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Technology

The engineering of this roundabout in Bristol, England, attempts to make traffic flow free-moving

Transportation engineering is the application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe, efficient, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods (transport). It is a sub-discipline of civil engineering [1] and of industrial engineering. Transportation engineering is a major component of the civil engineering and mechanical engineering disciplines, according to specialisation of academic courses and main competences of the involved territory. The importance of transportation engineering within the civil and industrial engineering profession can be judged by the number of divisions in ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) that are directly related to transportation. There are six such divisions (Aerospace; Air Transportation; Highway; Pipeline; Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean; and Urban Transportation) representing one-third of the total 18 technical divisions within the ASCE (1987).[2]

The planning aspects of transport engineering relate to urban planning, and involve technical forecasting decisions and political factors. Technical forecasting of passenger travel usually involves an urban transportation planning model, requiring the estimation of trip generation (how many trips for what purpose), trip distribution (destination choice, where is the traveler going), mode choice (what mode is being taken), and route assignment (which streets or routes are being used). More sophisticated forecasting can include other aspects of traveler decisions, including auto ownership, trip chaining (the decision to link individual trips together in a tour) and the choice of residential or business location (known as land use forecasting). Passenger trips are the focus of transport engineering because they often represent the peak of demand on any transportation system.

A review of descriptions of the scope of various committees indicates that while facility planning and design continue to be the core of the transportation engineering field, such areas as operations planning, logistics, network analysis, financing, and policy analysis are also important to civil engineers, particularly to those working in highway and urban transportation. The National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) list online the safety protocols, geometric design requirements, and signal timing.

Transportation engineering, as practiced by civil engineers, primarily involves planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of transportation facilities. The facilities support air, highway, railroad, pipeline, water, and even space transportation.[1] The design aspects of transport engineering include the sizing of transportation facilities (how many lanes or how much capacity the facility has), determining the materials and thickness used in pavement designing the geometry (vertical and horizontal alignment) of the roadway (or track).

Before any planning occurs the Engineer must take what is known as an inventory of the area or if it is appropriate, the previous system in place. This inventory or database must include information on (1)population, (2)land use, (3)economic activity, (4)transportation facilities and services, (5)travel patterns and volumes, (6)laws and ordinances, (7)regional financial resources, (8)community values and expectations. These inventories help the engineer create business models to complete accurate forecasts of the future conditions of the systemReview.

Operations and management involve traffic engineering, so that vehicles move smoothly on the road or track. Older techniques include signs, signals, markings, and tolling. Newer technologies involve intelligent transportation systems, including advanced traveler information systems (such as variable message signs), advanced traffic control systems (such as ramp meters), and vehicle infrastructure integration. Human factors are an aspect of transport engineering, particularly concerning driver-vehicle interface and user interface of road signs, signals, and markings.

Highway engineering[edit]

Main article: Highway engineering

Engineers in this specialization:

  • Handle the planning, design, construction, and operation of highways, roads, and other vehicular facilities as well as their related bicycle and pedestrian realms.
  • Estimate the transportation needs of the public and then secure the funding for the project.
  • Analyze locations of high traffic volumes and high collisions for safety and capacity.
  • Use civil engineering principles to improve the transportation system.
  • Utilizes the three design controls which are the drivers, the vehicles, and the roadways themselves.

Railroad engineering[edit]

Railway engineers handle the design, construction, and operation of railroads and mass transit systems that use a fixed guideway (such as light rail or even monorails). Typical tasks would include determining horizontal and vertical alignment design, station location and design, and construction cost estimating. Railroad engineers can also move into the specialized field of train dispatching which focuses on train movement control.

Railway engineers also work to build a cleaner and safer transportation network by reinvesting and revitalizing the rail system to meet future demands. In the United States, railway engineers work with elected officials in Washington, D.C. on rail transportation issues to make sure that the rail system meets the country's transportation needs.[3]

Port and harbor engineering[edit]

Port and harbor engineers handle the design, construction, and operation of ports, harbors, canals, and other maritime facilities. This is not to be confused with marine engineering.

