|Western United States, Mexico|
Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the total distribution in Mexico).
Uto-Aztecan or Uto-Aztekan // is a Native American language family consisting of over 30 languages. Uto-Aztecan languages are found almost entirely in the Western United States and Mexico. The name of the language family was created to show that it includes both the Ute language of Utah (also named for the Ute people) and the Aztecan languages of Mexico.
Classical Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs, and its modern relatives are part of the Uto-Aztecan family. The Pipil language, an offshoot of Nahuatl, spread to Central America by a wave of migration from Mexico, and formerly had many speakers there. Now it has gone extinct in Guatemala and Honduras, and it is nearly extinct in western El Salvador, all areas dominated by use of Spanish.
- 1 Proto-language and Uto-Aztecan homeland
- 2 Geographic distribution
- 3 Classification of Uto-Aztecan languages
- 4 The proto–Uto-Aztecan language
- 5 Notes
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 Further reading
- 8 Grammars or linguistic researches for individual languages and Uto-Aztecan groupings
- 9 External links
Proto-language and Uto-Aztecan homeland
The Proto–Uto-Aztecan language is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Uto-Aztecan languages. Authorities on the history of the language group have usually placed the Proto-Uto-Aztecan homeland in the border region between the USA and Mexico, namely the upland regions of Arizona and New Mexico and the adjacent areas of the Mexican states of Sonora and Chihuaua, roughly corresponding to the Sonoran Desert and the western part of the Chihuahuan Desert. The proto-language would have been spoken by Mesolithic foragers in Aridoamerica, about 5,000 years ago.
A contrary proposal, that suggests the homeland of Proto-Uto-Aztecan to have been much further to the south, was published in 2001 by Jane H. Hill, based on her reconstruction of maize-related vocabulary in Proto-Uto-Aztecan. By her theory, the assumed speakers of Proto-Uto-Aztecan were maize cultivators in Mesoamerica, who gradually moved north, bringing maize cultivation with them, during the period of roughly 4,500 to 3,000 years ago. The geographic diffusion of speakers corresponded to the breakup of linguistic unity.
This hypothesis has been criticized on several grounds, and it is not generally accepted by Uto-Aztecanists. A survey of agriculture-related vocabulary by Merrill (2012) found that the agricultural vocabulary can only be reconstructed for Southern Uto-Aztecan. This supports a conclusion that the proto-Utoaztecan speech community did not practice agriculture but only adopted it after entering Mesoamerica from the North.
Uto-Aztecan languages are spoken in the North American mountain ranges and adjacent lowlands of the western United States (in the states of Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Utah, California, Nevada, Arizona) and of Mexico (states of Sonora, Chihuahua, Nayarit, Durango, Zacatecas, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, San Luis Potosí, Hidalgo, Puebla, Veracruz, Morelos, Estado de México, and the Federal District).
Present-day locations of living Uto-Aztecan languages in Mexico and Mesoamerica
Classification of Uto-Aztecan languages
History of classification
Uto-Aztecan has been accepted by linguists as a language family since the early 1900s, and six subgroups are accepted as valid: Numic, Takic, Pimic, Taracahitic, Corachol, and Aztecan. This leaves two ungrouped languages—Tübatulabal and Hopi (sometimes termed "isolates within the family"). As to higher-level groupings, disagreement has persisted since the 19th century. Presently scholars also disagree as to where to draw language boundaries within dialect continua.
The similarities among the Uto-Aztecan languages were noted as early as 1859 by J.C.E. Buschmann, but he failed to recognize the genetic affiliation between the Aztecan branch and the rest. He ascribed the similarities between the two groups to diffusion. Brinton added the Aztecan languages to the family in 1891 and coined the term Uto-Aztecan. John Wesley Powell, however, rejected the claim in his own classification of North American indigenous languages (also published in 1891). Powell recognized two language families: "Shoshonean" (encompassing Takic, Numic, Hopi, and Tübatulabal) and "Sonoran" (encompassing Pimic, Taracahitan, and Corachol). In the early 1900s Alfred L. Kroeber filled in the picture of the Shoshonean group, while Edward Sapir proved the unity among Aztecan, "Sonoran", and "Shoshonean".
