Turkish television series (Turkish: televizyon dizileri) are wildly popular both in Turkey and internationally, and place among the country's most well known economic and cultural exports. Turkey is world's second highest TV series exporter after US.The television series industry has played a pivotal role in increasing Turkey's popularity in the Balkans, the Caucasus, Russia, Latin America, Turkic countries, Central Asia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Arab world , Pakistan.
Turkey has currently overtaken both Mexico and Brazil as the world's second highest television series exporter after the United States. In a survey carried out in 16 Middle Eastern countries by the Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation, three out of four of those surveyed said they had seen a Turkish television series. Turkish television shows are almost always available in multiple languages, dubbed or subtitled to fit the target country's language. The success of Turkish television series has boosted tourism as well, as visitors are keen to see the locations used for their favourite shows. The Turkish TV series' sudden immense international popularity since the 2000s has been widely commented on as a social phenomenon.
Turkish seriess feature relatively high production values, with average production costs of nearly $100,000 per hour for high quality series, compared to $35,000 to $40,000 for Arab productions. Since 2001, 65 Turkish television series have been sold abroad, bringing in over $50 million to the booming Turkish television industry. In 2012, Turkish TV series exports were worth $130 million, up from just $1 million in 2007. Turkish series are mostly produced in Istanbul, as television companies chose to settle there after the wave of liberalization for private television in the 1990s.
Turkish television channels producing TV series include TRT, Kanal D, SHOW, STAR, ATV, FOX, tv8, Samanyolu and Kanal 7. The Turkish tv series market is marked by stiff local competition: out of the 60 series produced every year in the country, almost 50% don't run for longer than 13 episodes due to the strong competition among the different local channels, resulting in the high-quality of the productions and contributing to their popularity.
Turkey and Northern Cyprus
Turkey's first tv series was produced in 1975. It is Aşk-ı Memnu which adapted from the eponymous 1899 novel by Halid Ziya Uşaklıgil, was released on TRT channel which state channel, first and one of the period. One channel period continued until 1990. It calls "tek kanal dönemi", also known as "eski Trt dizileri". TRT was produced adaptation of Turkish classic novels and historicial tv series. They were mini tv series. Production was less. But they were widely successful . The most watched tv shows were Çalıkuşu, 4.Murat, Dudaktan Kalbe, Necip Fazıl Kısakürek, Yaprak Dökümü, Dokuzuncu Harciye Koğuşu, Acımak , Gençler, Üç İstanbul. 
But Turkish cinema, also known as Yeşilçam (greenpine) was more popular. Yeşilçam stars didn't play in tv series. 1970s was golden age of Yeşilçam. Yeşilçam was world's 4th biggest cinema. A actor played 3 films in a day. Yeşilçam actresses are Emel Sayın , Adile Naşit, Itır Esen , Filiz Akın , Fatma Girik , Hülya Koçyiğit , Gülşen Bubikoğlu, Türkan Şoray , Belgin Doruk , Hülya Avşar , Seda Sayan , Perihan Savaş , Necla Nazır , Çolpan İlhan , Ayşen Gruda , Nevra Serezli and Yeşilçam actors are Tarık Akan , Şener Şen , Cüneyt Arkın , Kemal Sunal , Kadir İnanır , Münir Özkul , Halit Akçatepe, Hulusi Kertmen , Zeki Alasya , Metin Akpınar , Ediz Hun , Kartal Tibet , Ayhan Işık , Sadri Alışık , Barış Manço , Zeki Müren , Ekrem Bora , Erol Taş , Önder Somer , Müjdat Gezen , Salih Güney , Yılmaz Güney , Orhan Gencebay.
Other Turkish Channels opened in 1990s. Production increased. The most watched shows were Bizimkiler , Perihan Abla, Mahallenin Muhtarları, Süper Baba , Şehnaz Tango, Ferhunde Hanımlar, Yılan Hikayesi , Ayrılsak da Beraberiz, Kara Melek , Kaygısızlar ,Çiçek Taksi, Sıdıka ,Çarli, Çılgın Bediş. 
Turkish Tv series in 2000-2005 is between 60 and 80 minutes in length. Scenarists couldn't finish scripts on time. Before more soundtrack music added scenes. Soundtrack music were widely successful. Turkish tv series changed a long music video clip. Asmalı Konak is still the highest rated turkish television series of all time .The most watched shows were İkinci Bahar, Deli Yürek, Avrupa Yakası, Kurtlar Vadisi, Ekmek Teknesi, Çocuklar Duymasın, Hayat Bilgisi,En Son Babalar Duyar, Yabancı Damat, Bizim Evin Halleri, Kınalı Kar, Yedi Numara, Evdeki Yabancı, Yarım Elma, Tatlı Hayat, Yedi Tepe İstanbul, Çemberimde Gül Oya, Bir İstanbul Masalı, Aliye, Gülbeyaz. "Gümüş" was the first Turkish TV Series which was sold to Middle East. Gümüş 's rating was less and was wanted canceled. But Actors who Turkey didn't know, was superstar in Middle East.
