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A 20-foot-long (6.1 m) ISO container equals 1 TEU.
Forty-foot containers stacked on top of two twenty-foot containers. These four containers represent 6 TEU.

The twenty-foot equivalent unit (often TEU or teu) is an inexact unit of cargo capacity often used to describe the capacity of container ships and container terminals.[1] It is based on the volume of a 20-foot-long (6.1 m) intermodal container, a standard-sized metal box which can be easily transferred between different modes of transportation, such as ships, trains and trucks.[1]

There is a lack of standardisation in regard to height, ranging between 4 feet 3 inches (1.30 m) and 9 feet 6 inches (2.90 m), with the most common height being 8 feet 6 inches (2.59 m).[2] Also, it is common to designate 45-foot (13.7 m) containers as 2 TEU, rather than 2.25 TEU.

Forty-foot equivalent unit[edit]

The standard intermodal container is designated as twenty feet long and 8 feet (2.44 m) wide.[1] Additionally there is a standard container with the same width but a doubled length of forty feet called a 40-foot container, which equals one forty-foot equivalent unit (often FEU or feu) in cargo transportation (considered to be two TEU, see below).

Load bearing of container stacking is at the 40 foot corner stone couplings.

In order to allow stacking of these types a forty-foot intermodal container has an exact length of 40 feet (12.192 m), while the standard twenty-foot intermodal container is slightly shorter having an exact length of 19 feet 10.5 inches (6.058 m). The twistlocks on a ship are put at a distance so that two standard twenty-foot containers have a gap of three inches which allows a single forty-foot container to be put on top.[citation needed]

The forty-foot containers have found wider acceptance as they can be pulled by semi-trailer truck. The length of such a combination is within the limits of the national[where?] road regulations requiring no special permission. As some road regulations allow longer trucks, there are also variations of the standard forty-foot container - in Europe and most other countries a container of 45 feet (13.72 m) may be pulled as a trailer. Containers with a length of 48 feet (14.63 m) or 53 feet (16.15 m) are restricted to road transport in the USA. Although longer than 40 feet, these variants are put in the same class of forty-foot equivalent units.

Container ships only take 40s and 20 footers below deck plus 45 footers above deck. 90% of the containers that container ships carry are 40 foot units. As container ships carry 90% of the worlds freight, 81% of the world's freight moves via 40 foot containers.

The MV Emma Mærsk officially carries 11,000 TEU (14 tons gross each)[n 1]

Equivalence[edit]

TEU capacities for common container sizes
Length Width Height Volume TEU
20 ft (6.1 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) 1,360 cu ft (38.5 m3) 1
40 ft (12.2 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) 2,720 cu ft (77 m3) 2
45 ft (13.7 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) 3,060 cu ft (86.6 m3) 2 or 2.25
48 ft (14.6 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) 3,264 cu ft (92.4 m3) 2.4
53 ft (16.2 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) 3,604 cu ft (102.1 m3) 2.65
High cube
20 ft (6.1 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 9 ft 6 in (2.90 m) 1,520 cu ft (43 m3) 1[2]
Half height
20 ft (6.1 m) 8 ft (2.44 m) 4 ft 3 in (1.30 m) 680 cu ft (19.3 m3) 1[2]

As the TEU is an inexact unit, it cannot be converted precisely into other units. The related unit forty-foot equivalent unit, however, is defined as two TEU. The most common dimensions for a 20-foot (6.1 m) container are 20 feet (6.1 m) long, 8 feet (2.44 m) wide, and 8 feet 6 inches (2.59 m) high, for a volume of 1,360 cubic feet (39 m3). However, both 9-foot-6-inch-tall (2.90 m) High cube and 4-foot-3-inch (1.30 m) half height containers are also reckoned as 1 TEU.[2] This gives a volume range of 680 to 1,520 cubic feet (19 to 43 m3) for one TEU.

