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Tuojiangosaurus
Temporal range: Late Jurassic, 160Ma
Natural History Museum Tuojiangosaurus.jpg
Mounted skeleton, Natural History Museum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Suborder: Stegosauria
Superfamily: Stegosauroidea
Family: Stegosauridae
Genus: Tuojiangosaurus
Dong et al., 1977
Species: † T. multispinus
Binomial name
Tuojiangosaurus multispinus
Dong et al., 1977

Tuojiangosaurus (meaning "Tuo River lizard") is a genus of herbivorous stegosaurid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Period, recovered from the Upper Shaximiao Formation of what is now Sichuan Province in China.

Discovery[edit]

Skull of the mount

In 1974, during construction of the Wujiaba dam in Zigong, Sichuan, the remains of stegosaurians were found.

The type and only species of Tuojiangosaurus, Tuojiangosaurus multispinus, was named and described in 1977 (exactly a hundred years after the naming of Stegosaurus by Othniel Charles Marsh) by Dong Zhiming, Zhou Shiwu, Li Xuanmin and Chang Yijong. The generic name is derived from the River (jiang) Tuo. The specific name is derived from Latin multus, "many", and spina, "spine".[1]

The holotype, CV 209, was found in a layer of the Upper Shaximiao Formation, dating from the Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian. It consists of a rather complete skeleton that however lacks parts of the skull., lower jaws, tail and limbs. In 1977, it represented the most complete stegosaurian skeleton found in Asia. The paratype was specimen CV 210, a sacrum.[1] Subsequently, more material has been referred, including juveniles. This complemented the holotype with elements of the skull, especially the braincase, and the lower jaws.

A mounted skeleton of Tuojiangosaurus multispinus is on display at the Municipal Museum of Chongqing. In addition, a mounted cast is on display at the Natural History Museum, in London.

Description[edit]

Restoration

Physically similar to the North American Stegosaurus, Tuojiangosaurus is the best understood of the Chinese stegosaurids.[2] It was around 7 metres (23 ft) long and 2 metres (6.6 ft) high. In 2010, Gregory S. Paul estimated the weight of a 6.5 metres long Tuojiangosaurus at 2.8 tonnes.[3]

In 1977, Dong provided a diagnosis but this largely consisted of traits shared with other stegosaurs. In 1990, Peter Malcolm Galton pointed out an autapomorphy: the spines of the vertebrae of the tail base possess spines with bony skirts running from their front to the sides.[4]

Tuojiangosaurus has the typical narrow and low head, bulky body, and low teeth of other stegosaurids. The limbs, especially the arms, are rather short.[3] There are at least twenty-five dentary teeth. The teeth have a thick base, cingulum, merging at the inside into a triangular vertical median ridge. The dorsal vertebrae have tall neural arches. The shoulderblade has a rectangular acromion.[5]

Like Kentrosaurus, Tuojiangosaurus had two rows of plates along the spine, which became taller over the hip region. Those at the neck and front trunk were rounded or pear-shaped; the plates at the rear back became more triangular and pointed. All plates have a thickened central section, as if they were modified spikes.[5] Dong estimated there were about seventeen pairs of plates and spikes. Tuojiangosaurus had at least two outward-pointing, rather robust, spikes on each side of the end of the tail, angled at approximately 45 degrees to the vertical. In stegosaurids, this spike arrangement has become affectionately known as the "thagomizer".[2] Dong thought it were possible that there were four pairs of spikes. Paul, based on "Chungkingosaurus sp. 3" specimen CV 00208, interpreted the thagomizer as a "pin-cushion array", with two vertical pairs of thick spikes and a third pair of narrow spikes pointing to behind.[3]

Phylogeny[edit]

Tuojiangosaurus was by Dong placed in Stegosauridae in 1977, more precisely in the Stegosaurinae.[1] In 2004, a cladistic analysis by Galton recovered Tuojiangosaurus in a rather derived position, as a sister species of Chialingosaurus.[5] An analysis by Susannah Maidment in 2006, confirmed its status as a member of the Stegosauridae.[6]

Paleobiology[edit]

