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Vladikavkaz (English)
Владикавказ (Russian)
Дзæуджыхъæу (Ossetic)
-  City[1]  -
View of Vladikavkaz.jpg
Map of Russia - Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (2008-03).svg
Location of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania in Russia
Vladikavkaz is located in North Ossetia–Alania
Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
Magnify-clip.png
Location of Vladikavkaz in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania
Coordinates: 43°01′N 44°39′E / 43.017°N 44.650°E / 43.017; 44.650Coordinates: 43°01′N 44°39′E / 43.017°N 44.650°E / 43.017; 44.650
Coat of arms of Vladikavkaz.png
Coat of arms
City Day First Sunday of July[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of January 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Republic of North Ossetia–Alania[1]
Administratively subordinated to Vladikavkaz City Under Republic Jurisdiction[1]
Capital of Republic of North Ossetia–Alania[2]
Administrative center of Vladikavkaz City Under Republic Jurisdiction[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2006)
Urban okrug Vladikavkaz Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Vladikavkaz Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed] Sergey Dzantiyev[citation needed]
Representative body Assembly of Representatives[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 291 km2 (112 sq mi)[citation needed]
Population (2010 Census) 311,693 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 60th
Density 1,071 /km2 (2,770 /sq mi)[5]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[6]
Founded May 6, 1784[7]
City status since 1860[citation needed]
Previous names Ordzhonikidze (until 1944),[7]
Dzaudzhikau (until 1954),[7]
Ordzhonikidze (until 1990)[7]
Postal code(s)[8] 362000
Dialing code(s) +7 8672[citation needed]
Official website
Vladikavkaz on WikiCommons

Vladikavkaz (Russian: Владикавказ; IPA: [vlədʲɪkɐfˈkas], lit. ruler of the Caucasus; Ossetian: Дзæуджыхъæу, Dzæwdžyqæw, lit. Dzaug's settlement) is the capital city of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the republic at the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, situated on the Terek River. Population: 311,693 (2010 Census);[4] 315,068 (2002 Census);[9] 300,198 (1989 Census).[10] Vladikavkaz is one of the most populous cities in the North Caucasus.

The city is an industrial and transportation center. Manufactures include processed zinc and lead, machinery, chemicals, clothing, and food products.

History[edit]

The city was founded in 1784[7] as a fortress during the Russian conquest of the Caucasus and was for many years the main Russian military base in the region. The Georgian Military Highway, crossing the mountains, was constructed in 1799 to link the city with Georgia to the south, and in 1875 a railway was built to connect it to Rostov-on-Don and Baku in Azerbaijan. Vladikavkaz has become an important industrial center for the region, with smelting, refining, chemicals and manufacturing industries.

A monument in the city

From 1931 to 1944 and from 1954 to 1990, its name in both Russian and Ossetic languages was Ordzhonikidze (Орджоники́дзе) (after Sergo Ordzhonikidze, a Georgian Bolshevik), and from 1944 to 1954 it was officially called Dzaudzhikau (Дзауджика́у) in Russian and Dzæwdžyqæw (Дзæуджыхъæу) in Ossetic. Vladikavkaz resumed its old Russian name, in 1990, shortly before the dissolution of the Soviet Union; the official Ossetic name was reverted to Dzæwdžyqæw.

Vladikavkaz was fought over in both the Russian Civil War and World War II. In February 1919, the anti-Communist Volunteer Army under General Anton Denikin seized the city, before being expelled by the Red Army in March 1920. In November 1942, the forces of Nazi Germany tried unsuccessfully to seize the city but were repelled.

In 1999, 2008, and 2010, Vladikavkaz was a target of bombings.

On November 26, 2008, Vitaly Karayev, the mayor of Vladikavkaz was killed by an unknown gunman.[11] On December 31, 2008, his successor, Kazbek Pagiyev, was also killed by unknown gunmen.[12]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Vladikavkaz is the capital of the republic.[2] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with six rural localities, incorporated as Vladikavkaz City Under Republic Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Vladikavkaz City Under Republic Jurisdiction is incorporated as Vladikavkaz Urban Okrug.[3]

Transportation[edit]

The city is served by the bus network (marshrutkas). There are also tram (since 1904) and trolleybus (since 1977) networks. There is a railway terminal in Vladikavkaz.

The city is served by Beslan Airport located 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) from the city.

The Georgian Military Road, which is a part of European route E117, starts in Vladikavkaz and it connects the city with the South Caucasus.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic groups in the city (2002 data):[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

Vladikavkaz experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, wet summers and cold, drier winters (though very mild for Russia).

