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Ukrainische Hilfspolizei
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1982-161-01A, Ukrainische Wachmannschaft eines Torfwerks.jpg
Active July 27, 1941
Allegiance  Germany
Role Auxiliary police

The Ukrainische Hilfspolizei (English: Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, Ukrainian: Українська поліція допоміжна, Ukrains’ka dopomizhna politsiia) was an official designation of the Ukrainian police in the Nazi occupied Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic during World War II.[1] It operated from the mid-August 1941 under the control of German Ordnungspolizei. The Ukrainian Auxiliary Police consisted to two distinct categories of German-controlled armed policing forces in the occupied East. The first comprised mobile police units most often called Schutzmannschaften, or Schuma, organized into battalion-formations and deployed to anti-Jewish and anti-partisan operations in most areas of the East. – These units were subordinated directly to the German Commander of Order Police for an area. The second category was the local police force (approximately, a constabulary), called simply the Ukrainian Police (or UP) but also stationary Schutzmannschaften by the German administration, which the SS raised most successfully in the District of Galicia (formed August 1, 1941) extending south-east from the General Government. The UP formations appeared as well in significant towns and cities such as Kyiv further east in German occupied Ukraine. The urban based forces were subordinated to the city's German Commander of Municipal Police (Schutzpolizei or Schupo); the rural police posts were subordinated to the area German Commander of Gendarmerie. The Schupo and Gendarmerie structures were themselves subordinated to the area Commander of Order Police.[2]

The UP in the occupied Ukrainian SSR came into existence as the result of an order issued by the German commander in chief of Order Police (Kraków) on July 27, 1941 after the commencement of Operation Barbarossa.[3] The total number enlisted numbered slightly more than 35,000.[4] Some 6,000 of them - including 120 low-level officers - served in the politically separate District of Galicia.[5] In Reichskommissariat Ukraine auxiliary police were named Schutzmannschaft.[6][7]

The name of the unit reflected its geographic jurisdiction rather than the ethnic makeup of recruits.[3] The makeup of the officer corps were often representative of various nationalities. Professor Wendy Lower from Towson University writes that as the largest population under German occupation rule, Ukrainians outnumbered other non-Germans in the auxiliary police forces; the Volksdeutsche Germans from Ukraine meanwhile were given leadership roles.[8]

Many of those who joined the ranks of the police had served as militiamen under Soviet rule since 1939.[9] Tadeusz Piotrowski claims the majority of the police was made from members of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists-B,[10] while Ivan Patryljak claims that the German authorities expressly forbade drafting known nationalists. Nonetheless, the ethnic composition of Auxiliary Police reflected the demographics of the land and included Russians, Poles, and German Volksdeutsche drafted from the local population and from Soviet POWs wrote Gregorovich (Ukrainian Review).[11] Most however were ethnic Ukrainians, hence the name according to Prusin.[12]

The auxiliary police were directly under the command of the Germanic-SS, Einsatzgruppen, and military administration.[13] The units were used primarily to keep order among the civilian population and carry out normal constabulary duties.[14] Their actions were restricted by other police groups such as the Sonderdienst, made up of Volksdeutsche; the Kripo (Criminal police); Bahnschutz (railroad and transport police); and the Werkschutz, who kept order and guarded industrial plants. They were supported by the Ukrainian Protection Police and the Ukrainian Order Police.[14]

In Distrikt Galizien, the Ukrainian auxiliary police forces were under the command of the German office in Kraków. A Ukrainian command centre for the auxiliary police did not exist. The highest ranked Ukrainian auxiliary police officer only rose to the rank of major - V. Pituley, who became a district commandant (Major der Ukrainische Polizei und Kommandeur) in Lemberg (now Lviv). A police school was established in Lviv by the district SS-and-Police leader in order to meet plans for growth. The school director was Ivan Kozak.[15]

Participation in Holocaust and Nazi atrocities[edit]

Professor Alexander Statiev of the Canadian University of Waterloo writes that Ukrainian Auxiliary Police were the major perpetrator of the Holocaust on Soviet territories based on native origins, and those police units participated in the extermination of 150,000 Jews in the area of Volhynia alone.[16] German historian Dieter Pohl in The Shoah in Ukraine writes that the auxiliary police was active during killing operations by the Germans already in the first phases of the German occupation.[17] The auxiliary police registered the Jews, conducted raids and guarded ghettos, loaded convoys to execution sites and cordoned them off. Some 300 auxiliary policemen from Kiev helped organize the massacre in Babi Yar.[17] They also took part in the massacre in Dnipropetrovsk, where the field command noted that the cooperation ran "smoothly in every way". Cases where local commandants ordered murder of Jews using police force are known.[17] In killings of Jews in Kryvy Rih the "entire Ukrainian auxiliary police" was put to use.[17]

Persecution of Poles[edit]

Defining nationality of Ukrainian policemen using present-day classifications is problematic, because in German occupied eastern Poland (see: District of Galicia) there was no perception of de jure Ukrainian independent statehood. Some Ukrainian Hilfspolizei who harbored a pathological hatred for Poles and Jews – resulting in acts of mass murder – remained formally and legally Polish from the time before the invasion until much later. Thirty years after the war ended, one former Ukrainian policeman, Jan Masłowski (a.k.a. Ivan Maslij), was recognized in Rakłowice near Wrocław by Polish survivors of massacres committed by Ukrainische Hilfspolizei in the towns of Szczepiatyn, Dyniska, Tarnoszyn, Niemstów, and Korczów. He was sentenced to death in Poland in 1978.[18]

On November 13, 1942, members of the Ukrainische Hilfspolizei robbed and executed 32 Poles and 1 Jew in the village of Obórki (pl), located in prewar Wołyń Voivodeship. After the crime the village was burned down.[19] On December 16, 1942, the Ukrainian policemen, led by Germans, killed 360 Poles in Jezierce (former powiat Rivne).[19][20]

