digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

"Tribe" and "Tribal" redirect here. For other uses, see Tribe (disambiguation) and Tribal (disambiguation).

A tribe is viewed, historically or developmentally, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states. Many people used the term "tribal society" to refer to societies organized largely on the basis of social, especially familial, descent groups (see clan and kinship). A customary tribe in these terms is a face-to-face community, relatively bound by kinship relations, reciprocal exchange, and strong ties to place.[1]

"Tribe" is a contested term due to its roots in colonialism. The word has no shared referent, whether in political form, kinship relations, or shared culture. Some argue that it conveys a negative connotation of a timeless unchanging past.[2][3][4] To avoid these implications, some have chosen to use the terms "ethnic group", or nation instead.[2][3][4]

In some places, such as North America and India, tribes are polities that have been granted legal recognition and limited autonomy by the state.

Etymology[edit]

A shaman from a tribe in the Venezuelan Amazon playing a siku.

The English word tribe occurs in 12th-century Middle English literature as referring to one of the twelve tribes of Israel. The word is from Old French tribu, in turn from Latin tribus, referring to the original tripartite ethnic division of the Ancient Roman state: Ramnes (Ramnenses), Tities (Titienses), and Luceres, corresponding, according to Marcus Terentius Varro, to the Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans, respectively. The Ramnes were named after Romulus, leader of the Latins, Tities after Titus Tatius, leader of the Sabines, and Luceres after Lucumo, leader of an Etruscan army that had assisted the Latins. According to Livy, the three tribes were in fact squadrons of knights, rather than ethnic divisions. The term's ultimate etymology is uncertain, perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European roots tri- ("three") and bhew ("to be"). Gregory Nagy, in Greek Mythology and Poetics, says, citing the linguist Émile Benveniste in his Origines de la formation des noms en indo-européen, that the Umbrian "trifu" (tribus) is apparently derived from a combination of *tri- and *bhu-, where the second element is cognate with the 'phu-' of Greek phule, and that this subdivided the Greek polis into three phulai.

In 242–240 BC, the Tribal Assembly (comitia tributa) in the Roman Republic was organized in 35 tribes (four "urban tribes" and 31 "rural tribes"). The Latin word as used in the Bible translates as Greek phyle "race, tribe, clan" and ultimately the Hebrew or "sceptre". In the historical sense, "tribe", "race" and "clan" can be used interchangeably.

Tribes and states[edit]

Two men from the Andamanese tribe of the Andaman Islands, India.

Considerable debate takes place over how best to characterize tribes. This partly stems from perceived differences between pre-state tribes and contemporary tribes; some reflects more general controversy over cultural evolution and colonialism. In the popular imagination, tribes reflect a way of life that predates, and is more natural than that in modern states. Tribes also privilege primordial social ties, are clearly bounded, homogeneous, parochial, and stable. Thus, it was believed[who?] that tribes organize links between families (including clans and lineages), and provide them with a social and ideological basis for solidarity that is in some way more limited than that of an "ethnic group" or of a "nation". Anthropological and ethnohistorical research has challenged all of these notions.

Anthropologist Elman Service presented a system of classification for societies in all human cultures based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state. This system of classification contains four categories:

  1. Gatherer-hunter bands, which are generally egalitarian.
  2. Tribal societies in which there are some limited instances of social rank and prestige.
  3. Stratified tribal societies led by chieftains (see Chiefdom).
  4. Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments.

In his 1975 study, The Notion of the Tribe, anthropologist Morton H. Fried provided numerous examples of tribes the members of which spoke different languages and practised different rituals, or that shared languages and rituals with members of other tribes. Similarly, he provided examples of tribes where people followed different political leaders, or followed the same leaders as members of other tribes. He concluded that tribes in general are characterized by fluid boundaries and heterogeneity, are not parochial, and are dynamic.[5]

Initiation rituals among boys from a tribe in Malawi.

Fried, however, proposed that most contemporary tribes do not have their origin in pre-state tribes, but rather in pre-state bands. Such "secondary" tribes, he suggested, actually came about as modern products of state expansion. Bands comprise small, mobile, and fluid social formations with weak leadership, that do not generate surpluses, pay no taxes and support no standing army. Fried argued that secondary tribes develop in one of two ways. First, states could set them up as means to extend administrative and economic influence in their hinterland, where direct political control costs too much. States would encourage (or require) people on their frontiers to form more clearly bounded and centralized polities, because such polities could begin producing surpluses and taxes, and would have a leadership responsive to the needs of neighboring states (the so-called "scheduled" tribes of the United States or of British India provide good examples of this). Second, bands could form "secondary" tribes as a means to defend themselves against state expansion. Members of bands would form more clearly bounded and centralized polities, because such polities could begin producing surpluses that could support a standing army that could fight against states, and they would have a leadership that could co-ordinate economic production and military activities.