Climate data for Vladikavkaz
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.6
(67.3)
23.0
(73.4)
30.3
(86.5)
34.0
(93.2)
35.0
(95)
38.0
(100.4)
37.5
(99.5)
39.2
(102.6)
38.2
(100.8)
33.5
(92.3)
27.0
(80.6)
27.1
(80.8)
39.2
(102.6)
Average high °C (°F) 3.0
(37.4)
3.2
(37.8)
7.7
(45.9)
14.8
(58.6)
19.4
(66.9)
23.2
(73.8)
25.7
(78.3)
25.4
(77.7)
20.8
(69.4)
15.1
(59.2)
8.4
(47.1)
4.3
(39.7)
14.3
(57.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
−1.7
(28.9)
3.0
(37.4)
9.5
(49.1)
14.1
(57.4)
18.0
(64.4)
20.6
(69.1)
20.1
(68.2)
15.6
(60.1)
9.8
(49.6)
3.6
(38.5)
−0.7
(30.7)
9.2
(48.6)
Average low °C (°F) −5.6
(21.9)
−5.7
(21.7)
−0.9
(30.4)
5.1
(41.2)
9.6
(49.3)
13.5
(56.3)
16.1
(61)
15.7
(60.3)
11.2
(52.2)
5.7
(42.3)
0.1
(32.2)
−4.2
(24.4)
5.1
(41.2)
Record low °C (°F) −27.2
(−17)
−27.8
(−18)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−8.9
(16)
−2.8
(27)
2.2
(36)
7.5
(45.5)
6.0
(42.8)
0.0
(32)
−10.0
(14)
−22.2
(−8)
−25.0
(−13)
−27.8
(−18)
Precipitation mm (inches) 31
(1.22)
34
(1.34)
54
(2.13)
85
(3.35)
140
(5.51)
175
(6.89)
109
(4.29)
89
(3.5)
75
(2.95)
60
(2.36)
46
(1.81)
31
(1.22)
929
(36.57)
Avg. precipitation days 6 6 8 10 14 14 11 9 8 7 7 6 106
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[13]
Source #2: World Meteorological Organisation (UN) [14]

Sports[edit]

FC Alania Vladikavkaz is an association football club based in Vladikavkaz, who won the Russian Premier League in 1995.

Notable structures[edit]

In Vladikavkaz, there is a guyed TV mast, 198-meter (650 ft) tall, built in 1961, which has six crossbars with gangways in two levels running from the mast structure to the guys.

Religion[edit]

The city's population includes Eastern Orthodox Christians and adherents of Islam.[citation needed]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Vladikavkaz is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #34-RZ
  2. ^ a b Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania
  3. ^ a b c Law #10-RZ
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ a b c d e Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 75. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Europe | Southern Russia mayor gunned down". BBC News. 2008-11-26. Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  12. ^ "Itar-Tass". Itar-Tass. Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  13. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  14. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Wladikavkaz". United Nations. Retrieved 31 December 2010. 

Sources[edit]

  • Верховный Совет Республики Северная Осетия. 12 ноября 1994 г. «Республика Северная Осетия-Алания. Конституция.», в ред. Конституционного Закона №5-РКЗ от 4 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Конституцию Республики Северная Осетия–Алания». Вступил в силу 7 декабря 1994 г. Опубликован: брошюрой "Конституция Республики Северная Осетия–Алания". (Supreme Council of the Republic of North Ossetia. November 12, 1994 Republic of North Ossetia–Alania. Constitution., as amended by the Constitutional Law #5-RKZ of December 4, 2013 On Amending the Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania. Effective as of December 7, 1994.).
  • Закон №34-РЗ от 9 июля 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Северная Осетия-Алания», в ред. Закона №44-РЗ от 12 ноября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Приложение к Закону Республики Северная Осетия–Алания "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Северная Осетия–Алания" и Закон Республики Северная Осетия–Алания "Об установлении границ муниципального образования Алагирский район, наделении его статусом муниципального района, образовании в его составе муниципальных образований — городского и сельских поселений"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Северная Осетия", №148(24949), 16 августа 2007 г. (Law #34-RZ of July 9, 2007 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, as amended by the Law #44-RZ of November 12, 2013 On Amending the Appendix to the Law of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania" and the Law of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of Alagirsky District, Granting It the Status of a Municipal District, Establishing Municipal Formations—Urban and Rural Settlements—Within Its Structure". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Закон №10-РЗ от 5 марта 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования город Владикавказ, наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №34-РЗ от 19 июля 2006 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Северная Осетия-Алания "Об установлении границ муниципального образования город Владикавказ, наделении его статусом городского округа"». Вступил в силу 1 марта 2005 г. Опубликован: "Северная Осетия", №43 (24344), 15 марта 2005 г. (Law #10-RZ of March 5, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Vladikavkaz and On Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #34-RZ of July 19, 2006 On Amending the Law of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Vladikavkaz and On Granting It Urban Okrug Status". Effective as of March 1, 2005.).

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Retailer LENTA plans to invest 40 million euros into construction of two hypermarkets in Vladikavkaz (Republic of North Ossetia), the Ministry of Tourism, Business and Investment Policy of Republic informs. The engineering works are due to start in the ...

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Moscow, August 18, Interfax - The Vladikavkaz police are looking for the unknown person who shot and killed Rasul Gamzatov, deputy mufti of North Ossetia, on Saturday, a source in the law enforcement agencies told Interfax. The assassin shot Gamzatov ...

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