As of about 2000, the most widely accepted view divides the family into "Northern Uto-Aztecan" and "Southern Uto-Aztecan". The former is Powell's "Shoshonean", while the latter is all the rest, i.e., Powell's "Sonoran" plus Aztecan. But since about 1980, there have been dissenters. They reject either both nodes or the Northern node alone. Although Kaufman recognizes similarities between Corachol and Aztecan, he explains them by diffusion instead of genetic evolution. Most scholars view the breakup of Proto-Uto-Aztecan as a case of the gradual disintegration of a dialect continuum.
Below is the current most prevalent classification as synthesized from Campbell (1997), Mithun (1999), and Goddard (1999). For most of the individual languages and proposed nodes, links are provided to a selected bibliography of grammars, dictionaries, and linguistic researches. ( † = extinct)
- Central Numic languages
- Southern Numic languages
- Western Numic languages
- Pima–Papago[A 28] (Upper Piman)
- Pima Bajo[A 29] (Lower Piman)
- Tepehuán languages (Northern[A 30] and Southern[A 31])
- Tepecano[A 32] †
- Tubar[A 35] †
- Cahita[A 36] (Yaqui[A 37]–Mayo[A 38]–Cahita)
- Pochutec[A 43] †
- Nahuan[A 44] (Aztecan, Nahua, Nahuatlan)
In addition to the above languages for which linguistic evidence exists, it is suspected that among dozens of now extinct, undocumented or poorly known languages of northern Mexico, many were Uto-Aztecan.
Campbell (1997:133-135) lists the following extinct Uto-Aztecan languages of uncertain genetic affiliation from various colonial and academic sources.
- San Nicolás (Nicoleño): spoken in California, thought to be a Takic language.
- Giamina/Omomil: Kroeber (1907) and Lamb (1964) believe Giamina may constitute a separate branch of Northern Uto-Aztecan, although Miller (1983) is uncertain about this. It was spoken in Southern California.
- Vanyume: a Takic language of California
- Acaxee (Aiage): closely related to Tahue, a Cahitan language, linked with Tebaca and Sabaibo.
- Amotomanco (Otomoaco): uncertain classification, possibly Uto-Aztecan. (See Troike (1988) for more details.)
- Cazcan (Caxcan): sometimes considered to be the same as Zacateca, although Miller (1983) would only consider these to be geographical classifications.
- Baciroa: closely connected to Tepahue
- Batuc: possibly an Opata dialect
- Cahuameto: probably belongs with Oguera and Nio
- Chínipa: may be a Tarahumaran language close to Ocoroni, since colonial sources claim the two are mutually intelligible. It may also instead be a local name for a variety of Guarijío.
- Coca: spoken near Lake Chapala.
- Colotlan: a Pimic language closely related to Tepehuan, or Teul and Tepecano
- Comanito: a Taracahitic language closely related to Tahue
- Concho: probably a Taracahitic language (Troike 1988). Subdivisions include Chinarra and Chizo; Toboso is possibly related to Concho as well.
- Conicari: a Taracahitic language closely related to Tahue
- Guachichil: possibly a variant or close relative of Huichol
- Guasave: possibly a Taracahitic language, or may instead be non-Uto-Aztecan language possibly related to Seri due to the speakers' maritime economy (Miller 1983). Dialects include Compopori, Ahome, Vacoregue, and Achire.
- Guazapar (Guasapar): probably a Tarahumara dialect, or it may be more closely related to Guarijío and Chínipa. Guazapar, Jova, Pachera, and Juhine may possibly all be dialects of Tarahumara.
- Guisca (Coisa)
- Hio: possibly a Taracahitic language
- Huite: closely related to Ocoroni, and may be Taracahitic
- Irritila: a Lagunero band
- Jova (Jobal, Ova): most often linked with Opata, although some scholars classify it as a Tarahumara dialect. Miller (1983) considers it to be "probably Taracahitan."
- Jumano; also Humano, Jumana, Xumana, Chouman (from a French source), Zumana, Zuma, Suma, and Yuma. Suma is probably the same language, while Jumano is possibly Uto-Aztecan.
- Lagunero: may be the same as Irritila, and may also be closely related to Zacateco or Huichol.
- Macoyahui: probably related to Cahita.
- Mocorito: a Tahue language, which is Taracahitic.
- Naarinuquia (Themurete?): Uto-Aztecan affiliation is likely, although it may instead be non-Uto-Aztecan language possibly related to Seri due to the speakers' maritime economy (Miller 1983).
- Nacosura: an Opata dialect
- Nio: completely undocumented, although it is perhaps related to Ocoroni.
