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Toyota Corona
Toyota Corona Premio.JPG
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Also called Toyota Tiara[citation needed]
Production 1957–2002
Body and chassis
Class Large family car
Platform T series[citation needed]
Chronology
Predecessor Toyopet Master
Successor

The Toyota Corona (Japanese: トヨタ・コロナ) is an automobile manufactured by the Japanese automaker Toyota between 1957 and 2002. Traditionally, the competitor from Nissan was the Nissan Bluebird.[citation needed] The word Corona is Latin for "crown", a reference to an earlier vehicle Toyota offered called the Toyota Crown. It was exclusive to Toyopet Store dealership channels in Japan, while the larger Crown was available only at Toyota Store locations.

In many countries, the Corona was one of Toyota's first international exports, and was shortly joined by the smaller Toyota Corolla, providing buyers with a choice of a larger car, with similar operating expenses to the smaller Corolla. The Corona was Toyota's second sedan in their hierarchy of products, just below the Crown, until 1968 when the Corona name was used on a larger, all new platform called the Toyota Corona Mark II, which gave buyers more interior space while still offering dependable, affordable performance.

The Corona became successful in export markets and was marketed under a number of different nameplates worldwide—including those branded in much of Asia as Coronas marketed in European markets as Carinas. While the Corona is no longer in production, the Toyota "T" platform used to build it is still being used.

T10 series[edit]

First generation
1957 Toyopet Corona 01.jpg
Overview
Production 1957–1960
Assembly Toyota City, Japan
Body and chassis
Body style
  • 4-door sedan
  • 3-door van
Layout FR layout
Related
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.0L S I4
  • 1.0L P I4
Transmission 3-speed manual transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,400 mm (94.5 in)
Length 3,912 mm (154 in)
Width 1,471 mm (57.9 in)
Height 1,519 mm (59.8 in)
Curb weight 960 kg (2,120 lb)

The first generation Corona, introduced in May 1957, was designed with parts from the previous generation Crown and Master following a major restyle and enlargement of the Crown. Many of the body panels were cut down from the Master which had ceased production. Aside from the four-door sedan, the ST16/PT16 van versions were also available. Originally, the ST10/16 Corona was fitted with the old sidevalve "S" engine, with 33 PS (24 kW).[1] In April 1958 the Corona underwent a light facelift, with a new hood ornament and door handles. The tail light design of this generation is reminiscent of the 1949 Ford sedan.

The 997 cc (60.8 cu in) OHV P series engine replaced the old S in September 1959, and offered substantially more power with 45 PS (33 kW) at 5,000 rpm. The P-engined Corona sedan was capable of traveling at 105 km/h (65 mph). The car also underwent another facelift, including a mesh grille and a new rear seat which allowed seating for five rather than the previous four. As regulations regarding taxis at the time required engines no larger than 910 cc (56 cu in), dealers restricted the power for taxi vehicles. Due to the upgrade in dimensions of the Crown, Toyota needed to continue manufacturing a vehicle with similar size dimensions to the first Crown, primarily to be used for taxi usage. This vehicle saw the introduction of a monocoque chassis structure, and an independent front suspension using double wishbones. Due to the monocoque chassis, Toyota was able to produce a vehicle under 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).

Rear view of 1957 ST10 Corona

T20, T30 series[edit]

Second Generation
1960 Toyopet Corona 01.jpg
Overview
Also called
  • Toyota 1900
  • Toyota Tiara
Production 1960–1964[2]
April 1963–unknown (Australia)[3]
Assembly
Body and chassis
Body style
Layout FR layout
Platform PT20 / RT20L / RT26LG / RT30L
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.0L P I4
  • 1.5L R I4
  • 1.9L 3R I4
Transmission
  • 3-speed manual
  • 2-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,400 mm (94 in)
Length 3,990 mm (157 in)
Width 1,490 mm (59 in)
Height 1,440 mm (57 in)
Curb weight sedan: 940–980 kg (2,070–2,160 lb)

This generation of the Corona was also known as the Tiara, when exported by Toyota Motor Corporation. It was introduced at a critical time for the company in North America. Their first flagship car, the Toyopet Crown, was unsuccessful in the US market, and was withdrawn, leaving only a single vehicle, the Land Cruiser. At the time, there was little market for an off-road vehicle like the Land Cruiser. The front end styling of the P20 Corona is reminiscent of the 1955–1957 Ford Thunderbird, and shared its appearance with the entry-level offering, called the Toyota Publica.