Airport engineering[edit]

Airport engineers design and construct airports. Airport engineers must account for the impacts and demands of aircraft in their design of airport facilities. These engineers must use the analysis of predominant wind direction to determine runway orientation, determine the size of runway border and safety areas, different wing tip to wing tip clearances for all gates and must designate the clear zones in the entire port.

Professional Societies[edit]

  • Young Professionals in Transportation (YPT) [4]
  • Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) [5]
  • American Society for Highway Engineering (ASHE) [6]
  • American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) [7]
  • American Planning Association – Transportation Planning Division (APA) [8]
  • The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)[9]
  • Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies (EASTS)[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "ITE – The Transportation Profession". ITE. Retrieved 2010-06-27. 
  2. ^ "ASCE – About Civil Engineering". ASCE. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  3. ^ "Association of American Railroads". AAR. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  4. ^ Young Professionals in Transportation. yptransportation.org. Retrieved on 2012-2-13.
  5. ^ Institute of Transportation Engineers. ITE. Retrieved on 2011-10-12.
  6. ^ American Society for Highway Engineers. highwayengineers.org. Retrieved on 2012-3-4.
  7. ^ American Society of Civil Engineers. Asce.org (2010-07-19). Retrieved on 2011-10-12.
  8. ^ American Planning Association. Apa-tpd.org. Retrieved on 2011-10-12.
  9. ^ "American Association for State Highway and Transportation Officials". Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  10. ^ [1]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_engineering — Please support Wikipedia.
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62 news items

 
Insider Media
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:07:30 -0700

Richard Kelly, director at ES Group's Solent office, said: "As one of the major names in the transport engineering field, Maltby Engineering's equipment is of an industry leading standard and sales of such specialist second hand metalworking machinery ...

Reuters UK

Reuters UK
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:56:15 -0700

PARIS (Reuters) - French electrical engineering group Alstom has won contracts with a total value of 800 million euros (636 million pounds) to build high-voltage direct current power transmission lines in India, South Korea and Canada, the firm said.

VietNamNet Bridge

VietNamNet Bridge
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 05:00:00 -0700

According to a report submitted by the Transport Engineering Construction and Quality Management Bureau to the ministry on Monday, the total investment saving included VND34.124 trillion from 19 projects reviewed as of last December and VND5.241 ...
 
Marketwired (press release)
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 01:26:15 -0700

As part of Baultar's contract with AnsaldoBreda S.p.A, (AnsaldoBreda), a rail transport engineering company based in Italy. They were asked to provide a guarantee to match a USD 374,000 advanced payment. Baultar did not have the available capital to ...

The Engineer

The Engineer
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 13:15:00 -0700

... maintaining different structures – to name a few: structural engineering, municipal engineering (designing and building cities), transport engineering, environmental engineering and geotechnical engineering, which concerns construction in or on the ...

Channel News Asia

MarketWatch
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 22:11:50 -0700

Transport engineering output fell 9.9% on year in July compared with a revised 0.7% fall in June. Chemicals' output rose 9.2% on year in July led by petrochemicals, which rose 12.1% mainly on account of the low base last year when some plants were shut ...

AsiaOne

AsiaOne
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 22:15:00 -0700

Other segments which shrank included transport engineering, down 9.9 per cent from a year earlier, and general manufac-turing, which dipped 5.9 per cent. Month-on-month, manufacturing output rose 2.7 per cent in July over June, the first increase since ...
 
AllAfrica.com
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 03:52:30 -0700

Two of the companies included in the delegation, Italferr, railway transport engineering, and Salini Constructori, are already working in Ethiopia. Italferr is currently engaged in the Addis Ababa Light Railway and the Addis-Djibouti Railway management ...
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