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Vulnerability refers to the inability to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. A window of vulnerability (WoV) is a time frame within which defensive measures are reduced, compromised or lacking[citation needed]

Common applications[edit]

In relation to hazards and disasters, vulnerability is a concept that links the relationship that people have with their environment to social forces and institutions and the cultural values that sustain and contest them. “The concept of vulnerability expresses the multi-dimensionality of disasters by focusing attention on the totality of relationships in a given social situation which constitute a condition that, in combination with environmental forces, produces a disaster”.[1]

It's also the extent to which changes could harm a system, or to which the community can be affected by the impact of a hazard or exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally: "we were in a vulnerable position".

Research[edit]

Within the body of literature related to vulnerability, major research streams include questions of methodology, such as: measuring and assessing vulnerability, including finding appropriate indicators for various aspects of vulnerability, up- and down scaling methods, and participatory methods.[2][clarification needed] Vulnerability research covers a complex, multidisciplinary field including development and poverty studies, public health, climate studies, security studies, engineering, geography, political ecology, and disaster and risk management. This research is of importance and interest for organizations trying to reduce vulnerability – especially as related to poverty and other Millennium Development Goals. Many institutions are conducting interdisciplinary research on vulnerability. A forum that brings many of the current researchers on vulnerability together is the Expert Working Group (EWG).1 Researchers are currently working to refine definitions of “vulnerability”, measurement and assessment methods, and effective communication of research to decision makers.[3]

Types[edit]

Social[edit]

In its sense, social vulnerability is one dimension of vulnerability to multiple stressors and shocks, including abuse, social exclusion and natural hazards. Social vulnerability refers to the inability of people, organizations, and societies to withstand adverse impacts from multiple stressors to which they are exposed. These impacts are due in part to characteristics inherent in social interactions, institutions, and systems of cultural values.[4][5]

Cognitive[edit]

A cognitive vulnerability, in cognitive psychology, is an erroneous belief, cognitive bias, or pattern of thought that is believed to predispose the individual to psychological problems.[6] It is in place before the symptoms of psychological disorders start to appear; after the individual encounters a stressful experience, the cognitive vulnerability shapes a maladaptive response that may lead to a psychological disorder.[6] In psychopathology, cognitive vulnerability is constructed from schema models, hopelessness models, and attachment theory.[7] Attentional bias is one mechanism leading to faulty cognitive bias that leads to cognitive vulnerability. Allocating a danger level to a threat depends on the urgency or intensity of the threshold. Anxiety is not associated with selective orientation.[8]

Military[edit]

In military terminology, vulnerability is a subset of survivability, the others being susceptibility and recoverability. Vulnerability is defined in various ways depending on the nation and service arm concerned, but in general it refers to the near-instantaneous effects of a weapon attack. In aviation it is defined as the inability of an aircraft to withstand the damage caused by the man-made hostile environment.[9] In some definitions, recoverability (damage control, firefighting, restoration of capability) is included in vulnerability. Some military services develop their own concept of vulnerability.[10]

Invulnerability[edit]

Invulnerability is a common feature found in video games. It makes the player impervious to pain, damage or loss of health. It can be found in the form of "power-ups" or cheats;when activated via cheats, it is often referred to as "God Mode". Generally, it does not protect the player from certain instant-death hazards, most notably "bottomless" pits from which, even if the player were to survive the fall, they would be unable to escape. As a rule, invulnerability granted by power-ups is temporary, and wears off after a set amount of time, while invulnerability cheats, once activated, remain in effect until deactivated, or the end of the level is reached. Depending on the game in question, invulnerability to damage may or may not protect the player from non-damage effects, such as being immobilized or sent flying.

In comic books, some superheroes are considered invulnerable, though this usually only applies up to a certain level. (e.g. Superman is invulnerable to physical attacks from normal people but not to the extremely powerful attacks of Doomsday).