The Tiara was supposed to sell alongside the Crown, as a smaller companion. Introduced in 1960, the car was powered by a 45 PS (33 kW) 1.0 L "P" series motor. With a three-speed manual transmission, top speed was a mere 110 km/h (68 mph).[2] In 1961, Toyota introduced a more powerful 1.5 litre "R" series motor, the same motor from the Crown; an even larger 1.9 litre engine was added in 1964. Fortunately for Toyota, the problems with the Crown were not seen on the Tiara as the lighter body (400 lb less than the Crown) made the R series engine more sufficient.[citation needed] The Tiara station wagon was seemingly aimed at women,[citation needed] with many of the original brochures featuring only women in a dinner dress as well as playing golf. Nevertheless, it sold better than the Crown and had a lot less mechanical problems.[citation needed] The Tiara ended up being the only sedan sold by Toyota in the USA until the reworked second-generation Crown appeared. By that time, the Tiara had been redesigned and given the Corona label from the Japanese domestic market. A total of only 318 of these vehicles were sold in the US.

Two concept cars were shown at the 1963 Tokyo Motor Show – the Corona 1500S Convertible and the Corona 1900S Sporty Sedan. The Corona Sports Coupe was a concept car shown at the 1963 Tokyo Motor Show – it shared little with the Corona except the suspension and the name. Load carrying abilities of the newly introduced Corona pickup (which was technically a coupé utility) were shared with the heavier capacity Toyota Stout.

1962 Corona pickup 
RT20 series Corona sedan 
RT20 rear view 

T40, T50 series[edit]

Third generation
1964 Toyopet Corona 01.jpg
Overview
Production Sep 1964[5]—Jan 1970[5]
Assembly
Body and chassis
Body style
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.2L 2P I4 OHV (PT40/46)
  • 1.3L 3P I4 OHV (PT41/47)
  • 1.5L 2R I4 OHV (RT40/46/50/56)
  • 1.6L 4R I4 OHV
  • 1.6L 9R I4 DOHC (RT55)
  • 1.6L 12R I4 OHV
  • 1.6L 7R, 7R-B I4 SOHC (RT41/53, 54)
  • 1.9L 3R I4 OHV (RT43/52)
Transmission
  • 2-speed Toyoglide automatic
  • 3-speed manual
  • 4-speed manual all-synchromesh[8]
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,420 mm (95.3 in)
Length 4,110 mm (161.8 in)
Width 1,550 mm (61.0 in)
Height
  • 1,420 mm (55.9 in) (sedan)
  • 1,374.1 mm (54.1 in) (coupe)
Curb weight
  • 971 kg (2,140 lb) (sedan)
  • 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) (coupe)

The third generation was introduced September 1964,[5] and was available in sedan, two-door hardtop, three-door van, five-door station wagon (also as a van), two pickup variants and a five-door hatchback. The Italian designer Battista Farina assisted in the appearance of the new Corona.[citation needed] The 40-43 series were reserved for sedans, while commercial vehicles (and wagons) were in the 46 and 47 series. Hardtops received 50-55 series model codes, while 56 was reserved for the five-door hatchback.[9]

A public demonstration of the new Corona's performance was done on the Meishin Expressway, where the new model was tested to 100,000 kilometres (62,137.1 mi), and was able to sustain speeds of 140 km/h (87 mph). The Corona was released one year after the debut of the Corona's traditional competitor, the Nissan Bluebird. Toyota introduced a smaller vehicle to address the market that needed a more fuel efficient vehicle, called the Toyota Corolla in March 1968. This allowed the Corona to increase in size and offer more passenger and cargo room over previous generations. 0–97 km/h (0–60 mph) time was 15.1 seconds.[10]

Originally, commercial models (three-door van, pickup, and double-cab pickup) utilized the 1,198 cc 2P engine, with 55 PS (40 kW) at 5,000 rpm. This allowed for a maximum load of 500 kg (1,100 lb) for the two-seater versions and 300 kg (660 lb) for the five-seaters. Heavier loads were better accommodated by the Toyota Stout, while larger commercial grade trucks became available at Toyota Diesel Store locations. 1967 also saw the debut of a cab over van equipped for both commercial and commuting duties using the Corona engines, called the Toyota HiAce, offering more payload than the Corona was suited for.

