digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

"Tribe" and "Tribal" redirect here. For other uses, see Tribe (disambiguation) and Tribal (disambiguation).

A tribe is viewed, historically or developmentally, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states. Many people used the term "tribal society" to refer to societies organized largely on the basis of social, especially familial, descent groups (see clan and kinship). A customary tribe in these terms is a face-to-face community, relatively bound by kinship relations, reciprocal exchange, and strong ties to place.[1]

"Tribe" is a contested term due to its roots in colonialism. The word has no shared referent, whether in political form, kinship relations, or shared culture. Some argue that it conveys a negative connotation of a timeless unchanging past. [2][3][4] To avoid these implications, some have chosen to use the terms "ethnic group", or nation instead.[2][3][4]

In some places, such as North America and India, tribes are polities that have been granted legal recognition and limited autonomy by the state.

Etymology[edit]

A shaman from a tribe in the Venezuelan Amazon playing a siku.

The English word tribe occurs in 12th-century Middle English literature as referring to one of the twelve tribes of Israel. The word is from Old French tribu, in turn from Latin tribus, referring to the original tripartite ethnic division of the Ancient Roman state: Ramnes (Ramnenses), Tities (Titienses), and Luceres, corresponding, according to Marcus Terentius Varro, to the Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans, respectively. The Ramnes were named after Romulus, leader of the Latins, Tities after Titus Tatius, leader of the Sabines, and Luceres after Lucumo, leader of an Etruscan army that had assisted the Latins. According to Livy, the three tribes were in fact squadrons of knights, rather than ethnic divisions. The term's ultimate etymology is uncertain, perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European roots tri- ("three") and bhew ("to be"). Gregory Nagy, in Greek Mythology and Poetics, says, citing the linguist Émile Benveniste in his Origines de la formation des noms en indo-européen, that the Umbrian "trifu" (tribus) is apparently derived from a combination of *tri- and *bhu-, where the second element is cognate with the 'phu-' of Greek phule, and that this subdivided the Greek polis into three phulai.

In 242–240 BC, the Tribal Assembly (comitia tributa) in the Roman Republic was organized in 35 tribes (four "urban tribes" and 31 "rural tribes"). The Latin word as used in the Bible translates as Greek phyle "race, tribe, clan" and ultimately the Hebrew or "sceptre". In the historical sense, "tribe", "race" and "clan" can be used interchangeably.

Tribes and states[edit]

Two men from the Andamanese tribe of the Andaman Islands, India.

Considerable debate takes place over how best to characterize tribes. This partly stems from perceived differences between pre-state tribes and contemporary tribes; some reflects more general controversy over cultural evolution and colonialism. In the popular imagination, tribes reflect a way of life that predates, and is more natural than that in modern states. Tribes also privilege primordial social ties, are clearly bounded, homogeneous, parochial, and stable. Thus, it was believed[who?] that tribes organize links between families (including clans and lineages), and provide them with a social and ideological basis for solidarity that is in some way more limited than that of an "ethnic group" or of a "nation". Anthropological and ethnohistorical research has challenged all of these notions.

Anthropologist Elman Service presented a system of classification for societies in all human cultures based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state. This system of classification contains four categories:

  1. Gatherer-hunter bands, which are generally egalitarian.
  2. Tribal societies in which there are some limited instances of social rank and prestige.
  3. Stratified tribal societies led by chieftains (see Chiefdom).
  4. Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments.

In his 1975 study, The Notion of the Tribe, anthropologist Morton H. Fried provided numerous examples of tribes the members of which spoke different languages and practised different rituals, or that shared languages and rituals with members of other tribes. Similarly, he provided examples of tribes where people followed different political leaders, or followed the same leaders as members of other tribes. He concluded that tribes in general are characterized by fluid boundaries and heterogeneity, are not parochial, and are dynamic.[5]

Initiation rituals among boys from a tribe in Malawi.

Fried, however, proposed that most contemporary tribes do not have their origin in pre-state tribes, but rather in pre-state bands. Such "secondary" tribes, he suggested, actually came about as modern products of state expansion. Bands comprise small, mobile, and fluid social formations with weak leadership, that do not generate surpluses, pay no taxes and support no standing army. Fried argued that secondary tribes develop in one of two ways. First, states could set them up as means to extend administrative and economic influence in their hinterland, where direct political control costs too much. States would encourage (or require) people on their frontiers to form more clearly bounded and centralized polities, because such polities could begin producing surpluses and taxes, and would have a leadership responsive to the needs of neighboring states (the so-called "scheduled" tribes of the United States or of British India provide good examples of this). Second, bands could form "secondary" tribes as a means to defend themselves against state expansion. Members of bands would form more clearly bounded and centralized polities, because such polities could begin producing surpluses that could support a standing army that could fight against states, and they would have a leadership that could co-ordinate economic production and military activities.

Archaeologists continue to explore the development of pre-state tribes. Current research suggests that tribal structures constituted one type of adaptation to situations providing plentiful yet unpredictable resources. Such structures proved flexible enough to coordinate production and distribution of food in times of scarcity, without limiting or constraining people during times of surplus.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ James, Paul (2006). Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In. London: Sage Publications. 
  2. ^ a b "What is in the word tribe?". Pambazuka. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "IC Publications | Opinions". Africasia. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "Talking about "Tribe" - Africa Action: Activism for Africa Since 1953". Africa Action. Retrieved 2012-10-04. 
  5. ^ Morton H. Fried 1972 The Notion of Tribe. Cummings Publishing Company

References[edit]

  • Benveniste, Émile. Indo-European Language and Society, translated by Elizabeth Palmer. London: Faber and Faber 1973. ISBN 0-87024-250-4.
  • Benveniste, Émile. Origines de la formation des noms en indo-européen, 1935.
  • Fried, Morton H. The Notion of Tribe. Cummings Publishing Company, 1975. ISBN 0-8465-1548-2.
  • Helm, June, ed., 1968. Essays on the Problem of Tribe, Proceedings, American Ethnological Society, 1967 (Seattle: University of Washington Press).
  • James, Paul (2006). Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In. London: Sage Publications. 
  • James, Paul (2001). "Relating Global Tensions: Modern Tribalism and Postmodern Nationalism". Communal/Plural 9 (1). 
  • Nagy, Gregory, Greek Mythology and Poetics, Cornell University Press, 1990. In chapter 12, beginning on p. 276, Professor Nagy explores the meaning of the word origin and social context of a tribe in ancient Greece and beyond.
  • Sutton, Imre, Indian Land Tenure: Bibliographical Essays and a Guide to the Literature (NY: Clearwater, 1975): tribe—pp. 101–02, 180–2, 186–7, 191–3.
  • Renfrew, Colin, and Paul G. Bahn. Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2008.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribe — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1000000 videos foundNext > 

The Tribe In The Picture - Uncontacted Amazon Tribe

"Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, ...

映画『TOKYO TRIBE』マナー予告映像

井上三太の人気コミック「TOKYO TRIBE2」を実写化したアクション。近未来都市を舞台に、ストリートギャングの若者たちが繰り広げる抗争の行方を...

Tribe in Trouble: Oil boom threatens Indians

This video describes a journalism project I'd like to carry out in Ecuador. Visit Vourno to learn more - link: vourno.com/projects/tribe-in-trouble Backgroun...

Muhimba tribe in Angola

Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (people living in voluntary...

Isolated tribe man meets modern tribe man for the first time - Original Footage full

Jean-Pierre Dutilleux Stated; "If the Toulambis are actors, we should give them a César Award." The Toulambi In the XXI century the team of Jean-Pierre Dutil...

The Tribe - Season 4 - Episode 45

Episode Forty Five (45) from Season Four of The Tribe TV Series! © 1999 Cloud 9 (The Tribe) Ltd. All Rights Reserved. For more information, please check out: http://www.tribeworld.com -...

Dassanach tribe. Ethiopia . VIDEO by Mindia Midelashvili 2013

see more on https://www.Mindia.ge or https://www.facebook.com/MindiaPhotographyOfficial.

Yakwa PREVIEW isolated tribe

Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (people living in voluntary...

The Tribe That Hides From Man (1970)

If you like this movie you can make a donation https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_donations&business=WYYFWP23GXYEN&lc=PL&item_name=curhsa¤cy_co...

tribal wives Kuna Tribe Panama

1000000 videos foundNext > 

132863 news items

 
ABC News
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 14:24:11 -0700

The time has come to remove the words "halfbreed" and "breed" from the names of creeks, lakes and other places around Montana, according to leaders of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians. Nicholas Vrooman, who works with the tribe, presented a ...
 
Huffington Post
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 22:03:45 -0700

"If you're a non-contracted tribe who has some knowledge but very little knowledge of that world out there and what you see is people coming in, stealing your resources, scaring off the game that you rely on for food and most dangerously wielding ...

Martha's Vineyard Times

Martha's Vineyard Times
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 17:56:15 -0700

The wetu lookalike presents visitors to the Gay Head Cliffs in Aquinnah with Wampanoag culture, history and current projects. The Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah) welcomed tourists, tribal members, and Island residents on Friday to the grand ...
 
Indian Country Today
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 09:41:15 -0700

(L to R) Cherokee Nation Principal Chief Bill John Baker, Cherokee citizen BB Livers, Tribal Councilor Frankie Hargis and Deputy Chief S. Joe Crittenden stand in front of Livers' new home, which the tribe built after his former home was destroyed in a ...

MiLB.com

Columbus Dispatch (blog)
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 14:56:15 -0700

Columbus starter T.J. House will return to the Tribe to fill it on Saturday against the Texas Rangers. In an odd twist, Cleveland had to return Masterson from an injury rehab assignment with the Clippers before trading to St. Louis. The Columbus ...

MLB.com

MLB.com
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 21:07:30 -0700

As Corey Kluber was spinning a three-hit shutout Wednesday against the Mariners at Progressive Field, the Indians' top Minor League affiliates were getting superb pitching of their own. Tyler Cloyd threw a no-hitter at Triple-A Columbus and Double-A ...
 
Indian Country Today Media Network
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 09:30:00 -0700

“We are all part of a larger community, and felt in a time like this that it is important to reach out and help those in need,” said Snoqualmie Tribe Chairwoman Carolyn Lubenau in a statement. “Our hearts go out to all of those affected by this massive ...

CBS Local

Fox News
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 07:26:15 -0700

(SportsNetwork.com) - Felix Hernandez will try to make some history on Wednesday when the Seattle Mariners play the middle test of their three-game series with the Cleveland Indians at Progressive Field. Hernandez has allowed two runs or less over ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Tribe

You can talk about Tribe with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!