digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

"Victimized" redirects here. For the Linkin Park song "Victimized", see Living Things (Linkin Park album).

Victimisation (or victimization) is the process of being victimised or becoming a victim. Research that studies the process, rates, incidence, and prevalence of victimisation falls under the body of victimology.

Peer victimisation[edit]

Main article: Peer victimisation

Peer victimisation is the experience among children of being a target of the aggressive behaviour of other children, who are not siblings and not necessarily age-mates.[1]

Secondary victimisation[edit]

Secondary victimisation (also known as post crime victimisation[2] or double victimisation[3]) relates to further victimisation following on from the original victimisation.[2] For example, victim blaming, inappropriate post-assault behaviour or language by medical personnel or other organisations with which the victim has contact may further add to the victim's suffering.[4] Victims may also experience secondary victimisation by justice system personnel upon entering the criminal justice system. Victims will lose time, suffer reductions in income, often be ignored by bailiffs and other courthouse staff and will remain uninformed about updates in the case such as hearing postponements, to the extent that their frustration and confusion will turn to apathy and a declining willingness to further participate in system proceedings.[3]

Rape is especially stigmatising in cultures with strong customs and taboos regarding sex and sexuality. For example, a rape victim (especially one who was previously a virgin) may be viewed by society as being "damaged." Victims in these cultures may suffer isolation, be disowned by friends and family, be prohibited from marrying, or be divorced if already married.[5]

The re-traumatisation of the sexual assault, abuse, or rape victim through the responses of individuals and institutions is an example of secondary victimisation. Secondary victimisation is especially common in cases of drug-facilitated, acquaintance, and statutory rape.

Revictimisation[edit]

The term revictimisation refers to a pattern wherein the victim of abuse and/or crime has a statistically higher tendency to be victimised again, either shortly thereafter[6] or much later in adulthood in the case of abuse as a child. This latter pattern is particularly notable in cases of sexual abuse.[7][8] While an exact percentage is almost impossible to obtain, samples from many studies suggest the rate of revictimisation for people with histories of sexual abuse is very high. The vulnerability to victimisation experienced as an adult is also not limited to sexual assault, and may include physical abuse as well.[7]

Reasons as to why revictimisation occurs vary by event type, and some mechanisms are unknown. Revictimisation in the short term is often the result of risk factors that were already present, which were not changed or mitigated after the first victimisation; sometimes the victim cannot control these factors. Examples of these risk factors include living or working in dangerous areas, chaotic familial relations, having an aggressive temperament, drug or alcohol usage and unemployment.[7]

Revictimisation of adults who were previously sexually abused as children is more complex. Multiple theories exist as to how this functions. Some scientists propose a maladaptive form of learning; the initial abuse teaches inappropriate beliefs and behaviours that persist into adulthood. The victim believes that abusive behaviour is "normal" and comes to expect it from others in the context of relationships, and thus may unconsciously seek out abusive partners or cling to abusive relationships. Another theory draws on the principle of learned helplessness. As children, they are put in situations that they have little to no hope of escaping, especially when the abuse comes from a caregiver.[8] One theory goes that this state of being unable to fight back or flee the danger leaves the last primitive option: freeze, an off-shoot of death-feigning.

Offenders choosing pre-traumatized victims[edit]

In adulthood, the freeze response can remain, and some professionals have noted that victimisers sometimes seem to pick up subtle clues of this when choosing a victim.[9] This behaviour can make the victim an easier target, as they sometimes make less effort to fight back or vocalise. Afterwards, they often make excuses and minimise what happened to them, sometimes never reporting the assault to the authorities.

Self-victimisation[edit]

Main article: Victim playing

Self-victimisation (or victim playing) is the fabrication of victimhood for a variety of reasons such to justify abuse of others, to manipulate others, a coping strategy or attention seeking.

Self-image of victimisation (victim mentality)[edit]

Main article: Victim mentality

Victims of abuse and manipulation often get trapped into a self-image of victimisation. The psychological profile of victimisation includes a pervasive sense of helplessness, passivity, loss of control, pessimism, negative thinking, strong feelings of guilt, shame, self-blame and depression. This way of thinking can lead to hopelessness and despair.[10]

Rates of victimisation in United States[edit]

Levels of criminal activity are measured through three major data sources: the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), self-report surveys of criminal offenders, and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). However, the UCR and self-report surveys generally report details regarding the offender and the criminal offense; information on the victim is only included so far as his/her relationship to the offender, and perhaps a superficial overview of his/her injuries. The NCVS is a tool used to measure the existence of actual, rather than only those reported, crimes — the victimisation rate —[11] by asking individuals about incidents in which they may have been victimised. The National Crime Victimization Survey is the United States' primary source of information on crime victimisation.