The pickup was produced by the former Central Motors between October 1964 and August 1968.[11]

Top speed for the 1.2 litre Corona is 110 km/h (68 mph).[12] In January 1967 this also became available as a five-door van.[9] In May 1967, the larger and more powerful 3P (1.35 litre) and 2R (1.5 litre) engines became available,[9] replacing the lesser 2P in most markets. Power of these were 77 and 65 PS (57 and 48 kW) respectively.[13]

The Toyota automatic transmission, dubbed Toyoglide, was introduced on this version of the Corona. The 4R (12R in Australian versions) engine that had a displacement of 1587 cc was equipped with a twin SU carburetor (Australian models with 12R engine had one double barrel Aisin downdraft carburetor), and was capable of 90 bhp (67 kW; 91 PS). Disc brakes were also introduced for the front wheels. Exports of this Corona proved popular in the USA and Europe, with increased engine performance and durability improvements over previous versions. In September 1967 alone, Toyota produced 80,000 cars, with 30,000 being Coronas.

In 1967 in Japan, the 1,587 cc DOHC 9R engine was available in the RT55 1600GT 2-door coupe. This engine was essentially the 4R engine with a new twincam head based on the same technology as the twincam engine in the 2000GT.[14][15]

1965 Corona Hardtop 
Corona station wagon 
Corona Pickup (single cab) 

Foreign assembly[edit]

The Corona was the first Toyota assembled in New Zealand, from February 1967 at Steel Brothers' Motor Assemblies in Christchurch.[7] It was also built by Shinjin Motor in South Korea from 1966 until 1972.[6] Shinjin Motor was a predecessor to Daewoo and soon switched to assembling General Motors products. The Corona was also assembled by Australian Motor Industries in Melbourne, with the 12R engine.

T60, T70 series[edit]

For more information, see Toyota Mark II.
1968 Toyota Corona Mark II

September 1968[5] saw the release of the a larger model called the Corona Mark II. After 1972, this was spun off as a separate platform. The late '60s and early '70s vehicle were powered by a 1,900 cc inline-four engine. Later Toyota introduced two variations of the Mark II with different model names, with different styling and marketing approaches. The sportier Toyota Chaser appeared in 1977, and later in 1980, the high luxury content Toyota Cresta appeared. The Chaser and Cresta were exclusive to the Toyota Auto Store locations, while the Mark II remained at Toyopet Store locations.

T80, T90 series[edit]

Fourth generation
1973ToyotaCorona.jpg
Toyota Corona T80 Sedan
Overview
Production Feb 1970[5]—July 1973[5]
Assembly Toyota City, Japan
Body and chassis
Body style
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.3L 3P I4 OHV (PT86V)
  • 1.5L 2R I4 OHV (RT80/90/86V)
  • 1.6L 12R I4 OHV (RT81/91/87V)
  • 1.6L 7R I4 OHV (RT82)
  • 1.7L 6R I4 (RT84/94/88V)
  • 1.9L 8R I4 (RT83/93)
  • 2.0L 18R I4 (RT85/95/89V)
Transmission
  • 3/4/5-speed manual
  • 2/3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,430 mm (95.7 in)
Length
  • 4,170 mm (164.2 in) (sedan)
  • 4,260 mm (167.7 in) (wagon)
Width 1,570 mm (61.8 in)
Height
  • 1,400 mm (55.1 in)(sedan)
  • 1,435 mm (56.5 in) (wagon)
Curb weight
  • 945 kg (2,083 lb) (sedan)
  • 1,005 kg (2,216 lb) (wagon)

The RT-80 series Corona was introduced February 1970 and was a complete redesign, and was developed on a separate platform from the Toyota Corona Mark II, which became a larger, more comfortable and powerful car, where the Corona remained focused on fuel economy. Body styles were further reduced to a two door hardtop coupé, a four door sedan and station wagon. The engine continued to use an OHV on base level vehicles, and SOHC on better equipped versions and most of the two door coupés. The engines used in the Mark II were often shared with the Corona.

