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Welfarism is a form of consequentialism. Like all forms of consequentialism, welfarism is based on the premise that actions, policies, and/or rules should be evaluated on the basis of their consequences. Welfarism is the view that the morally significant consequences are impacts on human (or animal) welfare. There are many different understandings of human welfare, but the term "welfarism" is usually associated with the economic conception of welfare.[citation needed] Economists usually think of individual welfare in terms of utility functions. Social welfare can be conceived as an aggregation of individual utilities or utility functions. Welfarism can be contrasted to other consequentialist theories, such as classical utilitarianism, which takes utility among agents as directly accessible and measurable.

Welfarist views have been especially influential in the law and economics movement.[citation needed] Steven Shavell and Louis Kaplow have argued in an influential book, Fairness versus Welfare that welfare should be the exclusive criteria by which legal analysts evaluate legal policy choices.[1]

Penal welfarism[edit]

Penal welfarism is a theory in the field of criminal justice, which holds that prisoners should have the right and the positive motivation to gain opportunities for advancement within the criminal justice system.[2]

Outcome utilitarianism, welfarism, and sum-ranking[edit]

Sen (1979) provides the following two definitions:

"Welfarism: The judgment of the relative goodness of alternative states of affairs must be based exclusively on, and taken as an increasing function of, the respective collections of individual utilities in these states."

"Sum-ranking: One collection of individual utilities is at least as good as another if and only if it has at least as large a sum total."

Sen makes the statement: "It is easily checked that welfarism and sum-ranking together are exactly equivalent to outcome utilitarianism." He then proceeds to criticize outcome utilitarianism by criticizing each of its two components: first sum-ranking, and then welfarism.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Louis Kaplow and Steven Shavell, Fairness versus Welfare (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press 2002) ISBN 0-674-00622-4
  2. ^ Garland - the crisis of penal modernism

Bibliography[edit]

  • Amartya Sen, 'Utilitarianism and Welfarism' in The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 76, No. 9 pp. 463-489. 1979.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welfarism — Please support Wikipedia.
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988 news items

Breitbart News

Breitbart News
Fri, 21 Nov 2014 09:37:30 -0800

The Pope also noted that the economic and social crises can produce fear and disorientation, leading us to think that the situation is so heavy we cannot do anything, instead of taking the initiative. “Taking the initiative means overcoming welfarism ...

Telegraph.co.uk

Telegraph.co.uk
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 04:00:00 -0800

An interesting look at the mean scores on issues such as welfarism in the book, Sex, Lies and Ballot Box, edited by Philip Cowley and Rob Ford, paints a different picture to the one we're used to, depending on how you wish to read the results.

South China Morning Post (subscription)

South China Morning Post (subscription)
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 20:30:00 -0800

Family and community values got sidelined in the rush for free market ideology and increasing welfarism. If the future of national growth comes from vibrant cities, then city growth must thrive on vibrant families and communities. After the protests ...
 
Open Democracy
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 02:30:00 -0800

This should go beyond its current articulation of welfarism, the poor and low pay, and include structural issues and power, from land to corporate capture and the super-rich. - Tackle our weak democracy. Scotland has historically had an elite run ...
 
Huffington Post (blog)
Mon, 15 Dec 2014 05:07:30 -0800

They want more Patriot Act, more state killing without due process, more NDAA, more curtailments of speech, more invasions of privacy, more welfarism -- especially corporate , and more militarism. In 2012, Romney and Obama both fitted that description.

Business Standard

Business Standard
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 08:41:15 -0800

Most governments, including the United Front of the mid-1990s, enjoy a one-year honeymoon of goodwill from the intelligentsia and the chatterati before the sheer ungovernability of India causes disenchantment and the urge for change. In that sense, the ...
 
Hindu Business Line
Fri, 12 Dec 2014 01:45:00 -0800

Both Clinton and Blair recognised the fundamental rightward economic shift in their countries, pulled their parties away from welfarism and trade unions towards market-friendly policies, refreshed the packaging with youth and focused squarely on ...
 
Wall Street Journal
Mon, 08 Dec 2014 16:22:24 -0800

That's something U.S. states that experiment with Hollywood welfarism have been learning the hard way. Thirty-seven states this year offered $1.4 billion in tax subsidies to the movie industry, according to an April report from the California ...
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