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Not to be confused with Masonic Widows and Orphans Home.
A widowed line: the last line of a paragraph, all alone on the other side of a page break.

At the end of the first paragraph, the word "lorem" is an orphan in the second sense: a very short final line that, because the rest of its line is white, creates an impression of two lines of whitespace between the paragraphs.

In typesetting, widows and orphans are words or short lines at the beginning or end of a paragraph, which are left dangling at the top or bottom of a column, separated from the rest of the paragraph. There is some disagreement about the definitions of widow and orphan; what one source calls a widow another calls an orphan.[1][2] The Chicago Manual of Style uses these definitions:[2]

Widow
  • A paragraph-ending line that falls at the beginning of the following page or column, thus separated from the rest of the text.
Orphan
  • A paragraph-opening line that appears by itself at the bottom of a page or column.
  • A word, part of a word, or very short line that appears by itself at the end of a paragraph. Orphans result in too much white space between paragraphs or at the bottom of a page.

Remembering the terms[edit]

A common mnemonic is "An orphan has no past; a widow has no future"[3] or "An orphan is left behind, whereas a widow must go on alone".

Another way to think is that orphaned lines appear at the "birth" (start) of paragraphs; widowed lines appear at the "death" (end) of paragraphs.

Alternately, here's one more mnemonic device: "An orphan is alone from the beginning; a widow is alone at the end."

Guidelines[edit]

Writing guides, such as the Chicago Manual of Style, generally suggest that a manuscript should have no widows and orphans even if the result of avoiding them is additional space at the bottom of a page or column.[4] However, in its 16th edition (2011) the Chicago Manual of Style suggests a new convention in which pages may end with the first line of a new paragraph.[5]

Some techniques for eliminating widows include:

  • Forcing a page break early, producing a shorter page;
  • Adjusting the leading, the space between lines of text (although such carding or feathering is usually frowned upon);
  • Adjusting the spacing between words to produce 'tighter' or 'looser' paragraphs;
  • Adjusting the hyphenation of words or characters within the paragraph;
  • Adjusting the page's margins;
  • Subtle scaling of the page, though too much non-uniform scaling can visibly distort the letters;
  • Rewriting a portion of the paragraph;
  • Reduce the tracking of the words;
  • Adding a pull quote to the text (more common for magazines); and
  • Adding a figure to the text, or resizing an existing figure.

An orphan is cured more easily, by inserting a blank line or forcing a page break to push the orphan line onto the next page to be with the rest of its paragraph. Such a cure may have to be undone if editing the text repositions the automatic page or column break.

Similarly, a single orphaned word at the end of a paragraph can be cured by forcing one or more words from the preceding line into the orphan's line. In web-publishing, this is typically accomplished by concatenating the words in question with a non-breaking space and, if available, by utilizing the orphans: and widows: attributes in Cascading Style Sheets. Sometimes it can also be useful to add non-breaking spaces to the first two (or few) short words of a paragraph to avoid that a single orphaned word is placed to the left or right of a picture or table, while the remainder of the text (with longer words) would only appear after the table.

Most full-featured word processors and page layout applications include a paragraph setting (or option) to automatically prevent widows and orphans. When the option is turned on, an orphan is forced to the top of the next page or column; and the line preceding a widow is forced to the next page or column with the last line.

In technical writing where a single source may be published in multiple formats, and now in HTML5 with the expectation of viewing content at different sizes or resolutions, use the word processor settings that automatically prevent widows and orphans. Manual overrides like inserted empty lines or extra spaces can cause unexpected white space in the middle of pages.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carter, Rob A widowed line, highlighted in yellow. Day, Ben. Meggs, Philip. Typographic Design: Form and Communication 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons: 1993. p. 263
  2. ^ a b Chicago Manual of Style
  3. ^ Bringhurst, Robert. The Elements of Typographic Style. 3rd ed. Hartley and Marks Publishers: 2004. pp. 43-44 ISBN 0-88179-206-3
  4. ^ Chicago Manual of Style, 3.11 Overall appearance: "A page should not begin with the last line of a paragraph unless it is full measure and should not end with the first line of a new paragraph."
  5. ^ Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition, 2.113: "A page should not begin with the last line of a paragraph unless it is full measure. (A page can, however, end with the first line of a new paragraph.)"

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Widows_and_orphans — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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3619 news items

The Guardian

The Guardian
Fri, 13 Feb 2015 23:52:30 -0800

Widows and Orphans is powerfully realistic. Francombe life is often comic and sometimes absurd, but everything has its price. Geoffrey may leaven his rapacity with charisma and read Voltaire, but he can't get the moral free pass he wants. Like a sweet ...
 
The News International
Tue, 24 Feb 2015 18:03:45 -0800

He admitted that the NPF had to refuse plots to many widows and orphans of martyrs because of non-availability of plots. However, he failed to explain why a plot was offered to a senior bureaucrat when hundreds of deserving families were refused plots.
 
The Hans India
Mon, 02 Feb 2015 21:15:00 -0800

Couple of shivering cold waves (below 10 degrees) lashed one of the poorest and northernmost districts, Nilphamari in the month of January, 2015. Cold breeze and bone-chilling wind with harsh conditions of little heat in homes and less clothing around ...

Chabad.org

Chabad.org
Sun, 01 Mar 2015 09:05:43 -0800

“Family milestones can be much more stressful and difficult, both financially and emotionally, without a parent,” explains Rabbi Amram Blau, director of Colel Chabad's Widows and Orphans Project in Israel, known at Chesed Menachem Mendel.

Bexhill Observer

Bexhill Observer
Thu, 19 Feb 2015 03:03:45 -0800

Widows and Orphans may be fiction but the very title reveals an insight into the workings of newspapers (“widows” and “orphans” are print trade jargon for ill-placed type). The setting might be the fictional Sussex town of “Francombe” but, rather like ...
 
Marietta Daily Journal
Sat, 28 Feb 2015 01:00:00 -0800

Jackson bought Family Christian bookstores and created Family Christian Entertainment as a way to support widows and orphans through the production of movies. The profit made from “90 Minutes in Heaven” will benefit charities associated with widows and ...
 
Russia Beyond the Headlines
Sat, 28 Feb 2015 01:56:15 -0800

How many widows and orphans now remain, who have lost, because of their fidelity, fathers and husbands of our common Mother Russia!.. We cannot leave them without our heartfelt participation and without help in the provision of bread, clothes and fuel.

Arutz Sheva

Arutz Sheva
Mon, 16 Feb 2015 07:33:45 -0800

Since its founding, Colel Chabad has increased its programs to include year round assistance to widows and orphans, providing food, clothing, as well as educational and social services for close to 300 widows and over 600 orphans annually. This year's ...
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