Each year, data is obtained from a nationally represented sample of 77,200 households comprising nearly 134,000 persons on the frequency, characteristics and consequences of criminal victimisation in the United States. This survey enables the (government) to estimate the likelihood of victimisation by Rape (more valid estimates were calculated after the surveys redesign in 1992 that better tapped instances of sexual assault, particularly of Date rape),[3] robbery, assault, theft, household burglary, and motor vehicle theft for the population as a whole as well as for segments of the population such as women, the elderly, members of various racial groups, city dwellers, or other groups.[11] According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), the NCVS reveals that, from 1994 to 2005, violent crime rates have declined, reaching the lowest levels ever recorded.[11] Property crimes continue to decline.[11]

In 2010, the National Institute of Justice reported that American adolescents were the age group most likely to be victims of violent crime, while American men were more likely than American women to be victims of violent crime, and blacks were more likely than Americans of other races to be victims of violent crime.[12]

In employment law[edit]

Victimisation is a concept in employment law. It refers to situations where people are targeted with abuse, suffer detriment to their employment conditions or are dismissed as a result of bringing a claim for another form of discrimination. If an employee is "victimised" for complaining about another part of work, then a separate and independent claim for such treatment would arise. If an employee has brought a discrimination claim, acted as a witness in someone else's claim or raised issues relating to potential discrimination, any action taken against them because of this will be unlawful.[13]

Response of institutions[edit]

Often, when an individual has been targeted by one or more individuals in an institutional setting (military, school, workplace) the operators of that institution will get rid of the victim rather than address the problem directly, or pursue the aggressors. This may be done due to the perceived difficulty of taking action against the aggressors, or most often to solve the problem by removing the focus (the victim) from the institution.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hawker D.S.J., Boulton M.J. (2000). "Twenty years' research on peer victimisation and psychosocial maladjustment: a meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 41 (4): 441–455. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00629. 
  2. ^ a b "post-crime victimization or secondary victimization". Comprehensive Criminal Justice Terminology. Prentice Hall. 
  3. ^ a b c Doerner, William (2012). Victimology. Burlington, MA: Elseiver, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4377-3486-7. 
  4. ^ Campbell R, Raja S (1999). "Secondary victimization of rape victims: insights from mental health professionals who treat survivors of violence". Violence Vict 14 (3): 261–75. PMID 10606433. 
  5. ^ NYCagainstrape.org
  6. ^ Finkelhor, D.; Ormrod, RK.; Turner, HA. (May 2007). "Re-victimization patterns in a national longitudinal sample of children and youth". Child Abuse Negl 31 (5): 479–502. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.03.012. PMID 17537508. 
  7. ^ a b c Janet Anderson (May 2004). "Sexual Assault Revictimization". Research & Advocacy Digest (The Washington Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs) 6 (2): 1. 
  8. ^ a b Messman Terri L., Long Patricia J. (1996). "Child Sexual Abuse and its Relationship to Revictimization in Adult Women". Clinical Psychology Review 16 (5): 397–420. doi:10.1016/0272-7358(96)00019-0. 
  9. ^ Wheeler S., Book A.S., Costello K. (2009). "Psychopathic traits and perceptions of victim vulnerability". Criminal Justice and Behavior 36 (6): 635–648. doi:10.1177/0093854809333958. 
  10. ^ Braiker, Harriet B., Who's Pulling Your Strings ? How to Break The Cycle of Manipulation (2006)
  11. ^ a b c d National Crime Victimization Survey Official web site
  12. ^ "Victims and Victimization". 20 September 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  13. ^ "This section provides general information on employment law in the UK". UK Film Council. 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-12. 

Further reading[edit]

General

  • Catalano, Shannan, Intimate Partner Violence: Attributes of Victimization, 1993–2011 (2013)
  • Elias, Robert, The Politics of Victimization: Victims, Victimology, and Human Rights (1986)
  • Finkelhor, David Childhood Victimization: Violence, Crime, and Abuse in the Lives of Young People (Interpersonal Violence) (2008)
  • Harris, Monica J. Bullying, Rejection, & Peer Victimization: A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective (2009)
  • Hazler, Richard J. Breaking The Cycle Of Violence: Interventions For Bullying And Victimization (1996)
  • Maher, Charles A & Zins, Joseph & Elias, Maurice Bullying, Victimization, And Peer Harassment: A Handbook of Prevention And Intervention (2006)
  • Meadows, Robert J. Understanding Violence and Victimization (5th Edition) (2009)
  • Lerner, Melvin J.; Montada, Leo (1998). Responses to victimizations and belief in a just world. Critical issues in social justice. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-46030-0. 
  • Mullings, Janet & Marquart, James & Hartley, Deborah The Victimization of Children: Emerging Issues (2004)
  • Prinstein, Mitchell J., Cheah, Charissa S.L., Guyer, Amanda E. (2005). "Peer Victimization, Cue Interpretation, and Internalizing Symptoms: Preliminary Concurrent and Longitudinal Findings for Children and Adolescents" (PDF). Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 34 (1): 11–24. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3401_2. PMID 15677277. 
  • Westervelt, Saundra Davis Shifting The Blame: How Victimization Became a Criminal Defense (1998)

