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U Boot 212 HDW 1.jpg
Type 212 submarine in dock at HDW/Kiel
Class overview
Builders: Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft GmbH (HDW) - Fincantieri SpA
Operators:  German Navy
 Marina Militare
Preceded by: Type 206 submarine, Sauro class submarine
Cost: 371 million Euros
In service: 2002
In commission: 2005
Building: 1
Planned: 10
Completed: 9
Active: 8
General characteristics
Displacement: 1,450 tonnes (1,430 long tons) surfaced
1,830 tonnes (1,800 long tons) submerged
Length: 56 m (183.7 ft)
57.2 m (187.66 ft) (2nd batch)
Beam: 7 m (22.96 ft)
Draft: 6 m (19.68 ft)
Installed power: 1 x MTU-396 16V (2,150 kW); 1 x Siemens Permasyn electric motor Type FR6439-3900KW (2,850 kW)
Propulsion: 1 MTU 16V 396 marine diesel engine[1]
9 HDW/Siemens PEM fuel cells, 30–40 kW each (U31)
2 HDW/Siemens PEM fuel cells each with 120 kW (U32, U33, U34)[2]
1 Siemens Permasyn electric motor 1700 kW, driving a single seven-bladed skewback propeller
Speed: 20 knots (37 km/h) submerged, 12 knots surfaced[3]
Range: 8,000 nm (14,800 km, or 9,196 miles) at 8 knots (15 km/h) surfaced
3 weeks without snorkeling, 12 weeks overall
Endurance: Surface 14,800 km at 15 km/h, Subsurface 780 km at 15 km/h, 3,000 nm at 4 kts,
Test depth: over 700 m (2,296 ft)[4]
Complement: 5 officers, 22 men
Sensors and
processing systems:
CSU 90 (DBQS-40FTC), Sonar: ISUS90-20, Radar: Kelvin Hughes Type 1007 I-band nav.,
Electronic warfare
and decoys:
EADS FL 1800U suite
Armament: 6 x 533 mm torpedo tubes (in 2 forward pointing groups of 3) with 13[5] DM2A4, A184 Mod.3, Black Shark Torpedo, IDAS missiles and 24 external naval mines (optional)

The German Type 212 class, also Italian Todaro class,[6] is a highly advanced design of non-nuclear submarine developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) for the German and Italian Navies. It features diesel propulsion and an additional air-independent propulsion (AIP) system using Siemens proton exchange membrane (PEM) compressed hydrogen fuel cells. The submarine can operate at high speed on diesel power or switch to the AIP system for silent slow cruising, staying submerged for up to three weeks without surfacing and with no exhaust heat. The system is also said to be vibration-free, extremely quiet and virtually undetectable.

Type 212 is the first fuel cell propulsion system equipped submarine series.

Development[edit]

At the beginning of the 1990s the German Navy was seeking a replacement for the Type 206 submarines. Initial study started on a Type 209 improved design, with AIP capability, called Type 212.

The final programme started in 1994 as the two navies of Germany and Italy began working together to design a new conventional submarine, respectively to operate in the shallow and confined waters of the Baltic sea and in the deeper waters of the Mediterranean sea. The two different requirements were mixed into a common one and, because of significant updates to the design, the designation has been changed to Type 212A since then.

In 1996 a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) gave the start to the cooperation. Its main aim was the construction of identical boats and the start of a collaboration in logistic and life-cycle support for the two navies.

The German government placed an initial order of four Type 212A submarines in 1998. The German Submarine Consortium built them at the shipyards of HDW and Thyssen Nordseewerke GmbH (TNSW) of Emden. Different sections of the submarines were constructed at both sites at the same time and then half of them were shipped to the respective other yard so that both HDW and Thyssen Nordseewerke assembled two complete submarines each.

In the same year the Italian government placed an order of two U212A submarines built by Fincantieri for the Marina Militare (Italian Navy) at Muggiano shipyard, designated as the Todaro class.[6]

The German Navy ordered two additional, improved submarines in 2006, to be delivered from 2012 on. They will be 1.2 meters longer to give additional space for a new reconnaissance mast.

On 21 April 2008 the Italian Navy ordered a second batch of submarine in the same configuration of the original ones. Some upgrading should involve materials and components of commercial derivation, as well as the software package of the CMS. The intention is to keep the same configuration of the first series and reduce maintenance costs.