- Ocoroni: most likely a Taracahitic language, and is reported to be mutually intelligible with Chínipa, and similar to Opata. Related languages may include Huite and Nio.
- Oguera (Ohuera)
- Patarabuey: unknown affiliation (Purépecha region near Lake Chapala, and is possibly a Nahuatl dialect.
- Tahue: may also include Comanito, Mocorito, Tubar, and Zoe. It is possibly a Taracahitic language, and is definitely not Nahuan.
- Tanpachoa: unknown affiliation (Troike 1988), and was once spoken along the Río Grande.
- Tecuexe: speakers were possibly part of a "Mexicano" (Nahua) colony.
- Teco-Tecoxquin: an Aztecan language
- Tecual: closely related to Huichol. According to Sauer (1934:14), the "Xamaca, by another name called Hueitzolme [Huichol], all ... speak the Thequalme language, though they differ in vowels."
- Témori: may be a Tarahumara dialect.
- Tepahue: possibly a Taracahitic language. Closely related languages or dialects include Macoyahui, Conicari, and Baciroa.
- Tepanec: an Aztecan language.
- Teul (Teul-Chichimeca): a Pimic language, possibly of the Tepecano subgroup.
- Toboso: grouped with Concho.
- Topia: perhaps the same as Xixime (Jijime).
- Topiame: possibly a Taracahitic language.
- Totorame: grouped with Cora.
- Xixime (Jijime): possibly a Taracahitic language. Subdivisions are Hine and Hume. Its links with Acaxee are uncertain.
- Zacateco: often considered the same as Acaxee, although this is uncertain. It is possibly related to Huichol, although Miller (1983) leaves it as unclassified.
- Zoe: possibly a Taracahitic language, with Baimena as a subdivision. It is possibly affiliated with Comanito.
The proto–Uto-Aztecan language
Proto-Uto-Aztecan is reconstructed as having an unusual vowel inventory: *i *a *u *o *ɨ. Langacker (1970) demonstrated that the fifth vowel should be reconstructed as *ɨ as opposed to *e—there had been a long-running dispute over the proper reconstruction.
*n and *ŋ may have actually been *l and *n, respectively.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Uto-Aztecan". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Campbell 1997, p. 137.
- Hill 2001, .
- Hill 2010, .
- Kemp et al. 2010, .
- Merrill et al. 2010, .
- Brown 2010, .
- Campbell 2003.
- Campbell & Poser 2008, p. 346-350.
- William L. Merrill. "The Historical Linguistics of Uto-Aztecan Agriculture," Anthropological Linguistics 54.3 (2012): 203-260.
- Goddard 1996, p. 7.
- Miller 1983, p. 118.
- Mithun 1999, p. 539-540.
- Kaufman 2001, .
- Mithun 1999.
- Campbell 1997.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Omomil". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Amotomanco". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Concho". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Jova". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tanpachoa". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Langacker 1970, .
- Dakin 1996, .
- Campbell 1997, p. 136.
- Brown, Cecil H. (2010). "Lack of linguistic support for Proto-Uto-Aztecan at 8900 BP (letter)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (15): E34. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914859107.
- Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford Universiity Press.
- Campbell, Lyle (2003). "What drives linguistic diversification and language spread?". In Bellwood, Peter; Renfrew, Colin. Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis. Cambridge(U.K.): McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research. pp. 49–63.
- Campbell, Lyle; Poser, William J. (2008). Language classification, history and method. Cambridge University Press.
- Dakin, Karen (1996). "Long vowels and morpheme boundaries in Nahuatl and Uto-Aztecan: comments on historical developments". Amerindia 21.
- Goddard, Ives (1996). "Introduction". In Goddard, Ives. Handbook of North American Indians 17. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 1–16.
- Hill, Jane H. (December 2001). "Proto-Uto-Aztecan". American Anthropologist. New Series, 103 (4).
- Hill, Jane H. (2010). "New evidence for a Mesoamerican homeland for Proto-Uto-Aztecan". PNAS 107 (11): E33. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914473107.
- Kaufman, Terrence (2001). Nawa linguistic prehistory. Mesoamerican Language Documentation Project.
- Kemp, Brian M.; González-Oliver, Angélica; Malhi, Ripan S.; et al. (2010). "Evaluating the farming/language dispersal hypothesis with genetic variation exhibited by populations in the Southwest and Mesoamerica". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (15): 6759–6764. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905753107.