Tuojiangosaurus ate low-lying, ground vegetation.[7] Paul suggested that Chialingosaurus and Chungkingosaurus were in fact the juveniles of Tuojiangosaurus.[3]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Z. Dong, X. Li, S. Zhou and Y. Zhang, 1977, "On the stegosaurian remains from Zigong (Tzekung), Szechuan province", Vertebrata PalAsiatica 15(4): 307-312
  2. ^ a b Benton, Michael J. (2012). Prehistoric Life. Edinburgh, Scotland: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 274–275. ISBN 978-0-7566-9910-9. 
  3. ^ a b c d Paul, G.S., 2010, The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs, Princeton University Press p. 221
  4. ^ Galton, P.M., 1990, "Stegosauria", in: D.B. Weishampel, P. Dodson, & H. Osmólska (eds.), The Dinosauria. University of California Press, pp. 435-455
  5. ^ a b c Galton, P.M., and P. Upchurch, 2004, "Stegosauria", pp. 343-362 in: D.B. Weishampel, P. Dodson, and H. Osmolska (eds.), The Dinosauria, 2nd Edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA
  6. ^ S.C.R. Maidment and G. Wei, 2006, "A review of the Late Jurassic stegosaurs (Dinosauria, Stegosauria) from the People's Republic of China", Geological Magazine 143(5): 621-634
  7. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 156. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuojiangosaurus — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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23 news items

 
Hartford Courant
Tue, 12 Feb 2013 08:30:00 -0800

Two skeletons exhibited together — a monolophosaurus attacking a tuojiangosaurus — look like a T-rex attacking a stegosaurus. Velociraptor remains show how small those winged creatures really were, as opposed to the monstrous, wingless dinos seen in ...
 
Chicago Tribune
Mon, 01 Apr 2013 14:45:28 -0700

Displays help visitors see links between prehistoric theropods — carnivorous dinos that walked on two legs — and present-day birds, or answer questions like "Why did the Tuojiangosaurus have all those plates running down its back?" Some of the ...
 
Ct Post
Thu, 31 Jan 2013 15:32:42 -0800

For them, and the many visitors the Greenwich institution expects in the coming days, there is no need to fear this meeting of the Monolophosaurus and the Tuojiangosaurus -- two creatures of the middle and late Jurassic periods, respectively, who are ...
 
nwitimes.com
Wed, 03 Apr 2013 22:03:54 -0700

The fun and engaging exhibit has many "newcomers" with names like Styracosaurus, Tuojiangosaurus, and Pachycephalosaurus, as well as some with feathers, such as Microraptor and Gigantoraptor, the latter of which was discovered less than a decade ...
 
Chicago Daily Herald
Wed, 03 Apr 2013 04:19:59 -0700

The "Dinosaurs Alive!" exhibit returns Saturday to Brookfield Zoo featuring 24 life-size, animatronic prehistoric creatures, including Styracosaurus, Tuojiangosaurus and Pachycephalosaurus. Ferocious favorites like Tyrannosaurus rex and Dilophosaurus ...
 
Smithsonian (blog)
Mon, 26 Nov 2012 07:12:24 -0800

Ornamented with a double row of short, narrow plates along its back, the roughly 160-million-year-old Gigantspinosaurus generally resembled other stegosaurs from Late Jurassic Asia, such as Tuojiangosaurus. But, as you might be able to guess from the ...
 
Chicago Daily Herald
Sun, 24 Mar 2013 04:04:19 -0700

Prehistoric times. The "Dinosaurs Alive!" exhibit returns to Brookfield Zoo featuring 24 life-size, animatronic prehistoric creatures, including Styracosaurus, Tuojiangosaurus and Pachycephalosaurus. Feathered dinosaurs include Microraptor and ...
 
YouTube
Fri, 05 Apr 2013 13:19:29 -0700

The fun and engaging exhibit of Tyrannosaurus proportions will feature 24 life-size animatronic dinosaurs, including many newcomers like Styracosaurus, Tuojiangosaurus, and Pachycephalosaurus, as well as some with feathers, such as Microraptor and ...
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