The export-oriented Type 214 submarine succeeds the Type 209 submarine and shares certain features with the Type 212A, such as the AIP fuel cell propulsion.

In April 2006, U-32 sailed from the Baltic to Rota, Spain in a journey lasting two weeks, covering 1,500 nautical miles (2,800 km; 1,700 mi) without surfacing or snorkelling.[7] Seven years later, while on the way to participate in naval exercises in the USA, U-32 established a new record for non-nuclear submarines with 18 days in submerged transit without snorkelling.[8]

Poland announced in Dec. 2013 they will not buy, but only lease, two U212-A's, on account of not meeting "requirements of tactical and technical equipment developed by the military, including in particular the propulsion system, missile weapons and rescue system".[9]

Design[edit]

Partly owing to the "X" arrangement of the stern planes, the Type 212 is capable of operating in as little as 17 metres of water, allowing it to come much closer to shore than most contemporary submarines. This gives it an advantage in covert operations, as SCUBA-equipped commandos operating from the boat can surface close to the beach and execute their mission more quickly and with less effort.

A notable design feature is the prismatic hull cross-section and smoothly faired transitions from the hull to the sail, improving the boat's stealth characteristics. The ship and internal fixtures are constructed of nonmagnetic materials, significantly reducing the chances of it being detected by magnetometers or setting off magnetic naval mines.

AIP[edit]

U32

Although hydrogen–oxygen propulsion had been considered for submarines as early as World War I, the concept was not very successful until recently due to fire and explosion concerns. In the Type 212 this has been countered by storing the fuel and oxidizer in tanks outside the crew space, between the pressure hull and outer light hull. The gases are piped through the pressure hull to the fuel cells as needed to generate electricity, but at any given time there is only a very small amount of gas present in the crew space.

Weapons[edit]

U31 of the German Navy in Kiel harbor
U33 in Tallinn harbor, Estonia

Currently, the Type 212A is capable of launching the fiber optic-guided[10] DM2A4 Seehecht ("Seahake") heavyweight torpedoes, the WASS A184 Mod.3 torpedoes, the WASS BlackShark torpedoes and short-range missiles from its six torpedo tubes, which use a water ram expulsion system. Future capability may include tube-launched cruise missiles.

The short-range missile IDAS (based on the IRIS-T missile), primarily intended for use against air threats as well as small or medium-sized sea- or near land targets, is currently being developed by Diehl BGT Defence to be fired from Type 212's torpedo tubes. IDAS is fiber-optic guided and has a range of approx. 20 km. Four missiles fit in one torpedo tube, stored in a magazine.[11] First deliveries of IDAS for the German Navy are scheduled from 2014 on.[12]

A 30 mm auto-cannon called Muräne (moray) to support diver operations or to give warning shots is being considered, too. The cannon, probably a version of the RMK30 built by Rheinmetall, will be stored in a retractable mast and can be fired without the boat emerging. The mast will also be designed to contain three Aladin UAVs for reconnaissance missions. This mast is likely to be mounted on the 2nd batch of Type 212 submarines for the German Navy.

List of boats[edit]

Scirè arrives on a port visit at New London, Connecticut, on 27 August 2009
Pennant
number
Name Laid
down
Launched Commissioned
 Deutsche Marine
S181 U-31 1 July 1998 20 March 2002 19 October 2005
S182 U-32 11 July 2000 4 December 2003 19 October 2005
S183 U-33 30 April 2001 September 2004 13 June 2006
S184 U-34 December 2001 July 2006 3 May 2007
S185 U-35 21 August 2007 15 November 2011 23 March 2015
S186 U-36 6 February 2013 planned for late 2015
 Marina Militare
S526 Salvatore Todaro 3 July 1999 6 November 2003 29 March 2006
S527 Scirè 27 May 2000 18 December 2004 19 February 2007
S528 Pietro Venuti 9 December 2009 9 October 2014
S529 Romeo Romei 2012 4 July 2015

General characteristics[edit]

