digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Model of the Große Halle.

The Volkshalle (“People's Hall”), also called Große Halle (“Great Hall”) or Ruhmeshalle (“Hall of Glory”), was a huge domed monumental building planned by Adolf Hitler and his architect Albert Speer for Germania. The project was never accomplished.

The word Volk had a particular resonance in Nazi thinking. The term völkisch movement, which can be translated to English as "the people's movement" or "the folkish movement", derives from Volk but also implies an otherworldly and eternal essence. Before the First World War, völkisch thought had developed an attitude to the arts as the German Volk; that is, from an organically linked Aryan or Nordic community (Volksgemeinschaft), racially unpolluted and with its roots in the German soil of the Heimat (homeland).

Hitler and Hadrian's Pantheon[edit]

The Volkshalle's Great Dome can be seen at the top of this model of Hitler's plan for Berlin. For a location comparison, the Brandenburg Gate would have been located right on the street in front of the Volkshalle.

Just as Augustus's house on the Palatine was connected to the temple of Apollo, so Hitler's palace was to have been connected by a cryptoporticus to the Volkshalle, which filled the entire north side of the forum. This truly enormous building was, according to Albert Speer,[1] inspired by Hadrian's Pantheon, which Hitler visited privately on May 7, 1938. But Hitler's interest in and admiration for the Pantheon predated this visit, since his sketch of the Volkshalle dates from about 1925.[2] Hermann Giesler records a conversation he had with Hitler in the winter of 1939/40, when Hitler was recalling his “Roman Impressions” (Römische Impressionen):

From the time I experienced this building – no description, picture or photograph did it justice – I became interested in its history […] For a short while I stood in this space (the rotunda) – what majesty! I gazed at the large open oculus and saw the universe and sensed what had given this space the name Pantheon – God and the world are one.[3]

Hitler's impressions of the Roman Pantheon were revived when on June 24, 1940 he made a tour of selected buildings in Paris, with the German architects Albert Speer, Hermann Giesler and Arno Breker, including the Paris Panthéon, which seems to have disappointed him. His disappointment is independently recorded by Giesler[4] and Breker.[5]

The sketch of the Volkshalle given by Hitler to Speer shows a traditional gabled pronaos supported by ten columns, a shallow rectangular intermediate block and behind it the domed main building.[6] Giesler notes that the pronaos of the temple in Hitler's sketch is reminiscent of Hadrian's Pantheon and of the style of Friedrich Gilly or Karl Friedrich Schinkel.[7] However, there was little about Speer's elaboration of the sketch that might be termed Doric, except perhaps for the triglyphs in the entablature,[8] supported by the geminated red granite columns with their Egyptian palm-leaf capitals, previously employed by Speer in the portico outside Hitler's study on the garden side of the new Chancellery.[6]

Speer's Monster-Building (German: Monsterbau) was to be the capital's most important and impressive building in terms of its size and symbolism. Visually it was to have been the architectural centrepiece of Berlin as the world capital (Welthauptstadt). Its dimensions were so large that it would have dwarfed every other structure in Berlin, including those on the north-south axis itself. The oculus of the building's dome, 46 metres (151 ft) in diameter, would have accommodated the entire rotunda of Hadrian's Pantheon and the dome of St. Peter's Basilica. The dome of the Volkshalle was to rise from a massive granite podium 315 by 315 metres (1,033 ft × 1,033 ft) and 74 metres (243 ft) high, to a total inclusive height of 290 metres (950 ft). The diameter of the dome, 250 metres (820 ft), was to be exceeded, much to Speer's annoyance, by the diameter of Giesler's new domed railway station at the east end of Munich's east-west axis. It was to be 15 metres (49 ft) greater in diameter than Speer's Volkshalle.[9]

The resemblance of the Volkshalle to the Pantheon is far more obvious when their interiors are compared. The large niche (50 metres high by 28 metres wide) at the north end of the Volkshalle was to be surfaced with gold mosaic and to enclose an eagle 24 metres (79 ft) high, beneath which was situated Hitler's tribunal. From here he would address 180,000 listeners, some standing in the central round arena, others seated in three concentric tiers of seats crowned by one hundred marble pillars, 24 metres (79 ft) high, which rose to meet the base of the coffered ceiling suspended from steel girders sheathed on the exterior with copper.[10]

The three concentric tiers of seats enclosing a circular arena 140 metres (460 ft) in diameter owe nothing to the Pantheon but resemble the seating arrangements in Ludwig Ruff's Congress Hall at Nuremberg, which was modeled on the Colosseum.[11] Other features of the Volkshalle's interior are clearly indebted to Hadrian's Pantheon: the coffered dome, the pillared zone, which here is continuous, except where it flanks the huge niche on the north side. The second zone in the Pantheon, consisting of blind windows with intervening pilasters, is represented in Speer's building by a zone above the pillars consisting of uniform, oblong shallow recesses. The coffered dome rests on this zone. The design and size of the external decoration of this Volkshalle, are all exceptional and call for explanations that do not apply to community halls planned for Nazi fora in other German cities.[12]

