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A 20-foot-long (6.1 m) ISO container equals 1 TEU.
Forty-foot containers stacked on top of two twenty-foot containers. These four containers represent 6 TEU.

The twenty-foot equivalent unit (often TEU or teu) is an inexact unit of cargo capacity often used to describe the capacity of container ships and container terminals.[1] It is based on the volume of a 20-foot-long (6.1 m) intermodal container, a standard-sized metal box which can be easily transferred between different modes of transportation, such as ships, trains and trucks.[1]

There is a lack of standardisation in regard to height, ranging between 4 feet 3 inches (1.30 m) and 9 feet 6 inches (2.90 m), with the most common height being 8 feet 6 inches (2.59 m).[2] Also, it is common to designate 45-foot (13.7 m) containers as 2 TEU, rather than 2.25 TEU.

Forty-foot equivalent unit[edit]

The standard intermodal container is designated as twenty feet long and 8 feet (2.44 m) wide.[1] Additionally there is a standard container with the same width but a doubled length of forty feet called a 40-foot container, which equals one forty-foot equivalent unit (often FEU or feu) in cargo transportation (considered to be two TEU, see below).

Load bearing of container stacking is at the 40 foot corner stone couplings.

In order to allow stacking of these types a forty-foot intermodal container has an exact length of 40 feet (12.192 m), while the standard twenty-foot intermodal container is slightly shorter having an exact length of 19 feet 10.5 inches (6.058 m). The twistlocks on a ship are put at a distance so that two standard twenty-foot containers have a gap of three inches which allows a single forty-foot container to be put on top.[citation needed]

The forty-foot containers have found wider acceptance as they can be pulled by semi-trailer truck. The length of such a combination is within the limits of the national[where?] road regulations requiring no special permission. As some road regulations allow longer trucks, there are also variations of the standard forty-foot container - in Europe and most other countries a container of 45 feet (13.72 m) may be pulled as a trailer. Containers with a length of 48 feet (14.63 m) or 53 feet (16.15 m) are restricted to road transport in the USA. Although longer than 40 feet, these variants are put in the same class of forty-foot equivalent units.

Container ships only take 40s and 20 footers below deck plus 45 footers above deck. 90% of the containers that container ships carry are 40 foot units. As container ships carry 90% of the worlds freight, 81% of the world's freight moves via 40 foot containers.

The MV Emma Mærsk officially carries 11,000 TEU (14 tons gross each)[n 1]

Equivalence[edit]

TEU capacities for common container sizes
Length Width Height Volume TEU
20 ft (6.1 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) 1,360 cu ft (38.5 m3) 1
40 ft (12.2 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) 2,720 cu ft (77 m3) 2
45 ft (13.7 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) 3,060 cu ft (86.6 m3) 2 or 2.25
48 ft (14.6 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) 3,264 cu ft (92.4 m3) 2.4
53 ft (16.2 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) 3,604 cu ft (102.1 m3) 2.65
High cube
20 ft (6.1 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 9 ft 6 in (2.90 m) 1,520 cu ft (43 m3) 1[2]
Half height
20 ft (6.1 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 4 ft 3 in (1.30 m) 680 cu ft (19.3 m3) 1[2]

As the TEU is an inexact unit, it cannot be converted precisely into other units. The related unit forty-foot equivalent unit, however, is defined as two TEU. The most common dimensions for a 20-foot (6.1 m) container are 20 feet (6.1 m) long, 8 feet (2.44 m) wide, and 8 feet 6 inches (2.59 m) high, for a volume of 1,360 cubic feet (39 m3). However, both 9-foot-6-inch-tall (2.90 m) High cube and 4-foot-3-inch (1.30 m) half height containers are also reckoned as 1 TEU.[2] This gives a volume range of 680 to 1,520 cubic feet (19 to 43 m3) for one TEU.

