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Treemap of soft drink preference in a small group of people. Color and gradients are used to group items, while still identifying individual items.
Treemap of votes by county, state and locally predominant recipient in the US Presidential Elections of 2012.
Treemap showing changes in waiting times for patients of English PCTs.
TreeSize Treemap visualizing hard disk space usage.

In information visualization and computing, treemapping is a method for displaying hierarchical data by using nested rectangles.

Main idea[edit]

Treemaps display hierarchical (tree-structured) data as a set of nested rectangles. Each branch of the tree is given a rectangle, which is then tiled with smaller rectangles representing sub-branches. A leaf node's rectangle has an area proportional to a specified dimension on the data. Often the leaf nodes are colored to show a separate dimension of the data.

When the color and size dimensions are correlated in some way with the tree structure, one can often easily see patterns that would be difficult to spot in other ways, such as if a certain color is particularly relevant. A second advantage of treemaps is that, by construction, they make efficient use of space. As a result, they can legibly display thousands of items on the screen simultaneously.

The tiling algorithm[edit]

To create a treemap, one must define a tiling algorithm, that is, a way to divide a rectangle into sub-rectangles of specified areas. Ideally, a treemap algorithm would create rectangles of aspect ratio close to one, furthermore preserve some sense of the ordering in the input data, and change to reflect changes in the underlying data. Unfortunately, these properties have an inverse relationship. As the aspect ratio is optimized, the order of placement becomes less predictable. As the order becomes more stable, the aspect ratio is degraded.

To date, six primary rectangular treemap algorithms have been developed:

Treemap algorithms[1]
Algorithm Order Aspect ratios Stability
BinaryTree partially ordered high stable
Mixed Treemaps[2] ordered lowest stable
Ordered partially ordered medium medium stability
Slice And Dice ordered very high stable
Squarified[3] unordered lowest medium stability
Strip ordered medium medium stability

In addition, several algorithms have been proposed that use non-rectangular regions:

  • Jigsaw Treemaps[4] - based on the geometry of space-filling curves
  • GosperMaps[5] - based on the geometry of Gosper curves, [ordered, very high Aspect ratio, stable]
  • Voronoi Treemaps[6] - based on voronoi diagram calculations
  • Convex Treemaps[7] - convex polygons are used instead of rectangles
  • Circular Treemaps - circles are used instead of rectangles

History[edit]

Area-based visualizations have existed for decades. For example, mosaic plots (also known as Marimekko diagrams) use rectangular tilings to show joint distributions (i.e., most commonly they are essentially stacked column plots where the columns are of different widths). The main distinguishing feature of a treemap, however, is the recursive construction that allows it to be extended to hierarchical data with any number of levels. This idea was invented by University of Maryland, College Park professor Ben Shneiderman in the early 1990s.[1] Shneiderman and his collaborators then deepened the idea by introducing a variety of interactive techniques for filtering and adjusting treemaps.

These early treemaps all used the simple "slice-and-dice" tiling algorithm. Despite many desirable properties (it is stable, preserves ordering, and is easy to implement), the slice-and-dice method often produces tilings with many long, skinny rectangles. In 1994 Hascoet & Beaudouin-Lafon invented a "squarifying" algorithm, later popularized by Jarke van Wijk, that created tilings whose rectangles were closer to square. In 1999 Martin Wattenberg used a variation of the "squarifying" algorithm that he called "pivot and slice" to create the first Web-based treemap, the SmartMoney Map of the Market, which displayed data on hundreds of companies in the U.S. stock market. Following its launch, treemaps enjoyed a surge of interest, especially in financial contexts.[citation needed]

A third wave of treemap innovation came around 2004, after Marcos Weskamp created the Newsmap, a treemap that displayed news headlines. This example of a non-analytical treemap inspired many imitators, and introduced treemaps to a new, broad audience.[citation needed] In recent years, treemaps have made their way into the mainstream media, including usage by the New York Times.[8][9]

Treemap of Benin's exports by product category, 2009. The Product Exports Treemaps are one of the most recent applications of these kind of visualizations, developed by the Harvard-MIT Observatory of Economic Complexity