Revictimisation

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victimisation — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
7196 videos foundNext > 

Dieudonne - Championnat de la victimisation (Foxtrot - 2012)

Stekch extrait de son spectacla Foxtrot (2012)

Sortir de la victimisation - Christine Lewicki

Christine Lewicki est fondatrice et directrice de la société O Coaching inc, basée à Los Angeles en Californie. Auteur du Bestseller " J'arrête de Râler" ( p...

victimisation

bagarres,streetfight,viols,volles,agressions,déstructions,rackettes,meutres,dead,warning!!

Dieudonné - Le championnat de la victimisation [Fo

Dieudonné - Le championnat de la victimisation [Foxtrot]

DSP Tries it: Projection, Victimisation, Superficial Sympathy and Name Droping TotalBiscuit

Yep ladies and gentlemen he is once again at it again. This is silly, the title of videos can only be so long.

DSP Tries It: Bragging, All About The Money, Materialism, Victimisation, And Plutolatry

DSP proofs in this video that he is all about the money. Proof is in the Puddin.

Danish Wakeel's " Glamourised Victimisation" The Catwalk By S-afz! Production HD

NUKETOWN VICTIMISATION !

Mon Facebook : http://www.facebook.com/pages/Jo-Defiero/280644812052617 Mon Twitter: http://twitter.com/#!/jodefiero Ma chaîne Youtube : http://www.youtube.c...

DSP Tries It: Unaware of Reality, Living In His Own Reality, Victimisation, and F*ck Getting a Job

DSP is living in his own Reality.

SESELWA ANNOU KOZE…Seychelles Government Victimisation of Seychelles Airlines with Ahmed Afif.

SESELWA ANNOU KOZE is an independent Seychelles Public TV broadcast where guests are able to speak the truth. Seychelles Government Victimisation of Seychell...

7196 videos foundNext > 

5114 news items

 
Trinidad & Tobago Express
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 06:18:45 -0700

Accused cop killers claim prison beatings, victimisation. By Nikita Braxton-Benjamin. Story Created: Oct 31, 2014 at 9:27 AM ECT. Story Updated: Oct 31, 2014 at 9:35 AM ECT. TWO men accused of murdering a police sergeant claimed yesterday that they ...
 
The News International
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 19:03:45 -0700

MAJLIS Wahdatul Muslemin (MWM) has warned against what it called the victimisation of its workers in Rawalpindi by the Punjab government at the behest of the rival groups. MWM will not tolerate any restriction on the mourning activities during Muharram ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 10:40:35 -0700

Gillingham and their chairman, Paul Scally, have been charged by the Football Association in relation to the dismissal of the striker Mark McCammon following an alleged “act of race victimisation”. McCammon, 36, left the Kent club in 2011, having spent ...
 
FootballFanCast.com
Sat, 25 Oct 2014 13:37:30 -0700

So why is the castigation of Balotelli more extreme and more frequent than that of other high-profile underperforming footballers? Ultimately, the way in which Balotelli is targeted serves as just another symptom of a more general victimisation and ...
 
medwireNews
Tue, 21 Oct 2014 16:48:45 -0700

medwireNews: Bullying victimisation in childhood may indicate genetic risk for later psychosis, rather than being an environmental trigger, say UK researchers. The team's study of 4826 twin pairs revealed that bullying victimisation was most strongly ...
 
AllAfrica.com
Sun, 26 Oct 2014 13:37:30 -0700

They seem to have developed the sophistication to deal with any potential assault on their victimisation which means that they are able to marshal a single voice for mobilising the empathy of the world on the subject of the Holocaust and to use this ...

The Voice Online

The Voice Online
Mon, 27 Oct 2014 08:11:15 -0700

GILLINGHAM HAVE been charged with race victimisation by the Football Association after the club refused to pay off medical bills for striker Mark McCammon. The FA ruled the club and its chairman Paul Scally breached its regulations when the forward ...
 
Huffington Post UK
Fri, 17 Oct 2014 09:29:27 -0700

We need a nuanced discussion of rape culture: just as every single person who has stepped up to defend Judy Finnigan's theory that Ched Evans wasn't a violent rapist has demanded this week. We need to discuss why convicted rapist Ched Evans is ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight