||This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2012)|
|Founded||20 May 1933|
|Hubs||Istanbul Atatürk Airport|
|Airport lounge||Turkish Airlines CIP Lounge|
|Company slogan||Globally Yours|
|Headquarters||Atatürk International Airport
Yeşilköy, Istanbul, Turkey
|Revenue||US$ 9.0 billion (2012)|
|Net income||US$ 632.3 million (2012)|
Turkish Airlines (Turkish: Türk Hava Yolları) (İMKB: THYAO) is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey, headquartered at the Turkish Airlines General Management Building on the grounds of Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy, Bakırköy, Istanbul. It operates scheduled services to 187 international and 35 domestic airports, serving a total of 222 airports, in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas as of April 2013. With an increase to 99 destination countries, the carrier's destination network from one hub is the world's largest. Also with 222 destination numbers, the airline 4th biggest carrier in the world by number of destinations. The airline's main base is at Atatürk International Airport, with secondary hubs at Esenboğa International Airport, Antalya International Airport, Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, and Adnan Menderes Airport. In 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 THY carried 17.0 million, 19.7 million, 22.5 million, 25.1 million, 29 million, 32.6 million and 39,0 million passengers with total revenues of US$2.23, $3.0, $4.5, $4.0, $5.6, $7.1 and $9.0 billion, respectively.
The airline has 15,679 employees. THY has been a member of the Star Alliance network since 1 April 2008.
From April 2010 "TURKISH" replaced "TURKAIR" on the ICAO Official allocated callsign.
Early years 
The airline was formed on 20 May 1933 as State Airlines Administration, part of the Ministry of Defence. The fleet was a five-seat Curtiss Kingbird, two four-seat Junkers F-13s and one ten-seat Tupolev ANT-9. In 1935 it became part of the Ministry of Public Works, in 1938 it moved to be part of the Ministry of Transportation and was renamed "General Directorate of State Airlines". In 1945 the first Douglas DC-3 joined the airline.
Postwar Period 
The airline benefited from the postwar U.S. assistance program to Turkey. With the help of Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) the fleet was upgraded with Douglas DC-3s. THY soon added Nicosia, Beirut and Cairo to its international flight destinations. However, domestic services remained the airline's main focus until the 1960s.
The Turkish government reorganized the airline in 1956 under the name Türk Hava Yollari A.O. (THY). It was capitalized at TRL 60 million. British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) began supplying technical support after acquiring a 6 percent shareholding, which it held for about 20 years.
The fleet was upgraded with Viscounts and Fokker F27s in the late 1950s. The company began operating its first jet, a DC-9, in 1967. This was followed by the addition of a leased Boeing 707 in 1971. Other jets operated in the early 1970s included the DC-10 and Boeing 727.
1980s and 1990s 
The airline was plagued by several difficult issues. It developed a reputation for poor customer service and delays. It also endured hijackings and suffered seven accidents between 1974 and 1983. The most notorious came in 1974, when a DC-10 crashed shortly after take-off near Ermenonville, France, resulting in the deaths of 346 people.
However, a new government came to power in 1983 which recognized THY's importance as Turkey's ambassador to the world, beginning the airline's make-over into a modern operation. It would maintain one of the youngest fleets in the world. Security was intensified, causing one shipper to compare it to Israel's El Al, at least in terms of delays.
THY built a new, state-of-the-art technical center at Yeşilköy Airport in 1984. It was capable of both light and heavy maintenance on a number of different aircraft types. Technical staff then made up one-quarter of the airline's 6,000 employees, according to Air Transport World. In 1984, the company's capital was raised to TRL 60 billion as it was classified as a state economic enterprise. Three years later, the capital was raised again, to TL150 billion.
By the mid-1980s, THY had a fleet of 30 aircraft. It was flying about three million passengers a year to 16 domestic destinations and three dozen international ones. The airline was Turkey's largest source of foreign currency. Turkish Airlines began operating Airbus 310s in 1985, allowing the addition of flights to Singapore in 1986. A route New York via Brussels was added in 1988.
