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Welfarism is a form of consequentialism. Like all forms of consequentialism, welfarism is based on the premise that actions, policies, and/or rules should be evaluated on the basis of their consequences. Welfarism is the view that the morally significant consequences are impacts on human (or animal) welfare. There are many different understandings of human welfare, but the term "welfarism" is usually associated with the economic conception of welfare.[citation needed] Economists usually think of individual welfare in terms of utility functions. Social welfare can be conceived as an aggregation of individual utilities or utility functions. Welfarism can be contrasted to other consequentialist theories, such as classical utilitarianism, which takes utility among agents as directly accessible and measurable.

Welfarist views have been especially influential in the law and economics movement.[citation needed] Steven Shavell and Louis Kaplow have argued in an influential book, Fairness versus Welfare that welfare should be the exclusive criteria by which legal analysts evaluate legal policy choices.[1]

Penal welfarism[edit]

Penal welfarism is a theory in the study of criminal justice which holds that prisoners should have the right and the positive motivation to gain opportunities for advancement within the criminal justice system.[2]

Outcome utilitarianism, welfarism, and sum-ranking[edit]

Sen (1979) provides the following two definitions:

"Welfarism: The judgment of the relative goodness of alternative states of affairs must be based exclusively on, and taken as an increasing function of, the respective collections of individual utilities in these states."

"Sum-ranking: One collection of individual utilities is at least as good as another if and only if it has at least as large a sum total."

Sen makes the statement: "It is easily checked that welfarism and sum-ranking together are exactly equivalent to outcome utilitarianism." He then proceeds to criticize outcome utilitarianism by criticizing each of its two components: first sum-ranking, and then welfarism.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Louis Kaplow and Steven Shavell, Fairness versus Welfare (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press 2002) ISBN 0-674-00622-4
  2. ^ Garland - the crisis of penal modernism


  • Amartya Sen, 'Utilitarianism and Welfarism' in The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 76, No. 9 pp. 463-489. 1979.

External links[edit]

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Mon, 23 Mar 2015 02:33:45 -0700

So I departed from welfarism because it sapped a people's self-reliance and their desire to excel and succeed. I also abandoned the model of industrialisation through import substitution. When most of the Third World was deeply suspicious of ...


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Sun, 29 Mar 2015 18:07:30 -0700

LKY, who the Economist calls the 'wise man of the east' was in India in 2005 for the Jawahar Lal Nehru Lecture where he shared how Singapore grew by inviting foreign investors in an era that India was occupied with welfarism. "When most of the Third ...

Daily Mail

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Fri, 27 Mar 2015 17:20:49 -0700

After visiting 11 countries, from Australia to the USA, from Sweden to Singapore, it is impossible to avoid the conclusion that our addiction to welfarism — far from promoting economic security, decent standards of living, and individual prosperity ...

Calcutta Telegraph

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Sun, 29 Mar 2015 11:22:30 -0700

Kejriwal's colleagues and the AAP's growing army of fellow travellers were impressed by his ability to mobilize people on issues that had nothing explicitly to do with caste and community - corruption, mohalla democracy, populist welfarism - and they ...

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Fri, 27 Mar 2015 06:15:38 -0700

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Mon, 23 Mar 2015 09:30:00 -0700

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