Trim levels originally offered were the 1500DX, 1600DX and the 1600SL (although the 1,900 cc 8R engine was offered in North America and South Africa). A slight change occurred in January 1971, when the 2R and 7R engines (RT80/82/86V) were replaced by the more powerful 12R and 7R units (RT81/84/87V). At the same time, the larger 1.9 litre RT83 was added to the lineup.[16]

Corona 1700SL 2-door hardtop (RT94)

A mild restyle appeared August 1972. Among the mechanical updates were electronic fuel injection installed on the 18R-E with a SOHC engine design that appeared in the two door coupé. The 18R-B had twin SU Carburetors, with an electronically controlled automatic transmission, labeled ECT. Four-cylinder engine choices were pushrod 1.35 (van Standard only), 1.5, and 1.6 litre engines, and overhead-cam 1.7, 1.9, and 2.0 litre gasoline units. Vans (wagons) were sold with 1.35 3P or 1.5 litre 2R engines for the first year, but the 1.5 was replaced by the 1.6 litre 12R engine in January 1971.[17] The 1.7 litre 6R engine was added to the lineup in September 1970, and became available in the van in September 1971.[18] North America only received the Corona wagon in July 1972 (and only for the 1973 model year), as the two-litre RT89.

A performance oriented in-house competitor called the Toyota Carina, close in size to the Corona and based on the Toyota Celica platform, was introduced in 1970. It was available at a different dealership sales channel called Toyota Store. This generation Corona was available at dealerships called Toyopet Store. The Corona pick-up was no longer manufactured due to the introduction of the Hilux in 1969. Along with the August 1972 facelift, the Corona received the 2.0 litre engine which appeared in the 2000SL and the 2000SR with fuel injection. The 7R-engined RT82 was short-lived, only being available between

In the United States, the 1970s were probably the Corona's high point, helped by the fuel crises of 1973 and 1979. Competition for sales continued from the Nissan Bluebird, and from a new competitor from the Mazda RX-2 in 1971, with an introduction to the USA in 1972.

These models were assembled in New Zealand (by Steel's) and Australia (Australian Motor Industries or AMI). NZ models initially had a 1.5 litre OHV engine and four-speed manual and then the 6R 1.7 litre OHC engine. After the first facelift (new nose and tail, square instead of round instrument housings) for 1972, the 6R engine was again used. The 1973 facelift (another new grille) saw two models - 1.6 litre OHV with three-speed column-shift manual and bench front seat and 1.7 litre four-speed floor shift manual and high-back buckets. This version was badged 1700SE.

Australian cars used a 1.6 litre OHV engine and four-speed manual. Local content was much higher than the NZ cars with local instruments and heater which meant, surprisingly for the climate, there were no centre air vents.

A modified Corona was shown at the 1970 Tokyo Motor Show as the Electronics Car. Based on the Corona Hardtop 1700SL, it showed many electronic innovations but was not put into production.

T100, T110, T120 series[edit]

Fifth generation
1973 Toyota Corona 01.jpg
Overview
Also called Toyota 2000 (UK market) [19]
Production Aug 1973[5]—May 1979[5]
Assembly Toyota City, Japan
Body and chassis
Body style
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.6 L 2T I4[20] (TT100/106V/110/120)
  • 1.6 L 12T I4[20] (TT120)
  • 1.6 L 12R I4[5](RT100/106V/110/116)
  • 1.8 L 3T I4[20] (TT121)
  • 1.8 L 13T I4[20] (TT121)
  • 1.8 L 16R I4[5] (RT102/108V/112/117)
  • 2.0 L 18R I4[5] (RT104/114/118/122)
  • 2.0 L 19R I4 (RT103)
  • 2.2 L 20R I4 (RT105/115/119)
Transmission
  • 3-speed manual
  • 4-speed W40 manual
  • 5-speed W50 manual
  • 3-speed A40 automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,500 mm (98.4 in)
Length
  • 4,250 mm (167.3 in) (sedan)
  • 4,481 mm (176.4 in) (wagon)
Width
  • 1,610 mm (63.4 in) (sedan)
  • 1,610 mm (63.4 in) (wagon)
Height
  • 1,390 mm (54.7 in) (sedan)
  • 1,430 mm (56.3 in) (wagon)
Curb weight
  • 1,090 kg (2,400 lb) (sedan)
  • 1,260 kg (2,770 lb) (wagon)