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Shneiderman, Ben; Plaisant, Catherine (June 25, 2009). "Treemaps for space-constrained visualization of hierarchies". Retrieved February 23, 2010. 
  2. ^ Roel Vliegen; Erik-Jan van der Linden and Jarke J. vanWijk. "Visualizing Business Data with Generalized Treemaps" (PDF). Retrieved February 24, 2010. 
  3. ^ Bruls, Mark; Huizing, Kees; van Wijk, Jarke J. (2000). "Squarified treemaps". In de Leeuw, W.; van Liere, R. Data Visualization 2000: Proc. Joint Eurographics and IEEE TCVG Symp. on Visualization. Springer-Verlag. pp. 33–42{{inconsistent citations}} .
  4. ^ Wattenberg, Martin (2005). "A Note on Space-Filling Visualizations and Space-Filling Curves". In Stasko, John T.; Ward, Matthew O. IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization (InfoVis 2005), 23-25 October 2005, Minneapolis, MN, USA. IEEE Computer Society. p. 24{{inconsistent citations}} .
  5. ^ Auber, David; Huet, Charles; Lambert, Antoine; Renoust, Benjamin; Sallaberry, Arnaud; Saulnier, Agnes (2013). "GosperMap: Using a Gosper Curve for Laying out Hierarchical Data". "Gosper Map: Using a Gosper Curve for laying out hierarchical data". IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 19 (11): 1820–1832. doi:10.1109/TVCG.2013.91. PMID 24029903{{inconsistent citations}} .
  6. ^ Balzer, Michael; Deussen, Oliver (2005). "Voronoi Treemaps". In Stasko, John T.; Ward, Matthew O. IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization (InfoVis 2005), 23-25 October 2005, Minneapolis, MN, USA. IEEE Computer Society. p. 7{{inconsistent citations}} .
  7. ^ Krzysztof Onak; Anastasios Sidiropoulos. "Circular Partitions with Applications to Visualization and Embeddings". Retrieved June 26, 2011. 
  8. ^ Cox, Amanda; Fairfield, Hannah (February 25, 2007). "The health of the car, van, SUV, and truck market". The New York Times. Retrieved March 12, 2010. 
  9. ^ Carter, Shan; Cox, Amanda (February 14, 2011). "Obama's 2012 Budget Proposal: How $3.7 Trillion is Spent". The New York Times. Retrieved February 15, 2011. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treemapping — Please support Wikipedia.
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9 news items

Search Engine Land

Search Engine Land
Tue, 28 Oct 2014 10:38:12 -0700

Treemapping, in the ever-updating words of Wikipedia, is “a method for displaying hierarchical data by using nested rectangles.” Nested rectangles, you guys. NESTED RECTANGLES! (I think it's a sign that I've found the right career path when the ...
 
PR Newswire (press release)
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 05:45:00 -0700

The Hive Group also offers HiveOnDemand, the world's first cloud offering dedicated exclusively to treemapping. HiveOnDemand is found at www.hiveondemand.com. The Hive Group is privately held with headquarters in Richardson, Texas. For more ...
 
PR Newswire (press release)
Mon, 17 Mar 2014 08:01:42 -0700

The ThreatMap gives us visibility into dark areas of the network around the world without having to review hours of log data, and the TreeMapping capabilities bring specific data to life in visual formats so we can quickly take action and create ...
 
Co.Exist
Thu, 03 Oct 2013 07:39:09 -0700

Outside of the United Kingdom, we're not aware of a “monster” tree map that exists for the entire United States or any other country, but treemapping has been done on the local scale in cities like Philadelphia and San Francisco. Opentreemap.org ...
 
RealWire (press release)
Mon, 26 Nov 2012 01:00:00 -0800

York, England, 26 November 2012: License Dashboard, the leading developer of advanced license management solutions, today announced the launch of Cloud Console, a new cloud-based dynamic reporting interface for License Manager, its flagship ...
 
Search Engine Land (blog)
Fri, 15 Aug 2008 08:06:35 -0700

In The Trenches is a weekly spotlight of tips, tricks, and news about the tools search engine marketing professionals use to give them a leg up on the competition. Today: News from the search engines, today's in-depth look, Banners for (SEM) Dummies ...
 
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Mon, 23 Sep 2013 01:15:20 -0700

我多次被炫目的数据可视化或信息可视化震惊,在我知道这些图片背后的数据来源和创造历程后,更是为之诧异不止。它涉足制图学、图形绘制设计、计算机视觉、数据采集、统计学、图解技术、数型结合以及动画、立体渲染、用户交 ...
 
Computerworld
Tue, 30 Aug 2011 00:39:09 -0700

Deze utility maakt gebruik van de visualisatiemethode treemapping om te bepalen welke bestanden en mappen schijfruimte innemen en hoeveel dat dan is. Vervolgens wordt dit met aardige vierkantjes en rechthoeken visueel gepresenteerd waarbij de ...
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