In mythology talismans charms and amulets were created by magic users for the purpose of making the wearer immune to injury from both mystic and mundane weapons. [11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bankoff, Greg etal. (2004). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. London: Earth scan. 
  2. ^ Villagran, Juan Carlos. "“Vulnerability: A conceptual and methodological review." SOURCE. No. 2/2006. Bonn, Germany.
  3. ^ Birkmann, Joern (editor). 2006. Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards – Towards Disaster Resilient Societies. UNU Press.
  4. ^ Luis Flores Ballesteros. "What determines a disaster?" 54 Pesos May. 2008:54 Pesos 11 Sep 2008. http://54pesos.org/2008/09/11/what-determines-a-disaster/
  5. ^ See also Daniel R. Curtis, 'Pre-industrial societies and strategies for the exploitation of resources. A theoretical framework for understanding why some settlements are resilient and some settlements are vulnerable to crisis', http://www.academia.edu/1932627/Pre-industrial_societies_and_strategies_for_the_exploitation_of_resources._A_theoretical_framework_for_understanding_why_some_settlements_are_resilient_and_some_settlements_are_vulnerable_to_crisis
  6. ^ a b Riskind, John H.; Black, David (2005). "Cognitive Vulnerability". In Freeman, Arthur, Felgoise, Stephanie H., et al. Encyclopedia of Cognitive Behavior Therapy. New York: Springer. pp. 122–26. ISBN 9781429411738. 
  7. ^ Ingram, Rick (February 2003). "Origins of Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression". Cognitive Therapy and Research 27 (1): 77–88. ISSN 0147-5916. 
  8. ^ Mathews, Andrew; MacLeod, Colin (1 April 2005). "Cognitive Vulnerability to Emotional Disorders". Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1 (1): 167–195. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143916. 
  9. ^ Ball, Robert (2003). The Fundamentals of Aircraft Combat Survivability Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition. AIAA Education Series. p. 603. ISBN 1-56347-582-0. 
  10. ^ Warship Vulnerability
  11. ^ William Godwin (1876). "Lives of the Necromancers". p. 17. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulnerability — Please support Wikipedia.
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Ravalli Republic
Fri, 18 Apr 2014 09:34:10 -0700

Some of my conceptualizations on vulnerability are the natural product of motherhood. Watching your child attempt to do something that makes him very vulnerable elicits the strangest kind of fear and trepidation in the deepest corner of a mother's gut.

Firstpost

Huffington Post
Wed, 16 Apr 2014 10:22:38 -0700

Monday, 7th of April is a day that many technology people are going to remember, probably for life. It's the day when a bug dubbed "The Heartbleed Bug" was revealed to the masses. Two thirds of all of the websites in the world use OpenSSL, this ...
 
MIT Technology Review
Wed, 16 Apr 2014 07:01:43 -0700

Hidden Vulnerability Discovered in the World's Airline Network. The global network of links between the world's airports looks robust but contains a hidden weakness that could lead to entire regions of the planet being cut off. In April 2010, an ...

Slate Magazine

Forbes
Thu, 10 Apr 2014 14:25:54 -0700

Several days ago, after researchers reported a severe Internet security vulnerability, near hysteric articles began to appear in the press – some even recommending that people change all of their Internet passwords or stay off the Internet altogether ...

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Dark Reading
Thu, 17 Apr 2014 10:48:45 -0700

Heartbleed, the recently spotted vulnerability in OpenSSL, could allow attackers to steal websites' private keys. Google engineer Neel Mehta and the Finnish security firm Codenomicon discovered the flaw separately this month. But information about the ...
 
Yahoo News
Fri, 11 Apr 2014 13:17:06 -0700

The National Security Agency had been aware of the recently discovered Heartbleed vulnerability for more than two years and did nothing to inform consumers, according to a new report from Bloomberg News. Citing anonymous sources, Bloomberg claimed ...
 
CCTV
Thu, 17 Apr 2014 23:33:45 -0700

A new cyber security bug discovered last week, nicknamed Heart-Bleed, has been described as the greatest threat to ever surface on the internet. Major portal websites in China have been implementing fixes, but no one knows how the extent of the damage.
 
Fox News
Fri, 11 Apr 2014 08:21:00 -0700

“While there have not been any reported attacks or malicious incidents involving this particular vulnerability at this time, it is still possible that malicious actors in cyberspace could exploit un-patched systems,” the department said in a statement ...
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