August 31, 1973 saw the introduction of the Corona T100-Series, which continued to be built as a two-door or four-door sedans, a two-door hardtop coupé (T110 chassis codes) and as a four-door station wagon (marketed as a van for commercial use in Japan). Chassis codes 100-105 were reserved for sedans, with 106-109 for vans, the 110-115 was for the hardtop coupé while 116-119 was for the wagon versions. Engines were 1.6 and 2.0 litres SOHC. In North America, the 20R 2.2 litre engine was used. The high performance 2000 GT Sedan and Hardtop Coupé with 18R-G twin cam engine were only offered in Japan. The two-speed automatic was no longer offered. The face lift revised the hood and grille, and enlarged the tail lights. The station wagon featured optional wood panel body claddings.

North American models had longer bumpers (hiding recoverable bumper shocks) to meet local 5 mph (8.0 km/h) impact standards; they gained standard radial tires in 1975. Side door impact upgrades were installed in all doors. This series also saw the standard (on some models) Electro Sensor Panel which monitored fluid and bulb status. As with earlier Coronas, some models had a shifter mounted on the steering column. Sales of the Corona continued to grow as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. The two-door hardtop continued, with trim levels 1600GL, 1800SR and the 2000SR, with the coupé proving popular in the USA but more popular yet in Japan.

The Corona saw a new competitors in both Japan, Europe and the USA from the Honda Accord in 1976, and the Subaru DL in 1974. The advantage the Honda and Subaru had over the Corona was that both vehicles were front wheel drive, while the Corona was rear wheel drive. In response to the Japanese Governments passage of emission control regulations, Toyota introduced the Toyota TTC-V (Vortex) on the 19R engine only, using an Exhaust gas recirculation implementation. In Japan, the 12R-U engine was designed to run on LPG for taxi usage, starting in October 1975. The 18R-E engine with fuel injection that was used in the 2000SL and 2000SR discontinued production due to emission issues. In November 1975, the 1800 saw the removal of the twin carburetors due to emission regulations, which meant the discontinuation of the 1800SR coupé. June 1976 saw the installation of a catalyst system included with the TTC-C system.

January 1977 saw a minor appearance change to both the interior and exterior, with a revised grille.

New Zealand assembly began with 1.6 OHV, three-speed manual column shift and bench front seat and 1.8 litre 16R OHC four-speed manual bucket front seat options. Later, the 18R 2.0 litre OHC engine replaced the 1.8 and was also offered with a three-speed automatic, the first auto Corona in NZ. Australian models had the 18R from the start.

In 1978, for Japan only, the T100/110 series was given a mild facelift to resemble the T130 and then sold alongside the T130 series as the T120.

1974-1977 Corona Sedan, rear view 
1974–1977 Corona (RT118) SE station wagon (Australia) 
1974–1977 Corona (RT118) SE station wagon (Australia) 
1977-1979 Corona (TT121) coupé 

T130 series[edit]

Sixth generation
1979-1983 Toyota Corona CS (XT130) 02.jpg
Overview
Production Sep 1978—Apr 1983[5][21]
September 1979–1983 (Australia)[22]
Assembly Toyota City, Japan
Altona, Victoria, Australia
Thames, New Zealand
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
2-door hardtop coupe
5-door liftback
5-door station wagon
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
  • 3-speed manual
  • 4-speed manual
  • 5-speed manual
  • 3-speed A40 automatic
  • 4-speed A40D automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,525 mm (99.4 in)
Length
  • 4,490 mm (176.8 in) (sedan)
  • 4,491 mm (176.8 in) (liftback)
Width 1,655 mm (65.2 in)
Height
  • 1,400 mm (55.1 in) (sedan)
  • 1,346 mm (53 in) (liftback)
Curb weight
  • 1,085 kg (2,392 lb) (sedan)
  • 1,161 kg (2,559 lb) (liftback)

Introduced in Japan in September 1978, the T130 series Corona adopted a boxier design over the outgoing T100/110/120 series. It maintained the standard front engine / rear wheel drive layout of all Coronas that preceded it. The T130 series was available in a wide range of body styles across various markets including a four-door Sedan, two-door hardtop coupe, four door wagon and new five-door liftback, which featured a 40:60 split fold rear seat. The assignment of "T130" to all Corona bodystyles signified a new approach, instead of a different series number identifier for different bodystyles.