- Langacker, Ronald W. (1970). "The Vowels of Proto Uto-Aztecan". International Journal of American Linguistics 36 (3): 169–180. doi:10.1086/465108.
- Merrill, William L.; Hard, Robert J.; Mabry, Jonathan B.; et al. (2010). "Reply to Hill and Brown: maize and Uto-Aztecan cultural history". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (11): E35–E36. doi:10.1073/pnas.1000923107.
- Miller, Wick R. (1983). "A note on extinct languages of northwest Mexico of supposed Uto-Aztecan affiliation." IJAL 49:328-333.
- Miller, Wick R. (1983). "Uto-Aztecan languages". In Ortiz, Alfonso. Handbook of North American Indians 10. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 113–124.
- Mithun, Marianne (1999). The languages of Native America. Cambridge University Press.
- Troike, Rudolf C. (1988). "Amotomanco (Otomoaca) and Tanpachoa as Uto-Aztecan languages." IJAL 54:235-241.
- Campbell, Lyle (1979). "Middle American languages". In Campbell, Lyle; Mithun, Marianne. The Languages of Native America: Historical and Comparative Assessment. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 902–1000.
- Goddard, Ives (1999). Native languages and language families of North America (wall map). Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
- Kroeber, Alfred Louis (1907). Shoshonean dialects of California. The University Press. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- Steele, Susan. "Uto-Aztecan: An assessment for historical and comparative linguistics". In Campbell, Lyle; Mithun, Marianne. The Languages of Native America: Historical and Comparative Assessment. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 444–544.
- Suárez, Jorge (1983). The Mesoamerican Indian languages. Cambridge University Press.
Grammars or linguistic researches for individual languages and Uto-Aztecan groupings
- Whorf, Benjamin Lee. 1946. The Hopi Language, Toreva Dialect. In Cornelius Osgood, ed., Linguistic structures of native America. New York: Wenner-Gren Foundation pp. 902-1000. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology; 6.
Hopi Dictionary Project (1998). Hopi Dictionary: Hopìikwa Lavàytutuveni: A Hopi–English Dictionary of the Third Mesa Dialect With an English–Hopi Finder List and a Sketch of Hopi Grammar. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
- Jeanne, LaVerne Masayesva (1978). Aspects of Hopi grammar. MIT, dissertation.
- C.F. Voegelin. 1935. Tübatulabal Grammar. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 34/2. Berkeley: University of California Press.
C.F. Voegelin. 1958. "Working Dictionary of Tubatulabal," International Journal of American Linguistics 24:221–228.
- David Iannucci. 1972. "Numic historical phonology," Cornell University PhD dissertation.
Michael Nichols. 1973. "Northern Paiute historical grammar," University of California, Berkeley PhD dissertation
Wick R. Miller. 1986. "Numic Languages," Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 11, Great Basin. Ed. by Warren L. d’Azevedo. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Pages 98–106.
- Lila Wistrand Robinson & James Armagost. 1990. Comanche Dictionary and Grammar. Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics Publication 92. Dallas, Texas: The Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.
Jean O. Charney. 1993. A Grammar of Comanche. Studies in the Anthropology of North American Indians. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
- Jon P. Dayley. 1989. Tümpisa (Panamint) Shoshone Grammar. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 115. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
Jon P. Dayley. 1989. Tümpisa (Panamint) Shoshone Dictionary. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 116. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
- John E. McLaughlin. 2006. Timbisha (Panamint). Languages of the World/Materials 453. Muenchen: LINCOM Europa.
- John E. McLaughlin. 2012. Shoshoni Grammar. Languages of the World/Meterials 488. Meunchen: LINCOM Europa.
- Richley H. Crapo. 1976. Big Smokey Valley Shoshoni. Desert Research Institute Publications in the Social Sciences 10. Reno: University of Nevada Press.
Beverly Crum & Jon Dayley. 1993. Western Shoshoni Grammar. Boise State University Occasional Papers and Monographs in Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics Volume No. 1. Boise, Idaho: Department of Anthropology, Boise State University.
- Wick R. Miller. 1972. Newe Natekwinappeh: Shoshoni Stories and Dictionary. University of Utah Anthropological Papers 94. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
Wick R. Miller. 1996. "Sketch of Shoshone, a Uto-Aztecan Language," Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 17, Languages. Ed. Ives Goddard. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Pages 693–720.