The company posted losses in 1987 and 1988, largely due to high payments on its dozen new Airbus A310s, according to Air Transport World. The fleet also included 11 Boeing 727s and nine DC-9s. THY ended the decade with 8,500 employees.
The company suffered in the global aviation crisis following the Persian Gulf War and would not break even again until 1994. However, business was again booming in the mid-1990s, with the greatest growth coming from North American destinations. THY launched a nonstop flight to New York in July 1994.
The company's capital continued to be raised, reaching TRL 10 trillion in 1995. During that year, the airline also converted three of its Boeing 727s to dedicated freighters. (The old DC-9s had been sold off.) The company posted a $6 million profit on revenues of $1 billion for the year. While profitable, THY had to contend with Turkey's exorbitant inflation, making capital improvements difficult.
The domestic market was deregulated in 1996, allowing new scheduled competition from charter airlines. At the same time, larger international carriers were providing stiff competition on routes to Western Europe. THY entered into marketing agreements with other international airlines to enhance its competitiveness. The company teamed with Japan Airlines to offer service to Osaka and Tokyo in 1997 and 1998. Other jointly operated flights soon followed with Austrian Airlines, Swissair, and Croatian Airlines.
A new terminal opened for the airline in January 2000 at Istanbul's Atatürk International Airport. Turkish Airlines continued to extend its international reach, forging marketing agreements with Asiana Airlines, American Airlines, Malaysian Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, Czech Airlines and Cathay Pacific in 2000. An Antalya-Frankfurt route was added in 2001 through a code-sharing agreement with Sun Express. However, THY withdrew from the Swissair-led Qualiflyer alliance in order to help attract a strategic investor for its privatization.
Turkey underwent an economic crisis throughout most of 2001, cutting traffic on domestic routes in particular. THY managed to survive after the September 11 attacks on the United States without a government bailout or mass layoffs, although 300 middle management positions were eliminated, 400 part-timers were laid off, and wages were cut 10 percent. Turkish Daily News credited the airline's survival to entrepreneurial management, which was quick to get rid of loss-making routes at home and abroad.
In 2003, the war in Iraq prompted Turkish Airlines to close some routes in the Persian Gulf, while flights to Asia were suspended during the SARS epidemic. However, the airline soon recovered, increasing traffic on existing routes and adding service to Delhi after an 11-year lapse.
Another fleet expansion program kicked off in 2004, helping THY maintain one of the youngest fleets in Europe. In July, the airline announced a massive $2.8 billion order of 36 jets from Airbus, plus an order for 15 Boeing 737s.
THY was not just ordering new planes. It was planning to spend $350 million on a new technical and training facility at Istanbul's underutilized Sabiha Gökçen International Airport. The airline had built up a significant technical services operation, maintaining not just its own aircraft but those of third parties. Turkish Technic employed 2,700 and was planning to hire another 2,000 by 2010. THY also had three flight simulators and offered flight training services.
THY faced the entry of new competitors into the liberalizing Turkish aviation market. However, tourism was booming, with 20 million people expected to visit the country in 2005 versus 12 million in 2003. THY divested its 50% holding in Cyprus Turkish Airlines (Kibris Turk Hava Yollari) in 2005.
Although the company was publicly traded at this time, the government owned 98% of its shares. The privatization program was revived in 2004 with a public offering of 20% of shares on the Istanbul Stock Exchange. The Turkish government owned 75% of shares after the offering, which raised $170 million. Currently, the Republic of Turkey's Prime Ministry Privatization Administration owns a 49.12% interest in THY, while 50.88% of shares are publicly traded.
THY's financial statements should be read in light of a new currency created in January 2005. One New Turkish Lira (YTL) is equivalent to one million of the former Turkish Lira (TRL).
On 1 April 2008, Turkish Airlines joined the Star Alliance after an 18-month integration process since December 2006, becoming the seventh European airline in the alliance, which had thus reached a total of 20 members.
In December 2011, the Turkish government unveiled plans to modernize the Aden Adde International Airport in Mogadishu, Somalia, which became one of the newest flight destinations of the carrier in 2012. The rehabilitation project is part of Turkey's broader engagement in the local post-conflict reconstruction process. Among the scheduled renovations are new airport systems and infrastructure, including a modern control tower to monitor the airspace. In March 2012, Turkish Airlines became the first international carrier to resume flights to Somalia since the start of that country's civil war in the early 1990s.
By the end of 2011, Turkish Airlines upgraded the number of its flight points to 189 destinations (149 international and 40 domestic) worldwide.
As of May 2013, Turkish Airlines has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:
|Airbus A320neo||0||4||—||TBA||Deliveries 2015-2020|
|Airbus A321-200||36||32||—||10||—||176||186||Deliveries until 2020|
|Airbus A321neo||0||53||35||TBA||Deliveries 2015-2020|
|Airbus A330-200||8||—||—||22||—||228||250||One wet leased from Meridiana Fly EI-EZL|
|Airbus A330-300||10||17||3||28||—||261||289||New deliveries: 6 in 2014, 6 in 2015, and 5 in 2016|
|Airbus A340-300||7||—||—||34||—||237||271||To be replaced by A330-300 and 777-300ER end of 2016|
|Boeing 737-700||14||—||—||—||—||149||149||10 operated by AnadoluJet|
|Boeing 737-800||66||33||—||20||—||145||165||7 operated by AnadoluJet , older aircrafts to be replaced by Boeing 737 MAX 8|
|Boeing 737 MAX 8||0||40||25||TBA||Deliveries 2016-2021|
|Boeing 737 MAX 9||0||10||—||TBA||Deliveries 2016-2021|
|Boeing 777-300ER||12||15||5||28||63||246||337||New deliveries: 3 in 2014, 7 in 2015, 5 in 2016|
|Turkish Airlines Cargo Fleet|
|Airbus A310-300F||4||—||—||Cargo||1 wet leased from ULS Cargo|
|Airbus A330-200F||5||2||—||Cargo||1 wet leased from MNG Cargo Airlines and 1 wet leased from Mas Cargo|
The airline's "Eurowhite" livery is a white fuselage with blue lettering, a grey tulip on the fuselage running from the rear of the wing to the tail, and a red tail with the company logo in a white circle. In the past, the airplanes were painted white on the top with four red stripes going across the fuselage and the tail white with a red center that included the emblem; instead of a white emblem with a red circle for a background, the emblem was red with a white circle as background; the bellies of the planes had an aluminum finish, while the nose was black, and text on the plane read "THY Türk Hava Yolları-Turkish Airlines" on the left side; on the right the concept was the same with different text reading "Türk Hava Yolları-Turkish Airlines THY".
New logo 
The logo on the fin has been modified; the main change being that the emblem is now white and on a red background, while it was formerly red and on a white background.
The inscription "Turkish" has been replaced with "Turkish Airlines" on the front-left and front-right sides of the fuselage.
The "Eurowhite" livery (a white fuselage with blue lettering) and a grey tulip figure on the fuselage (running from the rear of the wing to the tail) have remained the same.
Turkish Airlines Flight Academy 
Turkish Airlines Flight Academy was established by the 28th THY Board on 10 November 2004, and started training with 16 cadets on 1 May 2006. The Flight Academy is based at Atatürk International Airport and uses the nearby Çorlu Airport for training activities.
|Cessna Citation Mustang||2||5 pax.|
Maintenance center 
The airlines has a maintenance centre at its hub Atatürk International Airport (IST) in Istanbul. Turkish Airlines Maintenance Center (Turkish Technic) is responsible for the maintenance, repair and overhaul of THY's and third party aircraft, including airframe, landing gear, APU and components.
Turkish Technic has opened a new engine centre in partnership with Pratt & Whitney at Sabiha Gökçen International Airport (SAW). The facility provides engine maintenance, repair and overhaul services to customers worldwide. Also HABOM (Aviation Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul Center) project is under construction at Sabiha Gökçen International Airport (SAW).
Affinity programmes 
Miles&Smiles is the frequent flyer programme of Turkish Airlines, started after the airline left Qualiflyer. The earned miles can be used in Turkish Airlines's flights, as well as flights on Lufthansa, including the entire Star Alliance network. Miles&Smiles Classic Plus card holders are entitled to the same benefits of Star Alliance Silver card members. Elite and Elite Plus Miles&Smiles Cards entitle the owner to the same benefits as Star Alliance Gold users.
