans as generally being younger than widows; thus, orphaned lines happen first, at the start of paragraphs (affecting and stranding the first line), and widowed lines happen last, at the end of paragraphs (affecting and stranding the last line). Orphaned lines appear at the "birth" (start) of paragraphs; widowed lines appear at the "death" (end) of paragraphs.

Alternately, here's one more mnemonic device: "An orphan is alone from the beginning; a widow is alone at the end."

Guidelines[edit]

Writing guides, such as the Chicago Manual of Style, generally suggest that a manuscript should have no widows and orphans even when avoiding them results in additional space at the bottom of a page or column.[4] However, in its 16th edition (2011) the Chicago Manual of Style suggests a new convention in which pages may end with the first line of a new paragraph.[5] Some techniques for eliminating widows include:

  • Forcing a page break early, producing a shorter page;
  • Adjusting the leading, the space between lines of text (although such carding or feathering is usually frowned upon);
  • Adjusting the spacing between words to produce 'tighter' or 'looser' paragraphs;
  • Adjusting the hyphenation of words or characters within the paragraph;
  • Adjusting the page's margins;
  • Subtle scaling of the page, though too much non-uniform scaling can visibly distort the letters;
  • Rewriting a portion of the paragraph;
  • Reduce the tracking of the words;
  • Adding a pull quote to the text (more common for magazines); and
  • Adding a figure to the text, or resizing an existing figure.

An orphan is cured more easily, by inserting a blank line or forcing a page break to push the orphan line onto the next page to be with the rest of its paragraph. Such a cure may have to be undone if editing the text repositions the automatic page/column break.

Similarly, a single orphaned word at the end of a paragraph can be cured by forcing one or more words from the preceding line into the orphan's line. In web-publishing, this is typically accomplished by concatenating the words in question with a non-breaking space and, if available, by utilizing the orphans: and widows: attributes in Cascading Style Sheets. Sometimes it can also be useful to add non-breaking spaces to the first two (or few) short words of a paragraph to avoid that a single orphaned word is placed to the left or right of a picture or table, while the remainder of the text (with longer words) would only appear after the table.

Most full-featured word processors and page layout applications include a paragraph setting (or option) to automatically prevent widows and orphans. When the option is turned on, an orphan is forced to the top of the next page or column; and the line preceding a widow is forced to the next page or column with the last line.

In technical writing where a single source may be published in multiple formats, and now in HTML5 with the expectation of viewing content at different sizes/resolutions, use the word processor settings that automatically prevent widows and orphans. Manual overrides like inserted empty lines or extra spaces can cause unexpected white space in the middle of pages.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carter, Rob A widowed line, highlighted in yellow. Day, Ben. Meggs, Philip. Typographic Design: Form and Communication 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons: 1993. p. 263
  2. ^ a b Chicago Manual of Style
  3. ^ Bringhurst, Robert. The Elements of Typographic Style. 3rd ed. Hartley and Marks Publishers: 2004. pp. 43-44 ISBN 0-88179-206-3
  4. ^ Chicago Manual of Style, 3.11 Overall appearance: "A page should not begin with the last line of a paragraph unless it is full measure and should not end with the first line of a new paragraph."
  5. ^ Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition, 2.113: "A page should not begin with the last line of a paragraph unless it is full measure. (A page can, however, end with the first line of a new paragraph.)"

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Widows_and_orphans — Please support Wikipedia.
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577 news items

 
TheStreet.com
Thu, 24 Apr 2014 02:45:00 -0700

"Widows and orphans 1: momentum trading hedgies 0," the analysts joked. Interest rates are lower in 2014 with the 10-year Treasury yield down to 2.7% from about 3% at the start of the year. As a result, investors are still looking beyond bonds for ...
 
Patch.com
Sat, 05 Apr 2014 18:00:11 -0700

Am hereby introducing myself Rev Michael J.Sikaonga as a church planter in rural Lusaka ,Zambia .I have more than 7 churches in rural areas preaching to Vulnerable people for than 8 years where Widows and Orphans are more than 400 but we are ...
 
SLBC
Sun, 13 Apr 2014 00:51:23 -0700

Steps have been taken to upgrade the widows and orphans pension fund and expedite the relevant payments. The Department of Pensions said that around 250,000 families now get this facility and in the future around 800,000 will become eligible for this ...
 
DAWN.com
Thu, 24 Apr 2014 18:30:00 -0700

Some time back, Dawn carried the report of a massive fraud carried out by a group of clerics and no less than 40 prayer leaders who allegedly misled several people, including widows and orphans, to invest in a supposedly Islamic banking system of ...
 
Forsyth County News Online
Thu, 24 Apr 2014 21:15:44 -0700

... on the graves of fallen soldiers. The first of these groups began in Columbus in 1866. Eventually, they expanded their work to include establishing homes for indigent veterans, widows and orphans, forming the United Daughters of the Confederacy in ...
 
Florida Times-Union
Thu, 24 Apr 2014 08:00:00 -0700

The league volunteers aid and assistance to Marine and Navy Corpsman widows and orphans and observes historical Marine anniversaries. For more information, e-mail MarineCorpsLeagueKingsBay@gmail.com. Kings Bay Sub Ball April 26. The 114th ...
 
Daily Beast
Thu, 24 Apr 2014 02:45:00 -0700

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Jerusalem Post
Thu, 24 Apr 2014 05:11:15 -0700

The Torah emphasizes the duty to care for widows and orphans because they tend to be the weaker members of society. Widows with means could manage on their own, but orphans, and in this case children bereft of both parents, find themselves in an ...
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