The temple-like nature of the domed building was noted by Speer,[1] who surmised that the building was ultimately intended for public worship of Hitler, his successors and the German Reich, that is, it was to be a dynastic temple/palace complex of the kind Augustus built on the Palatine, where his modest house was connected to the temple of Apollo.[13]

Hitler's aspirations to Hegemony over Europe and the establishment of the New Order, already evident from architectural and decorative features of the new Chancellery, are even more clearly expressed here. External symbols suggest that the domed hall was where Hitler as cosmocrat (Herr der Welt) would appear before his Herrenvolk: On top of the dome's lantern was the German heraldic eagle clutching the globe of the Earth (Erdball). This symbolism was well known in imperial Roman iconography, for example, the restored statue of Claudius holding a ball and eagle in his right hand. The vast dome, on which it rested, as with Hadrian's Pantheon, symbolically represented the vault of the sky spanning Germany's empire. The globe on the dome's lantern was enhanced and emphasized by two monumental sculptures by Breker, each 15 metres high, which flanked the north façade of the building: at its west end Atlas supporting the heavens, at its east end Tellus supporting the Earth. Both mythological figures were chosen by Hitler himself.[10] Giesler says that Speer was wrong to represent the Volkshalle as a symbol of World Domination (Weltherrschaft). Speer in his Playboy magazine interview states:

Hitler believed that as centuries passed, his huge domed assembly hall would acquire great holy significance and become a hallowed shrine as important to National Socialism as St. Peters in Rome is to Roman Catholicism. Such cultism was at the root of the entire plan.

Nevertheless, Giesler remarked that Hitler never made plans for world domination and that to suggest as much is not only nonsense (Unsinn) but 'Speer Rubbish' (Speerlicher Quatsch).

In fiction[edit]

Robert Harris' 1992 novel Fatherland takes place in an alternate history in which Nazi Germany won WWII and in which the Volkshalle was actually built. Several of the book's scenes take place in and around it. Harris carefully used Speer's plans, with the building being depicted as being 300 m (1,000 ft) high.

As depicted in the book, the building would indeed have had its own "weather," with the breathing and perspiration of 150,000 occupants precipitating in the high dome; but rather than consider this a problem, Nazi propaganda would boast of it. In a real-world corollary to the fiction concerning the Volkshalle, the indoors condensate characteristic imagined for the Volkshalle has actually been observed happening within the Kennedy Space Center's immense Vehicle Assembly Building, if its own massive dehumidification systems have not been turned on.[14]

The Volkshalle also appears in the alternate history novel In the Presence of Mine Enemies by Harry Turtledove.

Volkshalle also appears in Wolfenstein: The New Order's alternate 1960s.

See also[edit]

Similar architecture commissioned by Joseph Stalin for Moscow:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Speer, Erinnerungen, 167.
  2. ^ Giesler 325.
  3. ^ Giesler 30.
  4. ^ Giesler 391.
  5. ^ Breker 106.
  6. ^ a b Scobie 110.
  7. ^ Giesler 326.
  8. ^ Larsson 79.
  9. ^ Giesler 177.
  10. ^ a b Speer, Erinnerungen, 168.
  11. ^ Scobie 80.
  12. ^ Scobie 114.
  13. ^ Speer, Erinnerungen, 56.
  14. ^ NASA (2006). "Glossary". NASA. Archived from the original on November 1, 2007. Retrieved October 8, 2009. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Breker, Arno (1970). Patis, Hitler et moi. Paris: Presses de la Cité. 
  • Giesler, Hermann (1977). Ein anderer Hitler: Bericht seines Architekten: Erlebnisse, Gespräche, Reflexionen (2nd ed.). Leoni am Starnberger See: Druffel. ISBN 3-8061-0820-X. 
  • Larsson, Lars Olof (1998). Albert Speer: Plan de Berlin, 1937-1943. [S.I.]: Aam. ISBN 2-87143-034-9. 
  • O'Donnell, James (1978). The Bunker. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80958-3. 
  • Scobie, Alexander (1990). Hitler's State Architecture: The Impact of Classical Antiquity. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-00691-9. 
  • Speer, Albert (1996). Erinnerungen. Frankfurt am Main: Ullstein. ISBN 3-550-07616-9. 
  • Speer, Albert (1970). Inside The Third Reich. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-380-00071-7. 

Coordinates: 52°31′14″N 13°22′19″E / 52.52056°N 13.37194°E / 52.52056; 13.37194


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volkshalle — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
658 videos foundNext > 

Germania / Volkshalle - 3D Animation

Full credit for this video goes to its original creator, who is not myself. I found it a while ago, was inspired by it, and saved it at the time. More recent...

Ruhmeshalle / Volkshalle - Architektur

Germania, ride from Triumphal arch to Volkshalle

Player in game Germania ( http://germania2.org ) riding his bike from Triumphal arch to Volkshalle (Great dome) to hear Hitler speak at night.