In dock at HDW/Kiel
Todaro in dock at Fincantieri, Muggiano.
  • Displacement: 1,450 tonnes surfaced, 1,830 tonnes submerged
  • Length: 56 m (183.7 ft), 57.2 m (187.66 ft) (2nd batch)
  • Beam: 7 m (22.96 ft)
  • Draft: 6 m (19.68 ft)
  • Propulsion:
  • Speed: 20 knots (37 km/h) submerged, 12 knots surfaced[3]
  • Depth: over 700 m (2,296 ft)[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "MTU 16V 396 diesel engine". Retrieved 2006-10-08. 
  2. ^ Holger Naaf: Die Brennstoffzelle auf U 212 A (PDF, German). Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau, Wehrtechnische Dienststelle für Schiffe und Marinewaffen Eckernförde, 23. September 2008.
  3. ^ a b "Uboote Klasse 212A". Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  4. ^ a b "Deutsche Marine TV-Interview" (in German). Retrieved 2007-04-17. 
  5. ^ a b "Dette er ubåtsjefens våte drøm - nyheter". Dagbladet.no. 2010-11-18. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  6. ^ a b "Classe Todaro page at Marina Militare website". Retrieved 2010-04-27. 
  7. ^ Thomas, Doug (2008). "Submarine Developments: Air-Independent Propulsion" (PDF). Canadian Naval Review 3 (4). Retrieved 2012-12-15. 
  8. ^ http://www.thyssenkrupp.com/en/presse/art_detail.html&eid=TKBase_1368607004184_270131775
  9. ^ http://www.thelocal.de/20131129/poland-gives-german-subs-thumbs-down
  10. ^ DM2 A-4 Uses a fibre-optic-wire
  11. ^ "Diehl BGT IDAS missile". Archived from the original on 2008-07-10. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  12. ^ Erprobung des Lenkflugkörpers IDAS, german
  13. ^ 24 Torpedoes ATLAS DM2A4

External links[edit]




Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_212_submarine — Please support Wikipedia.
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13 news items

The Guardian

The Guardian
Mon, 16 Feb 2015 22:53:09 -0800

A German type 212 submarine built by ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems. Defence Materiel Organisation chief, David Gould, will travel to Germany, France and Sweden next month to explain the new process to prospective bidders. Photograph: Schönbrodt/ ...
 
The Jewish Voice
Wed, 10 Sep 2014 02:00:00 -0700

It is the most expensive single vehicle in the IDF's arsenal and unlike the first three Dolphins delivered to Israel, is modeled on the German Navy's Type 212 submarine, and not on the export-only Type 209. The AIP Dolphins are 12 meters longer than ...

The Australian

The Australian
Wed, 20 May 2015 07:02:35 -0700

Germany's TKMS is proposing to build a 4000-tonne Type 216, a concept design based loosely on an enlarged version of its successful existing Type 212 submarine. It is offering fixed-price contracts, saying previously that it could build 12 submarines ...
 
Arutz Sheva
Tue, 23 Sep 2014 10:09:56 -0700

The new INS Tanin is modeled on the German Navy's lighter and sleeker Type 212 submarine, and not on the export-only Type 209 as were the first three Israeli Tanin submarines. Each Dolphin-class submarine is capable of carrying a combined total of up ...

IHS Jane's 360

IHS Jane's 360
Mon, 27 Oct 2014 04:14:01 -0700

Greek Type 209 submarine HS Poseidon, Portuguese Type 214 submarine NRP Tridente, and German Type 212 submarine U33 take part in exercise 'Noble Justification'. Source: NATO/Cedric Artigues. NATO completed its largest naval exercise in five years ...

The National Interest Online

The National Interest Online
Mon, 30 Jun 2014 15:39:04 -0700

But wait a minute. The U.S. is only one member of NATO, and it happens to be one of the members that isn't even on the European continent. Should NATO and Russia come to blows, it is certain that European forces will go into battle ...

Paul Tan's Automotive News

Paul Tan's Automotive News
Mon, 17 Nov 2014 17:37:51 -0800

Barely any time has past since Toyota confirmed the “Mirai” name for its production hydrogen-powered car, and now Honda has fired a shot across the bow with its own fuel-cell vehicle. Called (very imaginatively) the Honda FCV Concept, the company's ...
 
Defense Update
Tue, 29 Nov 2011 14:55:42 -0800

RBS15 Mk3 is the main surface offensive weapon carried on the new K130 missile corvette. One of the largest fleets in NATO, the German Navy appears to have escaped most of the recent cuts imposed by the government's austerity plan, since construction ...
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