Turkish Airlines has twice won the Skytrax awards for Europe's Best Airline, Southern Europe's Best Airline, and the World's Best Premium Economy Class Airline Seat in 2011 and 2012. Also Turkish Airlines has been selected Airline of the Year by Air Transport News in Atn awards 2013 ceremony.
Sponsorship and promotion agreements 
The airline has also made sponsorship and promotion deals with renowned athletes and actors, including:
Incidents and accidents 
During its 75-year history, Turkish Airlines has had 3 accidents on its international flights and 18 on domestic flights. They include the following:
|N/A||17 February 1959||Vickers Viscount Type 793||London, England||A Vickers Viscount Type 793, registration TC-SEV, crashed in heavy fog just before landing at London Gatwick Airport. The charter flight was carrying Turkish Prime Minister Adnan Menderes and a governmental delegation to London for signing the Zürich and London Agreements on the Cyprus issue. Nine of the 16 passengers and 5 of the 8 crew lost their lives. Menderes, sitting in the back part of the plane, survived the accident almost uninjured and was hospitalized at The London Clinic 90 minutes after receiving first aid from Margaret Bailey, a local resident who rushed to the crash site.||14||10|
|100||23 September 1961||Fokker F27 Friendship 100||Ankara, Turkey||A Fokker F27 Friendship 100, registration TC-TAY, crashed at Karanlıktepe on approach to Esenboğa International Airport, Ankara. All of the four crew and 24 of the 25 passengers on board lost their lives.||24||1|
|N/A||8 March 1962||Fairchild F27||Adana, Turkey||A Fairchild F27, registration TC-KOP, crashed at Taurus Mountains on approach to Adana Airport. All three crew and eight passengers on board were killed.||11||0|
|N/A||3 February 1964||Douglas C-47A-5-DK||Ankara Province||A Douglas C-47A-5-DK, registration TC-ETI, flew into terrain in Ankara Province whilst on an ILS approach to Esenboğa International Airport. All 3 crew members on board were killed.||3||0|
|N/A||2 February 1969||Vickers Viscount||Ankara, Turkey||A Vickers Viscount, registration TC-SET, crashed on approach to Esenboğa International Airport, Ankara. There were no casualties.||0||0|
|N/A||26 January 1974||Fokker F28 Fellowship 1000||Izmir, Turkey||A Fokker F28 Fellowship 1000, registered TC-JAO and named Van, on a scheduled domestic flight from Izmir Cumaovası Airport (IZM) to Istanbul Yeşilköy Airport (IST/LTBA) crashed shortly after takeoff due to atmospheric icing on the wings. The aircraft disintegrated and caught fire killing four of the five crew and 62 of the 68 passengers on board.||66||7|
|981||3 March 1974||McDonnell Douglas DC-10||Fontaine-Chaalis, Oise, France,||Flight 981 crashed in France due to explosive decompression, killing all 346 people aboard. The main cause was a design fault on the cargo doors of DC-10 aircraft, registered TC-JAV and named Ankara. Prior to the Tenerife airport disaster, it was the deadliest aircraft disaster in the world.||346||0|
|345||30 January 1975||Fokker F28-1000 Fellowship||Istanbul, Turkey||Flight 345, a Fokker F28-1000 Fellowship, registered TC-JAP and named Bursa, on a scheduled domestic flight from Izmir Cumaovası Airport (IZM) to Istanbul Yeşilköy Airport (IST/LTBA) crashed into the Sea of Marmara during its final approach at the destination airport and sank. All the four crew and 38 passengers on board the aircraft lost their lives.||42||0|
|452||19 September 1976||Boeing 727||Karatepe, Isparta, Turkey||Flight 452, a Boeing 727-2F2, registration TC-JBH, named Antalya, on a domestic flight from Istanbul Yeşilköy Airport (IST/LTBA) to Antalya Airport (AYT/LTAI) struck high ground in Karatepe Mountains during an attempted landing in Isparta instead of Antalya by pilot error. All the eight crew and 146 passeners on board were killed.||154||0|