Volkshalle Concept

I didn't make the animation. Thought it was interesting and added Wagner. Hey, it fits!

Minecraft Volkshalle Build

Quick video showing building in progress and fly around of Volkshalle. Sorry about the frame rate, I've only got Quicktime for screen capture and it's a bit ...

Berlin Tales Project - Volkshalle

Can - Live at Volkshalle Watzenborn-Steinberg, Gießen, Germany (October 22 or 23, 1971)

Full concert. This is one of the earliest circulating Can concerts. 1. Halleluhwah 0:00 2. Paperhouse 3. Full Moon on the Highway 4. Lies 5. Hakucho 6. Convu...

Grobschnitt - Live 2010 Part 2/3 (Menden Lendringsen Volkshalle 15.05.2010)

Grobschnitt Rockpommels Land 15.05.10 Menden Lendringsen Volkshalle 19:30 Uhr Grobschnitt gehört schon seit vielen Jahren zu den angesagtesten Live-Acts in d...

Anröchte Volkshalle 1982

Ein toller Blick auf den Platz vor der Volkshalle in Anröchte (heute Bürgerhaus), so wie er damals aussah. Ja, es gab dort tatsächlich einen kleinen Fußballp...

Grobschnitt - Live 2010 Part 1/3 (Menden Lendringsen Volkshalle 15.05.2010)

Grobschnitt Rockpommels Land 15.05.10 Menden Lendringsen Volkshalle 19:30 Uhr Grobschnitt gehört schon seit vielen Jahren zu den angesagtesten Live-Acts in d...

658 videos foundNext > 

16 news items

Neue Westfälische

Neue Westfälische
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 15:07:30 -0700

Jahrhundert, sondern auf sehr viel neuere Relikte einer "Volkshalle" - eines Vergnügungs- und Tanzlokals. Die Spuren stammten aus dem 18. und 19. Jahrhundert, berichtet Grabungsleiterin Julia Hallenkamp-Lumpe. Die "Volkshalle", seit 1896 im Besitz des ...

Oberhessische Zeitung Alsfeld

Oberhessische Zeitung Alsfeld
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 22:26:15 -0700

... übertraf die Neuauflage jetzt die Erwartungen. Und das, obwohl das Wetter die Veranstalter vor Herausforderungen stellte: Unmittelbar vor Anpfiff der Spiele setzten heftige Regenfälle ein, das Ganze musste vom Hartplatz in die Volkshalle verlegt ...

mittelhessen.de

mittelhessen.de
Mon, 18 Aug 2014 09:35:10 -0700

Unser Ziel ist es, Menschen unterschiedlicher Generationen zusammenzubringen, und zwar hier an diesem Ort. Den Raum in der Volkshalle haben wir selbst gestaltet, weil wir gesagt haben, wir brauchen eine Begegnungsstätte in der Volkshalle. Wir wollen ...

mittelhessen.de

mittelhessen.de
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 04:22:09 -0700

Abends wurde bei Musik und Tanz in der Volkshalle die Völkerverständigung zwischen Kubach und Pakistan vertieft. Dabei zeigten die Sänger, Turner und die Landjugend, was dörfliches Vereinsleben bedeutet. Ob die dabei verzehrten Speisen und ...

Gießener Anzeiger

Gießener Anzeiger
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 17:11:27 -0700

Noch stehen die Baugerüste, was allerdings nicht darüber hinwegtäuschen sollte, dass es in der Miller Hall, ehemals Volkshalle, mit großen Schritten vorangeht. Stück für Stück verwandelt sich das 1925 errichtete Gebäude, das lange Jahre von den in der ...
 
Gießener Allgemeine
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 08:33:45 -0700

Marburg (sag). Die besten Konzerte sind die, bei denen man die Künstler ganz nah erleben kann. Den perfekten Rahmen dafür bieten die Konzerte auf dem Hofgut im Marburger Stadtteil Dagobertshausen. Dort gastierte jetzt in der Eventscheune mit Gregor ...
 
Gießener Allgemeine
Tue, 12 Aug 2014 23:41:05 -0700

Dezember (Donnerstag) macht Gregor Meyle bei seiner Tournee durch Deutschland, Österreich und die Schweiz Station in der früheren Volkshalle. Mehrere Agenturen bieten bereits Tickets für das Konzert an, obwohl die Umbauarbeiten an der Halle noch in ...

mittelhessen.de

mittelhessen.de
Tue, 05 Aug 2014 08:58:01 -0700

Bad Endbach-Hartenrod. Seit 20 Jahren treffen sie sich jeden Montag um 19.30 Uhr in der Hartenroder Volkshalle und kräftigen ihre Muskeln. Zwischen 67 und 86 Jahre sind sie alt und kommen regelmäßig zu ihren Sportstunden. Denn schließlich sei das ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Volkshalle

You can talk about Volkshalle with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!