All models featured Macpherson strut independent front suspension as well as a 4-link trailing arm rear suspension arrangement with a Panhard rod. Disc brakes were fitted as standard equipment on the front of all models. Rear disc brakes were fitted as standard on the 2000GT and 2000SL, which were not available to all international markets. Other models were fitted with rear drum brakes.

The T130 was the last Corona to be marketed in the USA. It was offered as a sedan, wagon, or liftback with either Base or LE equipment. In North America, the Corona was replaced for the 1983 model year by the similarly sized but front wheel drive Camry sedan and five-door hatchback. Since then, the Camry has grown a size larger than the Corona and its sportier Carina sister car.

The T130 series was manufactured with a wide range of engine and transmission combinations. 1.6 litre 12R, 2T (and associated 12T) and 2.0 litre 18R engines are the most common. Amongst other minors change, the 1.8 litre 3T / 13T engine was added in 1981 to replace the 1.6 litre 2T / 12T. The North American Corona shared the 2.2 litre 20R engine with the Celica. Emission regulations passed in 1978 were applied across the range of models offered. The 1.8L engine was equipped with electronic fuel injection as well as the 2.0L engine. In Japan the venerable 2.0L 18R-G was offered in the range-topping 2000GT, developing 101 kW (135 hp) at 5800 rpm

Toyota Australia manufactured sedans and wagons using 1.9 L Holden Starfire engines, badged in Toyota engine terminology as the 1X, coupled with a 4 speed or optional 5 speed Borg-Warner 505. Toyota Australia also imported 4 door sedans and 5 door liftbacks fitted with a 2.0 litre 18R engine for the upmarket range.

New Zealand assembly started with the 1.6 litre OHV 12R engine and three-speed manual transmission with bench front seat, and 1.8 litre 3T with a four-speed manual or three-speed automatic. The 1.6 was soon changed to the newer 2T engine, coupled with a four-speed manual and bucket front seats. Later in the run, Toyota NZ added a locally assembled Liftback version with the 1.8 litre engine and manual or automatic transmission. These models also had a standard radio and separate cassette deck - both were rare factory fittings in the country at the time.

Production of the T130 ended in 1982, to be replaced by the new, modern T140 series.

Corona Liftback (Switzerland) 
Corona LE Liftback (US) 

T140 series[edit]

Seventh generation
1983-1984 Toyota Corona (ST141) CSX sedan 03.jpg
Overview
Production Jan 1982[5]—Dec 1987
1983–February 1987 (Australia)[24]
Assembly
Body and chassis
Body style
Layout FR layout
Related Toyota Celica
Toyota Carina
Powertrain
Engine
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,500 mm (98.4 in)
Length 4,570 mm (179.9 in)
Width 1,660 mm (65.4 in)
Height 1,415 mm (55.7 in)
Curb weight 1,165 kg (2,568 lb)

The T140, which would become the longest running Corona series, entered production as a rear wheel drive sedan, coupé and wagon in January 1982.[5] Manufacture by Toyota Australia continued until 1987, by which time the T150 series had already been released. The T140 series was also brought out in a diesel/LPG powered, high-roofed taxicab version which was particularly popular in Hong Kong, Macau, and Singapore.

Starting with this generation series, the Toyota Carina platform was altered from its original Toyota Celica beginnings to the Corona platform. The Corona remained exclusive to Japanese dealerships Toyopet Store, and the Carina continued to be sold new only at Toyota Store locations in conjunction to the larger Toyota Crown.