In Lviv, in late February and March 1944, the Ukrainische Hilfspolizei arrested a number of young men of Polish nationality. Many of them were later found dead and their Identity documents stolen. The Government Delegation for Poland started negotiations with the OUN-B. When they failed, Kedyw began an action called "Nieszpory" (Vespers) where 11 policemen were shot in retaliation and the murders of young Poles in Lviv stopped.[21]

Role in the Ukrainian Insurgent Army formation[edit]

For many who joined the police force, enlistment served as an opportunity to receive military training and direct access to weapons. Bandera's OUN leadership on March 20, 1943 issued secret instructions ordering their members who had joined the German auxiliary police to desert with their weapons and join with the military detachment of OUN (SD) units in Volyn. The number of trained and armed policemen who in spring 1943 joined the ranks of the future Ukrainian Insurgent Army were estimated to be 10,000. This process in some places involved engaging in armed conflict with German forces as they tried to prevent desertion.[22]

Battalions[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Symposium Presentations (September 2005). "The Holocaust and [German] Colonialism in Ukraine: A Case Study" (PDF file, direct download 1.22 MB). The Holocaust in the Soviet Union. The Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. pp. 1–154. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  2. ^ See the treatment in Dieter Pohl, Nationalsocialistische Judenverfolgung in Ostgalizien 1941-1944: Organisation und Durchführung eines staatlichen Massenverbrechens (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1997), Section II.2: "Der Besatzungsapparat im Distrikt Galizien"
  3. ^ a b Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine. University of Toronto Press. pp. 631, 633. 
  4. ^ В. Дзьобак Порівняльна характеристика колаборації населення Росії й України в роки радянсько-німецької війни // Сторінки воєнної історії України Випуск 11. - Київ: Інститут історії України НАН України, 2009. - №11. - V.Dzobak Comparison of collaboration population of Russia and Ukraine during the Soviet-German War / Military History of Ukraine Vol 11. - Kyiv: Institute of History of Ukraine, 2009. - № 11. - page 267
  5. ^ Офіцинський В Дистрикт Галичина (1941—1944). Історико-політичний нарис. — Ужгород, 2001 - V Ofitsynskyy District Galicia (1941–1944). The historical and political essay. - Uzhgorod, 2001 - , Українську міліцію 15 серпня 1941 р. було переорганізовано в Українську допоміжну поліцію, яка на осінь 1941 р. нараховувала 6000 чол.
  6. ^ Czesław Madajczyk - "Faszyzm i okupacje 1938-1945", Poznań 1983, ISBN 83-210-0335-4, t.2, s. 359
  7. ^ By orders of Reichsführer-SS from 25th July and 31st August 1941
  8. ^ “Local Participation in the Crimes of the Holocaust in Ukraine: Forms and Consequences” Prof. Wendy Lower, LMU Muenchen/Towson Univ MD [1]
  9. ^ Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations, pg. 159
  10. ^ Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947 Tadeusz Piotrowski 1997 page 221
  11. ^ Gregorovich, Andrew (Spring 1995). "World War II in Ukraine". FORUM Ukrainian Review (FORUM) (92): 25. Retrieved 13 October 2010. 
  12. ^ Александр Прусин (Aleksandr Prusin), Украинская полиция и Холокост в генеральном округе Киев, 1941–1943: действия и мотивации. ГОЛОКОСТ І СУЧАСНІСТЬ *№ 1, 2007. Національна бібліотека України. Retrieved from the Internet Archive on June 11, 2013. (Russian)
  13. ^ Spector, Robert Melvin (2005). World without civilization: mass murder and the Holocaust. University Press of America. p. 678. 
  14. ^ a b Abbott, Peter (2004). Ukrainian Armies 1914-55. Osprey Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 1-84176-668-2. 
  15. ^ Офіцинський В Ди­стрикт Галичина (1941—1944). Історико-політичний нарис. — Ужгород, 2001 - V Ofitsynskyy District Galicia (1941–1944). The historical and political essay. - Uzhgorod, 2001 - , Комендантом Львівської поліції був Володимир Пітулай (Vladimir Pitulay), його заступником Лев Огоновський (Leo Ohonovskyi). Особовий склад Української допоміжної поліції формувався з молодих людей, які закінчили курси Поліційної школи у Львові. У кінці січня такі курси закінчили 186 українських поліцаїв. А 15 травня 1942 р. закінчився другий вишкільний курс, який підготував 192 поліцаїв. [verification needed]
  16. ^ The Soviet Counterinsurgency in the Western Borderlands Statiev Alexander Cambridge University Press 2010 page 69
  17. ^ a b c d Ray Brandon, Wendy Lower (May 28, 2008). "Ukrainian Society, Soviet Officialdom, and the West". The Shoah in Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization. Indiana University Press. p. 55. ISBN 0253001595. Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  18. ^ Robert Horbaczewski (2005-02-16). "Ostatnia kara śmierci (The last case of capital punishment)". Region - Gospodarka i polityka. Kronika Tygodnia (reprint: Roztocze.net). Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  19. ^ a b Grzegorz Motyka, Ukraińska partyzantka 1942-1960[page needed]
  20. ^ Czesław Partacz, Krzysztof Łada, Polska wobec ukraińskich dążeń niepodległościowych w czasie II wojny światowej, (Toruń: Centrum Edukacji Europejskiej, 2003)
  21. ^ Grzegorz Motyka, Rafał Wnuk, Pany i rezuny, 1997, p. 63
  22. ^ (Ukrainian) Організація українських націоналістів і Українська повстанська армія. "Двофронтова" боротьба УПА, p.165.

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