- Drusilla Gould & Christopher Loether. 2002. An Introduction to the Shoshoni Language: Dammen Daigwape. Salt Lake City, Utah: The University of Utah Press.
- D.B. Shimkin. 1949. "Shoshone, I: Linguistic Sketch and Text," International Journal of American Linguistics 15:175–188.
D. B. Shimkin. 1949. "Shoshone II: Morpheme List," International Journal of American Linguistics 15.203–212.
Malinda Tidzump. 1970. Shoshone Thesaurus. Grand Forks, North Dakota.
- Maurice L. Zigmond, Curtis G. Booth, & Pamela Munro. 1991. Kawaiisu, A Grammar and Dictionary with Texts. Ed. Pamela Munro. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 119. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
- Margaret L. Press. 1979. Chemehuevi, A Grammar and Lexicon. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 92. Berkeley, California. University of California Press.
Laird, Carobeth. 1976. The Chemehuevis. Malki Museum Press, Banning, California.
- Edward Sapir. 1930. Southern Paiute, a Shoshonean Language. Reprinted in 1992 in: The Collected Works of Edward Sapir, X, Southern Paiute and Ute Linguistics and Ethnography. Ed. William Bright. Berlin: Mouton deGruyter.
Edward Sapir. 1931. Southern Paiute Dictionary. Reprinted in 1992 in: The Collected Works of Edward Sapir, X, Southern Paiute and Ute Linguistics and Ethnography. Ed. William Bright. Berlin: Mouton deGruyter.
Pamela A. Bunte. 1979. "Problems in Southern Paiute Syntax and Semantics," Indiana University Ph.D. dissertation.
- Talmy Givón. 2011. Ute Reference Grammar. Culture and Language Use Volume 3. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Jean O. Charney. 1996. A Dictionary of the Southern Ute Language. Ignacio, Colorado: Ute Press.
- Sidney M. Lamb. 1957. "Mono Grammar," University of California, Berkeley Ph.D. dissertation.
Rosalie Bethel, Paul V. Kroskrity, Christopher Loether, & Gregory A. Reinhardt. 1993. A Dictionary of Western Mono. 2nd edition.
- Evan J. Norris. 1986. "A Grammar Sketch and Comparative Study of Eastern Mono," University of California, San Diego Ph.D. dissertation.
- Anonymous. 1987. Yerington Paiute Grammar. Anchorage, Alaska: Bilingual Education Services.
Arie Poldevaart. 1987. Paiute–English English–Paiute Dictionary. Yerington, Nevada: Yerington Paiute Tribe.
- Allen Snapp, John Anderson, & Joy Anderson. 1982. "Northern Paiute," Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar, Volume 3, Uto-Aztecan Grammatical Sketches. Ed. Ronald W. Langacker. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics Publication Number 57, Volume III. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington. Pages 1–92.
- Timothy John Thornes. 2003. "A Northern Paiute Grammar with Texts," University of Oregon Ph.D. dissertation.
- Sven Liljeblad. 1966–1967. "Northern Paiute Lessons," manuscript.
Sven Liljeblad. 1950. "Bannack I: Phonemes," International Journal of American Linguistics 16:126–131
- In addition to the Takic languages considered by Campbell, Tataviam has been recognized as a separate Takic language (Goddard 1996:7; Mithun 1999:539). Tataviam has sometimes been called by a Chumash name, Alliklik, although other scholars have reserved that name for a Chumash dialect or language (cf. Campbell 1997:135; Mithun 1999:544)
- Kenneth C. Hill. 1967. A Grammar of the Serrano Language, University of California, Los Angeles, PhD dissertation.
- Alice J. Anderton. 1988. The Language of the Kitanemuks of California, University of California, Los Angeles, PhD dissertation.
- Hansjakob Seiler. 1977. Cahuilla Grammar. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press.
Hansjakob Seiler and Kojiro Hioki. 1979. Cahuilla Dictionary. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press.
- Jane H. Hill & Rosinda Nolasquez. 1973. Mulu'wetam, the First People: Cupeno Oral History and Language. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press.
Jane H. Hill. 2005. A Grammar of Cupeño. University of California Publications in Linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Most authorities have agreed with Campbell in considering Juaneño (now extinct) a dialect of Luiseño, but Mithun (1999:539) classified it as a separate language.
Alfred L. Kroeber & George William Grace. 1960. The Sparkman Grammar of Luiseño. University of California Publications in Linguistics 16. Berkeley: The University of California Press.