1982

1600 Standard, DX, GL, SL 4dr sedan, 2dr hardtop, 4dr liftback coupé (standard only sedan) 88 hp (12T-U) rigid rear axle 4 speed gearbox (SL 5 speed) brakes: front disc, rear drum 1800 DX, GL, CX, LX, SL 4dr sedan, 2dr hardtop, 4dr liftback coupé 95 hp (13T-U) rigid rear axle 5 speed gearbox brakes: front disc, rear drum 1800 EFI SL, EFI SX 4dr sedan, 2dr hardtop, 4dr liftback coupé 105 hp (3T-EU) rigid rear axle with anti-roll bar 5 speed gearbox brakes: front disc, rear disc 2000 CX 4dr sedan, 2dr hardtop, 4dr liftback coupe 105 hp (21R-U) rigid rear axle with anti-roll bar 5 speed gearbox brakes: front disc, rear disc 2000 GT II, GT 4dr sedan, 2dr hardtop, 4dr liftback coupé 135 hp (18R-GEU) rigid rear axle with anti-roll bar 5 speed gearbox brakes: front disc, rear disc

European export versions received the 2T (1,588 cc) four-cylinder, with 75 PS (55 kW) DIN. There was also an 86 PS (63 kW) 1.8 litre engine, as well as the 1.8 liter 1C diesel unit, with a claimed 58 PS (43 kW) DIN.[25] The T140 Corona was not exported in large numbers to Europe, as most importers focused on the slightly smaller Carina and then the front-wheel drive T150-series cars.

1983 onwards

Standard, DX, GX 4dr sedans 83 hp (3A-U) GX, EX 4dr sedan/2dr hardtop 100 hp (1S-U) GT 4dr sedan/2dr hardtop 130 hp (4A-GE) GT-T, GT-TR 4dr sedan/2dr hardtop 160 hp (3T-GTEU)

1983–1985 Toyota Corona (ST141) S wagon (Australia)

For the Australian market, there were two models sold between 1983 and 1987: the ST141 with a 2.0-litre 2S-C and the RT142, fitted with a 2.4-litre fuel-injected 22R-E. Both models were available in either sedan or wagon body styles. Lower trim level vehicles such as the "S" and "CS" were fitted standard with a four-speed manual transmission (optional five-speed manual and 3- or 4-speed automatic). The higher trim levels were the "CSX" and "Avante" models, the latter not released until 1984. Toyota Australia introduced a facelift in 1985. This included the addition of the "Avante" grille insert on the lower-specification models, new wheels trims on all versions, and revised tail lamp lenses. The pre-facelift models can be identified by tail lamps with dual black horizontal lines engraved along the base. The facelift models received lenses with a single, more subtle, horizontal line intersecting across the centre of the tail lights.

For the Japanese market only, the five-door wagon (called "Van") was available with a 1.5-litre 5K-J petrol engine, a 1.6-litre 12T-J petrol engine or a 1.8-litre 1C diesel engine. The petrol engines had either a 4-speed manual or a 3-speed automatic gearbox but the diesel engine had a 5-speed manual gearbox. Some wagons had five doors but no rear seat.

After the late 1985 introduction of the T160 Corona Coupé, the rear-wheel drive coupé was discontinued. The sedan range was gradually whittled down and by May 1986 only the 1.5 and 1.8 (3A-U, 1S-U) remained, along with a 1.5 Van (KT147V) and a 1.8 Diesel Van. These continued to be available until the December 1987 introduction of the T170-series Corona.

1983 Corona T140 coupe 
Toyota Corona 2000 GT Twin Cam (RT140, Japan) 
1983–1984 Toyota Corona (ST141) CSX sedan (Australia) 
1984–1987 Toyota Corona Avante (RT142) sedan (Australia) 
1984–1987 Toyota Corona Avante (RT142) sedan (Australia) 

Taxi[edit]

Seventh generation
1982-1987 Toyota Corona (T140) 01.jpg
Overview
Production 1982.01—1998.04[26]
Assembly Toyota City, Japan
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.8 L 2Y-P I4 LPG
  • 1.8 L 1C I4 diesel
  • 2.0 L 2C I4 diesel
Dimensions
Width 1,600 mm (63.0 in)

The special bodied taxi version was a spinoff of the T140, used specially as taxicabs in Hong Kong, Japan, Macau, Panama and Singapore. It was first introduced with the 1.8-litre 1C diesel engine in January 1982 (CT140). In September an 1.8-litre LPG version (YT140) was added to the lineup. In addition to getting a new rear end and a taller, more upright roof line for a more comfortable rear seat, alterations were also made to the headlights and grille. While based on the T140, the front and rear sections took their design cues from the A60 Carina.[27] In December 1986 the car underwent a light facelift, and the diesel option was upgraded to the 2-litre 2C version (CT141).