While the TEU is not itself a measure of mass, some conclusions can be drawn about the maximum mass that a TEU can represent. The maximum gross mass for a 20-foot (6.1 m) dry cargo container is 24,000 kilograms (53,000 lb).[5] Subtracting the tare mass of the container itself, the maximum amount of cargo per TEU is reduced to approximately 21,600 kilograms (47,600 lb).[5]

Similarly, the maximum gross mass for a 40-foot (12.2 m) dry cargo container (including the 9-foot-6-inch-high (2.90 m) cube container) is 30,480 kilograms (67,200 lb).[5] After correcting for tare weight, this gives a cargo capacity of 26,500 kilograms (58,400 lb).[5]

Twenty-foot, "heavy tested" containers are available for heavy goods such as heavy machinery. These containers allow a maximum weight of 67,200 pounds (30,500 kg), an empty weight of 5,290 pounds (2,400 kg), and a net load of 61,910 pounds (28,080 kg).[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Maersk claims 14,780 TEU worth of space and a loading plan of 15,212 TEU.[3][4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Rowlett, 2004.
  2. ^ a b c d "Container Shipping". damovers.com. damovers.com. Retrieved 2008-03-22. [dead link]
  3. ^ "Namegiving of newbuilding L 203". Odense Steel Shipyard. 2006-12-08. Archived from the original on July 13, 2007. 
  4. ^ Koepf, Pam (2006). "Overachievers We Love". Popular Science 269 (6): 24. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Shipping containers". Emase. Archived from the original on April 20, 2009. Retrieved 2007-02-10. 

Bibliography[edit]


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118 news items

Capital FM Kenya

Capital FM Kenya
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 08:33:45 -0700

One of the main qualifications of the firm to manage the berths will be experience in operating a berth with a capacity of 400,000 twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) containers. The company must also be ready to own 51 percent of the facility, with the ...

MarineLink

MarineLink
Mon, 18 Aug 2014 04:48:45 -0700

The total number of container ships amounted to 5,088 vessels as of August with a capacity of 17.8 million twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU). That capacity has doubled in the past five years, global shipping association BIMCO estimates. During the 12 ...
 
GMA News
Mon, 18 Aug 2014 05:56:15 -0700

Transferring empty containers and some aspects of port operations from Manila to Subic and Batangas may not be enough to resolve the port congestion plaguing the Port Area as more business operations are located in Metropolis, economists said.
 
Stuff.co.nz
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 21:07:30 -0700

The company said Otago was already the deepest container port in the country at 14 metres and it was looking to add a metre to attract ships of 6500 to 8000 TEU (twenty-foot equivalent unit) containers. Tauranga and Otago are the only two ports in the ...

Telegraph.co.uk

Telegraph.co.uk
Fri, 15 Aug 2014 05:22:30 -0700

It stands for Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit - a standard shipping container 20ft long, 8ft wide and 9ft high and capable of holding almost 30 tons of cargo. A ship laden with 'TEU' shipping containers makes its way through the canal. 10) As international ...
 
Reuters
Tue, 12 Aug 2014 02:45:00 -0700

... RPO:Rubberized Processed Oil; RSBO:Refined Soybean Oil; SPKFA:Split Palm Kernel Fatty Acid; SKO:Super Kerosene Oil; CNTR: Containers; Comp:Completed; TEU:Twenty foot Equivalent Unit; TO COM: to Commence; CBFS: Carbon Black Feed Stock; ...
 
bunkerworld (subscription)
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 00:07:30 -0700

Hong Kong-based Orient Overseas Container Line (OOCL) is to upgrade four under-construction boxships for fuel efficiency. The four 8,888 twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) vessels are being built by China's Hudong Zhonghua Shipbuilding. Their deliveries ...
 
bunkerworld (subscription)
Fri, 15 Aug 2014 12:30:00 -0700

A 3,100 twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) capacity container vessel under construction at the American National Steel and Shipbuilding Company (NASSCO) has received its dual fuel engine package from MAN Diesel & Turbo. The delivery from Doosan ...
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