Archaeologists continue to explore the development of pre-state tribes. Current research suggests that tribal structures constituted one type of adaptation to situations providing plentiful yet unpredictable resources. Such structures proved flexible enough to coordinate production and distribution of food in times of scarcity, without limiting or constraining people during times of surplus.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ James, Paul (2006). Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In. London: Sage Publications. 
  2. ^ a b "What is in the word tribe?". Pambazuka. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "IC Publications | Opinions". Africasia. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "Talking about "Tribe" - Africa Action: Activism for Africa Since 1953". Africa Action. Retrieved 2012-10-04. 
  5. ^ Morton H. Fried 1972 The Notion of Tribe. Cummings Publishing Company

References[edit]

  • Benveniste, Émile. Indo-European Language and Society, translated by Elizabeth Palmer. London: Faber and Faber 1973. ISBN 0-87024-250-4.
  • Benveniste, Émile. Origines de la formation des noms en indo-européen, 1935.
  • Fried, Morton H. The Notion of Tribe. Cummings Publishing Company, 1975. ISBN 0-8465-1548-2.
  • Helm, June, ed., 1968. Essays on the Problem of Tribe, Proceedings, American Ethnological Society, 1967 (Seattle: University of Washington Press).
  • James, Paul (2006). Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In. London: Sage Publications. 
  • James, Paul (2001). "Relating Global Tensions: Modern Tribalism and Postmodern Nationalism". Communal/Plural 9 (1). 
  • Nagy, Gregory, Greek Mythology and Poetics, Cornell University Press, 1990. In chapter 12, beginning on p. 276, Professor Nagy explores the meaning of the word origin and social context of a tribe in ancient Greece and beyond.
  • Sutton, Imre, Indian Land Tenure: Bibliographical Essays and a Guide to the Literature (NY: Clearwater, 1975): tribe—pp. 101–02, 180–2, 186–7, 191–3.
  • Renfrew, Colin, and Paul G. Bahn. Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2008.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribe — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1000000 videos foundNext > 

Tribe in Trouble: Oil boom threatens Indians

This video describes a journalism project I'd like to carry out in Ecuador. Visit Vourno to learn more - link: vourno.com/projects/tribe-in-trouble Backgroun...

The Tribe That Hides From Man (1970)

If you like this movie you can make a donation https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_donations&business=WYYFWP23GXYEN&lc=PL&item_name=curhsa¤cy_co...

LOST TRIBE

Broadcast: 4 September 2011 on Sunday Night, Seven Network Australia Reporter / Camera / Sound: Tim Noonan Producer: Paul Raffaele In a world exclusive, afte...

Mucawona tribe in Angola

www.cunene-tours.com We are an Angolan Tour Operator. We would like to make a presentation of the Southern part of Angola, where is possible to combine two t...

Isolated tribe man meets modern tribe man for the first time - Original Footage full

Jean-Pierre Dutilleux Stated; "If the Toulambis are actors, we should give them a César Award." The Toulambi In the XXI century the team of Jean-Pierre Dutil...

A Tribe Called Quest -Electric Relaxation

Golden Age Rap.

Tribe Meets White Man for the First Time: Emotional Video

http://HumansAreFree.com ~One Planet, One Specie, One Love~ Tribe on Papua New Guinea meets white man for the first time. Filmed in 1976. One segment of a lo...

EXILE TRIBE / 24WORLD

http://exile.jp EXILE TRIBEのエンターテイメント革命を告げるツアー連動アルバム 「EXILE TRIBE REVOLUTION」がいよいよ8月27日にリリース!! そのアルバムに収録される大注目のMusic Video「24WORLD」が ...

A TRIBE WITH RARE CUSTOMS AFRICA

www.successline.us EMAIL smart-business-100@hotmail.com SKYPE NAME antreas_aristotelous TEL +35799684007.

EXILE TRIBE / THE REVOLUTION

http://exile.jp 『EXILE一族、史上最大の祭り』と銘打った 2014年EXILE TRIBE ドームツアー・キックオフ・シングル 「THE REVOLUTION」が8月20日にいよいよリリース!! ボーカル7名&パフォーマー19名で総勢26名 ...

1000000 videos foundNext > 

56626 news items

 
The Flat Hat
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 19:26:15 -0700

The College (5-9-1, 2-3-1 CAA) had plenty of offensive chances, including five shots and two corner kicks, but failed to produce any goals. Delaware's (10-4-0, 3-1-0) tight defensive line forced the Tribe to commit offside infractions five times ...
 
The Flat Hat
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 19:48:45 -0700

Both Pastor and head coach Tess Ellis referenced that goal as a turning point in the Tribe's morale. “I think we came out really strong,” Pastor said. “Obviously, we scored in the first two minutes, but then we definitely broke down once they scored a ...
 
Bellefontaine Examiner
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:10:08 -0700

The Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma owns 50 acres along State Route 235 near Lewistown and Indian Lake Schools and hopes to have the property declared Indian Country, which would open the land to resort gaming or other developments.

The Flat Hat

Richmond Times-Dispatch
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 19:37:30 -0700

McBride had 25 catches for 281 yards in the Tribe's first six games. “We just wanted to make sure Steve knew where Tre was all the time,” said Laycock, whose 18th-ranked team (4-3, 1-2 in CAA) takes on visiting Delaware on Saturday. “In certain ...
 
Washington Post
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 12:43:23 -0700

Over a three-day period, vengeful fighters shelled, beheaded, crucified and shot hundreds of members of the Shaitat tribe after they dared to rise up against the extremists. By the time the killing stopped, 700 people were dead, activists and survivors ...

Fresno Bee

Fresno Bee
Sat, 18 Oct 2014 17:39:22 -0700

It all started in the mid-1990s, when the then-impoverished Chukchansi tribe began looking at a casino to boost its members' standards of living. At the time, the Table Mountain Casino in Fresno County was already open and profits were skyrocketing ...

Daily Beast

Daily Beast
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 13:48:45 -0700

The most brutal massacre by ISIS happened months ago but flew under the radar until now. In August, ISIS fighters took vengeance against the Shaitat tribe in eastern Syria when they resisted the extremists, beheading, crucifying, and shooting more than ...
 
Jewish Exponent
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 09:30:00 -0700

“I do feel some pressure, this will be, by far, the largest audience I've ever pitched to,” said Berman, who is also a participant in the Tribe 12 Fellowship, a social entrepreneurial program designed to help young Jewish professionals build socially ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!