William Bright. 1968. A Luiseno Dictionary. University of California Publications in Linguistics 51. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Villiana Hyde. 1971. An Introduction to the Luiseño Language. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press.
Eric Bryant Elliott. 1999. "Dictionary of Rincon Luiseno," University of California, San Diego PhD dissertation.
- Ofelia Zepeda. 1983 . A Tohono O'odham Grammar. Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press.
Dean Saxton, Lucile Saxton, & Susie Enos. 1998. Dictionary: Tohono O'Odham/Pima to English, English to Tohono O'Odham/Pima. 2nd edition. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press.
- Roberto Escalante H. & Zarina Estrada Fernandez. 1993. Textos y gramatica del pima bajo. Sonora: Departamento de Letra y Linguistica, Universidad de Mexico.
- Burton W. Bascom. 1982. "Northern Tepehuan," Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar, Volume 3, Uto-Aztecan Grammatical Sketches. Ed. by Ronald W. Langacker. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. Pages 267–393.
- T. Willett. 1991. A reference grammar of southeastern Tepehuan. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and University of Texas at Arlington.
- J. Alden Mason. 1916. "Tepecano, A Piman language of western Mexico," Annals of the New York Academy of Science 25:309–416.
- Donald H. Burgess. 1984. "Western Tarahumara," Studies in Uto-Aztecan grammar 4: Southern Uto-Aztecan grammatical sketches. Ed. Ronald W. Langacker. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics 56. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. Pages 1–149.
- Wick R. Miller. 1996. La lengua guarijio: gramatica, vocabulario y textos. Mexico City: Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, UNAM.
- Andrés Lionnet. 1978. El idioma tubar y los tubares. Segun documentos ineditos de C. S. Lumholtz y C. V. Hartman. Mexico, D. F: Universidad Iberoamericana.
- Andrés Lionnet. 1978. Elementos de la lengua cahita (yaqui–mayo). México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
- John M. Dedrick & Eugene H. Casad, ed. 1999. Yaqui Language Structures. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
David L. Shaul. 1999. Yoeme–English English–Yoeme Standard Dictionary. New York: Hippocrene Books.
- Howard Collard & E. Collard. 1962. Vocabulario Mayo. Vocabularios Indígenas No. 6. México: ILV.
Jeff Burnham. 1984. Una gramática de la Lengua Mayo. Hermosillo, Sonora: Universidad de Sonora.
- Natal Lombardo. 1702. Arte de la Lengua Teguima vulgarmente llamada Opata. Mexico: Miguel de Ribera.
- Andrés Lionnet. 1986. El eudeve, un idioma extinto de Sonora (Study based on materials of J. Johnson, Loaysa, Bartlett, and Smith). Mexico: Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.
David L. Shaul. 1991. "Eudeve morphosyntax: an overview," International Journal of American Linguistics 57:70–107.
- Eugene H. Casad. 1984. "Cora," Studies in Uto-Aztecan grammar 4: Southern Uto-Aztecan grammatical sketches. Ed. Ronald W. Langacker. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics 56. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. Pages 153–149.
- José Luis Iturrioz Leza y Julio Ramírez de la Cruz, et al. 2001. Gramática Didáctica del Huichol: Vol. I. Estructura Fonológica y Sistema de Escritura. Departamento de Estudios en Lenguas Indígenas–Universidad de Guadalajara – Secretaria de Educación Pública.
- Franz Boas. 1917. "El dialecto mexicano de Pochutla, Oaxaca," International Journal of American Linguistics 1:9–44.
- Yolanda Lastra de Suárez. 1986. Las áreas dialectales del náhuatl moderno. Mexico: Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
- Lyle Campbell. 1985. The Pipil language of El Salvador. Berlin: Mouton. Mouton grammar library; 1.
- Fray Alonso de Molina. 1992 . Vocabulario en Lengua Castellana y Mexicana y Mexicana y Castellana. Mexico, D.F.: Porrúa.
- Horacio Carochi. 1983 . Arte de la lengua mexicana: con la declaración de los adverbios della. Mexico, D.F.: Porrúa.
- Uto-Aztecan.org, a website devoted to the comparative study of the Uto-Aztecan language family
- Swadesh vocabulary lists for Uto-Aztecan languages (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix)
- LINGUIST List MultiTree Project: Uto-Aztecan
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