Turkish Tv series in 2005-2010 is 90 minutes in length. Tv series is more popular than Turkish cinema. Adaptations of Turkish classic novels started. Author which adapt is usually Reşat Nuri Güntekin, Orhan Kemal, Halid Ziya Uşaklıgil, Peyami Safa, Ayşe Kulin, Ahmet Ümit, Nermin Bezmen, Hande Altaylı, Elif Şafak. But takes place in contemporary instead of the novels' late 18-20th-century setting. Adaptations were popular.Book sales have increased 10-fold But Authors and literary critic didn't like. "You imagine that Mademe Bovery or Anna Karenina are in shopping mall. It's terrible. Adaptations weren't literary. There weren't historical place, political, sociological. Charachers of Turkish classic change or don't die.Classic political novel change only love story."says Güney. 
In 2010s , It is between 120 and 150 minutes in length. One episode of Turkish tv series is like movie. It's period drama, modern-absurd comedy, crime, romantic-comedy. The most watches comedy series are Leyla ile Mecnun , Kardeş Payı , İşler Güçler, 1 erkek 1 Kadın, Ben de Özledim, Beş Kardeş, Yalan Dünya. 
Balkans and Southeastern Europe
Turkish TV shows are widely successful all over the Balkan Region. The most watched show in Bosnia and Herzegovina was Muhteşem Yüzyıl (Magnificent Century). In Kosovo, the most popular TV shows in December 2012 were Fatmagül'ün Suçu Ne? (What is Fatmagül's Fault?), which ranked top of all programmes and Aşk ve Ceza (Love and Punishment), which came in third according to data by Index Kosova. In Serbia, research from January 2013 indicates that the top two Turkish shows in TV were Muhteşem Yüzyıl, which ranked fourth, and Öyle Bir Geçer Zaman Ki (As Time Goes By), which came in seventh. Serbian sociologist Ratko Božović explains this popularity by pointing at the traditional, patriarchal values of the Turkish shows, and the many cultural and linguistic similarities between Turkey and the Balkan countries: "The mentality depicted in those shows has to do with a traditional understanding of morality that people in Serbia remember at some level". According to him, all Balkan countries have seen dramatic changes in terms of family life, and the Turkish shows help them recall value systems that now seem lost.
In Macedonia, Öyle Bir Geçer Zaman Ki (As Time Goes By) ranked in January 2013 the top in terms of viewers, according to Nielsen Media Research. In fact, Turkish shows are so successful in Macedonia that the government has passed a bill to restrict broadcasts of Turkish series during the day and at prime time in order to reduce the Turkish impact on Macedonian society.
They are also widely watched by Bulgarian viewers. Nova Televizia broke the record for viewer numbers when it started broadcasting the Turkish TV series Binbir Gece. The channel then decided to broadcast another Turkish show, Dudaktan Kalbe.
The series Binbir Gece (One Thousand and One Nights) became a primetime hit in Bosnia, Montenegro and Macedonia, as well as in Romania, Albania and Greece. It has increased the popularity of Istanbul as a tourist destination among Croatians, and led to a greater interest in learning Turkish.
Turkish TV series are also popular in Greece. The Greek orthodox Bishop Anthimos has criticised Greek fans of Turkish TV series. Yabancı Damat (The Foreign Bridesgroom) was one of the first Turkish series to become popular in Greece.
Turkish TV series began to rise in popularity across the Arab world in 2008, when Waleed bin Ibrahim Al Ibrahim began buying up Turkish series for his Middle East Broadcasting Center. Instead of dubbing the shows in classical Arabic, they were rendered in Syrian Arabic, a dialectal variant readily understood by ordinary viewers across the Middle East.
Led by Gümüş (known as Noor in the Arab market), a wave of Turkish melodramas made their way onto Arab televisions, wielding a kind of soft power. The show violated the local conservative cultural norms, showing some Muslim characters drinking wine with dinner and engaging in premarital sex. The Arabic-dubbed finale of the Turkish TV series Gümüş (Silver), aired on August 30, 2008, was watched by 85 million viewers. In 2008, the grand mufti of Saudi Arabia Abdul Aziz al-Sheikh issued a fatwa against channels that broadcast Gümüş, saying anyone who broadcast it was "an enemy of God and his Prophet".