While the TEU is not itself a measure of mass, some conclusions can be drawn about the maximum mass that a TEU can represent. The maximum gross mass for a 20-foot (6.1 m) dry cargo container is 24,000 kilograms (53,000 lb).[5] Subtracting the tare mass of the container itself, the maximum amount of cargo per TEU is reduced to approximately 21,600 kilograms (47,600 lb).[5]

Similarly, the maximum gross mass for a 40-foot (12.2 m) dry cargo container (including the 9-foot-6-inch-high (2.90 m) cube container) is 30,480 kilograms (67,200 lb).[5] After correcting for tare weight, this gives a cargo capacity of 26,500 kilograms (58,400 lb).[5]

Twenty-foot, "heavy tested" containers are available for heavy goods such as heavy machinery. These containers allow a maximum weight of 67,200 pounds (30,500 kg), an empty weight of 5,290 pounds (2,400 kg), and a net load of 61,910 pounds (28,080 kg).[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Maersk claims 14,780 TEU worth of space and a loading plan of 15,212 TEU.[3][4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Rowlett, 2004.
  2. ^ a b c d "Container Shipping". damovers.com. damovers.com. Retrieved 2008-03-22. [dead link]
  3. ^ "Namegiving of newbuilding L 203". Odense Steel Shipyard. 2006-12-08. Archived from the original on July 13, 2007. 
  4. ^ Koepf, Pam (2006). "Overachievers We Love". Popular Science 269 (6): 24. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Shipping containers". Emase. Archived from the original on April 20, 2009. Retrieved 2007-02-10. 

Bibliography[edit]


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DhakaTribune
Mon, 15 Sep 2014 14:45:00 -0700

The port is now able to handle over 22lakh TEUs (twenty-foot equivalent unit) of containers a year against its previous capacity of 20 lakh TEUs, according to the Chittagong Port Authority. It handled 15.4 lakh TEUs of export and import containers last ...
 
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Mon, 15 Sep 2014 13:26:15 -0700

Contguard, a privately held security and technology firm, is a global company that delivers real-time information on Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit (TEU) containers and free cargo traveling across the world. We have developed a unique and technologically ...
 
Fresh Fruit Portal
Thu, 11 Sep 2014 21:18:45 -0700

The combined group would have around 200 container ships, close to one million TEU (twenty-foot equivalent unit) in capacity, and transported cargo volumes of 7.5 million TEU annually, along with US$12 billion worth of business. In March, CSAV ...
 
Financial Express Bangladesh
Mon, 15 Sep 2014 11:00:00 -0700

Currently, the Chittagong Port is able to handle nearly 2.2 million TEUs (twenty-foot equivalent unit) of containers a year against its previous capacity of 2.0 million TEUs, according to the Chittagong Port Authority. The main seaport handled 1.54 ...
 
Business Standard
Sun, 07 Sep 2014 03:30:00 -0700

The broader channel would allow for vessels carrying 12,000 TEU containers (TEU, or "twenty-foot equivalent unit", is the standard unit of measurement for containers) -- a big increase from the current capacity of 5,000 TEU. Work on widening the Panama ...

TradeWinds

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Thu, 11 Sep 2014 17:00:00 -0700

The concept study uses a 16,300 twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) containership designed by Hanjin Shipyard for deployment on an Asia to Europe route. The ship will use a dual-fuel two-stroke engine and two membrane tanks with a total capacity of 11 ...
 
The Star Online
Wed, 10 Sep 2014 17:08:51 -0700

It has handled more than 60mil TEUs (twenty-foot equivalent unit) in containers and 200mil tonnes in conventional cargo within the short span of less than 20 years. Last year alone, it has also handled 7.47mil TEUs. The port has managed to keep ahead ...
 
New Zealand Herald
Tue, 02 Sep 2014 23:47:14 -0700

Port of Tauranga now has the certainty to invest in the infrastructure needed to accommodate the next generation of 6500 TEU (twenty foot equivalent unit) ships. Port of Tauranga has reported an improved financial result for the year to June 30 and a ...
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