|N/A||23 December 1979||Fokker F28 Fellowship 1000||Ankara||Fokker F28 Fellowship 1000, registration TC-JAT, named Trabzon, on a scheduled domestic flight from Samsun Airport (SSX/LTAQ) to Esenboğa Airport (ESB/LTAC) in Ankara struck a hill in Kuyumcuköy village at Çubuk, 32 km (20 mi) north-east of the destination airport in severe turbulence on approach to landing. Three of the four crew and 38 of the 41 passengers on board were killed.||41||4|
|158||16 January 1983||Boeing 727||Ankara, Turkey||Flight 158, a Boeing 727-2F2, registration TC-JBR, named Afyon, landed about 50 m (160 ft) short of the runway at Ankara Esenboğa Airport (ESB/LTAC) in driving snow, broke up and caught fire. 47 passengers died, all of the seven crew and 13 passengers survived the accident with injuries.||47||20|
|278||29 December 1994||Boeing 737||Van, Turkey||Flight 278, a Boeing 737-4Y0, registration: TC-JES, named Mersin, crashed during its final approach to land at Van Ferit Melen Airport (VAN/LTCI) in driving snow. Five of the seven crew and 52 of the 69 passengers died.||57||19|
|5904||7 April 1999||Boeing 737 Classic||Ceyhan, Turkey||Flight 5904, a Boeing 737-4Q8, registration TC-JEP, named Trakya, on a repositioning flight crashed in Ceyhan eight minutes after taking off from Adana Şakirpaşa Airport (ADA/LTAF). There were no passengers on board, but all six crew members died in the accident.||6||0|
|634||8 January 2003||Avro RJ-100||Diyarbakır, Turkey||Flight 634, an Avro RJ-100, registration: TC-THG, named Konya, crashed while on a VOR/DME approach to runway 34 at Diyarbakır Airport (DIY/LTCC), Turkey. 75 of the 80 passengers and crew died.||75||5|
|1951||25 February 2009||Boeing 737||Amsterdam, Netherlands||Flight 1951, a Boeing 737–800, registration: TC-JGE, named Tekirdağ, carrying 135 passengers, crashed while approaching Schiphol Airport, Netherlands. Nine people died, including the three pilots. 86 passengers were transported to local hospitals. The preliminary results of the Dutch investigation found that a faulty altimeter caused the aircraft to throttle the engines back to idle and that the crew failed to react quickly enough resulting in a stall and crash. Boeing advised operators of all 737 aircraft to carefully monitor primary flight instruments and not to engage autopilot/throttle systems during approach and landing in event of a radio altimeter malfunction.||9||86|
- On 5 January 2011, an attempt was made to hijack Flight 1754 from Gardermoen Airport, Oslo to Ataturk International Airport, Istanbul. The hijacker was overpowered by other passengers on the flight and was arrested when the aircraft landed. The flight was being operated by Boeing 737-800 TC-JGZ.
See also 
- Cyprus Turkish Airlines
- North Cyprus Airlines
- B&H Airlines
- Turkish Airlines Maintenance Center
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- SKA will run airport operations in Mogadishu
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- Airbus – Orders, Deliveries, Operators Summary to 31 July 2010
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- "An important strategic partnership agreement between Turkish Airlines and Euroleague Basketball" (Press release). Turkish Airlines. 2010-07-26. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- "Movie archive" (Press release). Turkish Airlines. 2012-12-19. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
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- "Caroline Wozniacki Movie" (Press release). Turkish Airlines. 2012-12-19. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
- "Feel like a star" (Press release). Turkish Airlines. 2012-12-19. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
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- Aviation Safety Network report – January 8, 2003 crash
- "Turkish plane crash in Amsterdam". BBC News. 25 February 2009. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Turkish Airlines|
- Official website
- "Legends on board: Kobe vs Messi" (Turkish Airlines publicity video)
- Fleet Listings & Aircraft Configurations, Planespotters.net
- Anadolujet (Regional low-cost carrier of THY)
- SunExpress (Joint venture with Lufthansa)
- Turkish Technic Official Website
- THY Flight Academy