Fatmagül'ün Suçu has increased the popularity of Istanbul as a tourist destination among Arabs. In 2015 küçük gelin was very popular, it was made by Samanyolu TV but unfortunately samanyolu TV was shut down so küçük gelin didn't have a proper ending.Some Turkish series are more appealing to women, while some action series attract male audiences, which helps attract different types of advertisers for different viewerships. Some series have political overtones, including Ayrılık, which depicts the daily life of Palestinians under Israeli military occupation. Despite this, Islamic conservatives in many Middle Eastern countries have condemned Turkish series as "vulgar" and "heretical" to Islam.
Turkish TV series have become very popular in Afghanistan, ratings going higher than the traditional Indian TV series that Afghans watched. TOLO, a TV station in Afghanistan. The most popular Turkish show is Fatmagül'ün Suçu Ne? (What is Fatmagül's Fault?). Another series as Öyle Bir Geçer Zaman Ki (As Time Goes By), Beni Affet (Forgive Me), Effet, Aşk-ı Memnu (Forbidden Love), and Adını Feriha Koydum are popular too.In 2015, is reported that the four Turkish series most successful around the world are Muhteşem Yüzyıl, Fatmagül'ün Suçu Ne?, Aşk-ı Memnu and Binbir Gece. Also, the most popular Turkish actor around the world is Halit Ergenç,  and the most popular Turkish actrees around the world is Beren Saat.
Turkish television serie is extremely popular in Iran (considering Azerbaijanis, a Turkic people, who are the second ethnic majority in Iran), where they are dubbed into Persian. Among the most popular series are Aşk-ı Memnu and Ezel.
Turkish series are also popular in Pakistan. Aşk-ı Memnu, which has broken ratings records in Turkey, aired on the television channel Urdu1 in Pakistan, and has topped ratings being the most successful Turkish Series there. The second most popular series is Fatmagül'ün Suçu Ne? that aired on the same channel, the third best television series is Muhteşem Yüzyıl (Magnificent Century) these top three TV Series are said to be the most famous ones ranking highest ratings in terms of Trps(Television Rating Points). According to Pakistani rating network, "Media logic", Aşk-ı Memnu ranked 7.9Trp on average and got 11.99Trp on its Final Episode, Fatmagül'ün Suçu Ne? ranked 6.9-7.6Trp on average and got 10.7Trp on its Final episode. However, it is reported that Muhteşem Yüzyıl ranked around 7.0 to 8.0 Trps on Average. However shows like Adını Feriha Koydum, Karadayı and İntikam were also popular in Pakistan.
Popularity of the Turkish serials was met by controversy: Pakistan's entertainment industry complained that the airing of Turkish and other foreigntv series diverts funding from local productions. Furthermore, religious conservatives in Pakistan have denounced the allegedly un-Islamic nature of the shows. A Senate committee that oversees information and broadcasting has condemned such shows for their allegedly "vulgar content" and contrary to the Pakistan's Muslim traditions. It was also reported that TV series Aşk-i-Mennu, Fatmagül'ün Suçu Ne?, Muhteşem Yuzyil and Adını Feriha Koydum Have aired once agan after its ending due to immense popularity and major demands.
According to Kosovo's index the most popular TV series there is Fatmagül'ün Suçu Ne?
An episode of a popular Turkish television series from the 2010s is usually between 120 and 150 minutes in length (excluding advertisements), which is much longer than a typical episode of an American or Western European series. However, when shown in the Balkans and southeastern Europe, Turkish series are mostly cut into episodes not exceeding 60 minutes.
Worker On Strike
In 2010, Season of Turkish TV series was 30-35 episodes. Each week, one episode is filming in 6 days. It was 90 minutes in length. When TV series broadcast, next 3-4th episode films concurrently. Actors and workers were on strike. So a Turkish TV series has got 2 crew concurrently.
In 2016, Season of Turkish TV series is 35–40 episodes. It is between 120 and 150 minutes in length. Actors and crews complain.
Each series roughly consists of 40 episodes that last about 130 minutes, which translates into 5,200 hours of domestic TV content broadcast yearly. "As a screenwriter, it was wonderful until about 10 years ago. Then I had to write a 60-minute episode per week, as opposed to today's 130-plus minutes. It has become a very mechanical and uninteresting process, just a question of keeping the melodrama going," says Demiray.
Cagri Vila Lostuvali, 10 years in the business and four as a director, adds: "To deliver one episode per week our crews work up to 18 hours a day. This job eats up our entire lives."
"With the increase of the episodes' duration and consequently the amount of working hours, the industry has lost its most experienced professionals who refuse to work in such conditions. Wages have not grown much either," concludes Meric.
To get a sense of proportion, it suffices to think about the process of developing a cinema script, which takes about two years and at least seven weeks to shoot 120 minutes of edited footage. 
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