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Video tracking is the process of locating a moving object (or multiple objects) over time using a camera. It has a variety of uses, some of which are: human-computer interaction, security and surveillance, video communication and compression, augmented reality, traffic control, medical imaging[1] and video editing.[2][3] Video tracking can be a time consuming process due to the amount of data that is contained in video. Adding further to the complexity is the possible need to use object recognition techniques for tracking.

## Objective

The objective of video tracking is to associate target objects in consecutive video frames. The association can be especially difficult when the objects are moving fast relative to the frame rate. Another situation that increases the complexity of the problem is when the tracked object changes orientation over time. For these situations video tracking systems usually employ a motion model which describes how the image of the target might change for different possible motions of the object.

Examples of simple motion models are:

• When tracking planar objects, the motion model is a 2D transformation (affine transformation or homography) of an image of the object (e.g. the initial frame).
• When the target is a rigid 3D object, the motion model defines its aspect depending on its 3D position and orientation.
• For video compression, key frames are divided into macroblocks. The motion model is a disruption of a key frame, where each macroblock is translated by a motion vector given by the motion parameters.
• The image of deformable objects can be covered with a mesh, the motion of the object is defined by the position of the nodes of the mesh.

## Algorithms

To perform video tracking an algorithm analyzes sequential video frames and outputs the movement of targets between the frames. There are a variety of algorithms, each having strengths and weaknesses. Considering the intended use is important when choosing which algorithm to use. There are two major components of a visual tracking system: target representation and localization, as well as filtering and data association.

Target representation and localization is mostly a bottom-up process. These methods give a variety of tools for identifying the moving object. Locating and tracking the target object successfully is dependent on the algorithm. For example, using blob tracking is useful for identifying human movement because a person's profile changes dynamically.[4] Typically the computational complexity for these algorithms is low. The following are some common target representation and localization algorithms:

Filtering and data association is mostly a top-down process, which involves incorporating prior information about the scene or object, dealing with object dynamics, and evaluation of different hypotheses. These methods allow the tracking of complex objects along with more complex object interaction like tracking objects moving behind obstructions.[5] Additionally the complexity is increased if the video tracker (also named TV tracker or target tracker) is not mounted on rigid foundation (on-shore) but on a moving ship (off-shore), where typically an inertial measurement system is used to pre-stabilize the video tracker to reduce the required dynamics and bandwidth of the camera system.[6] The computational complexity for these algorithms is usually much higher. The following are some common filtering algorithms:

• Kalman filter: an optimal recursive Bayesian filter for linear functions subjected to Gaussian noise.[7]
• Particle filter: useful for sampling the underlying state-space distribution of nonlinear and non-Gaussian processes.

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 55 news items
 BBC News India's Trailblazers: The female train driver BBC News Thu, 30 May 2013 18:17:37 -0700 India and the country's attitude towards women have been in the spotlight for some months, following a series of violent assaults. But far from seeing themselves as potential victims, some Indian women are breaking into industries usually dominated by men. My Man of Steel Review Brings Back My Flora Plum Jodie Foster Stephen ... Cornwall Free News Sat, 15 Jun 2013 05:19:56 -0700 I was working in sports in Montreal running the largest Hockey Card show in the city, booking the guys for appearances, working for a hockey card company, travelling with the Legends Hockey team, and finally creating a video tracking and stat ... New Management Ushers New Era for IMS PR Web (press release) Fri, 14 Jun 2013 00:04:30 -0700 IMS' new capabilities will provide for mobile alerts, Internet TV, and real-time video tracking and analysis. As Thompson reveals, “We're here to ensure that IMS resonates.” IMS is wholly owned by Media Analytics, LLC. The company is the leading ... Pedroia's glovework saves game ESPN (blog) Mon, 10 Jun 2013 22:58:59 -0700 Baseball Info Solutions does video tracking, crediting fielders for more than 30 categories of good fielding plays (think Web Gem nominees) and penalizing them for more than 50 categories of defensive misplays & errors. Pedroia's ratio of good plays to ... Jeff Weltman hired by Toronto Raptors, will leave after draft Brew Hoop Mon, 10 Jun 2013 10:57:36 -0700 The Bucks have embraced advanced statistics in recent years, employing at least one statistical analysts and installing the revolutionary SportVU video tracking system that is gaining in popularity. Weltman surely played a large role in the adoption ... Watch What Happens When You Track 493 People's Grocery Buying Habits The Atlantic Cities Wed, 12 Jun 2013 10:58:25 -0700 Schema also made a second video tracking the speed of movement by all 493 people during a single day. In this video, people moving faster than 10 miles per hour are traced in white. Those moving slower (likely by foot, bike, or driving through ... Principles of ant locomotion could help future robot teams work underground domain-B Wed, 12 Jun 2013 07:43:44 -0700 By studying fire ants in the laboratory using video tracking equipment and X-ray computed tomography, researchers have uncovered fundamental principles of locomotion that robot teams could one day use to travel quickly and easily through underground ... Conservative issues group launches web site The Union Leader Mon, 03 Jun 2013 10:22:12 -0700 The group says that in addition to news and press releases, the site, StrongNH.com, will show “video tracking of New Hampshire's elected officials answering, or in some cases refusing to answer, the tough questions.” The website also offers weekly ...
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