The car was not generally sold for private use. After November 1991, the diesel option was no longer available for the Japanese market but was still available for export (e.g. Macau). Production only came to an end in April 1998, generally being replaced by the T130-series Crown (later renamed Comfort). This marked the end of the Corona taxi line.[27] Most countries have since replaced the 140/141-series taxis with newer vehicles - Macau[citation needed] and Pakistan[citation needed] are among the few countries still using it on a regular basis.

CT141 Taxi side view 
CT141 rear view 

T150 series[edit]

Eighth generation
Toyota Corona 1985.JPG
Overview
Also called Toyota Carina II (Europe)
Production Jan 1983—Dec 1987
Assembly
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door liftback
2-door coupé
Layout FF layout
Related
Powertrain
Engine
Dimensions
Wheelbase
  • 2,515 mm (99.0 in) (T150)
  • 2,525 mm (99.4 in) (T160)
Length 4,360–4,390 mm (171.7–172.8 in)
Width 1,670 mm (65.7 in)
Height 1,365 mm (53.7 in)
Curb weight 1,005 kg (2,215.6 lb)

The eight generation Corona was the Corona FF, sold alongside the more traditional and recently facelifted rear-wheel drive Corona (T140-series). Essentially a shortened version of the Camry, this was part of Toyota's very cautious approach to introducing front-wheel drive vehicles.[28] Toyota returned to a platform naming tradition, assigned to different bodystyles this generation was made available, abandoned in 1978. The Corona FF as introduced in January 1983 was only available with a five-door liftback bodystyle, and only with the carburetted 100 PS (74 kW) 1.8 litre 1S-LU inline-four. In October 1983 a more traditional four-door sedan was added, and the T150 gradually became the main part of the Corona lineup as the T140-series shrank in importance.

Along with the new bodystyle, more engines were also added: a smaller 1.5 litre 3A-LU at the bottom, while the 1.8 was now available with fuel injection (1S-ELU) and 115 PS (85 kW).[29] There was also a two-litre diesel (2C-L) and the carburetted 1.8 was replaced by the central point injected 1S-iLU, with an extra five horsepower. In 1984, this chassis was also used as the basis for a new, front-wheel drive version of the Carina sedan.

In August 1985 the Corona underwent a small change, largely consisting of new, bigger taillights. Also new was the related Celica and Carina range. With a more sporting chassis and five-lug wheels (rather than four), this received the new T160 chassis code. This chassis, as well as the twin-cam two-liter 3S-GELU engine with 160 PS (118 kW) (JIS) at 6,400 rpm was used for the new Corona 2.0 GT and GT-R versions.[30] A sporting 1.8 SX-R version (1S-ELU) of the 160-series sedan was also added in late 1985.

T160 series Corona Coupé[edit]

When the Celica was realigned from its former Toyota "A" platform and shared the Corona "T" platform, the Celica also shared its new platform with the Corona Coupé, which was identical to the internationally available Celica Coupe, with the only difference being the removal of the retractable headlights.[31][32] This replaced the rear-wheel drive T140 Corona Coupé, leaving only a few vans and sedans in the RWD Corona lineup. The 160-series cars have a somewhat longer wheelbase as well as a wider track, front and rear.[33] The Corona Coupé remained exclusive to Toyopet Store Japanese dealerships, while the Celica remained at Toyota Corolla Store locations. The Corona Coupé was manufactured from 1985 until 1989, when the Corona EXiV took its place.

The Corona Coupé came with three engines; the SOHC 1.8 liter 1S-iLU and two twin-cams, the 1.6 liter 4A-GELU or the 2 liter 3S-GELU. Chassis codes are ST160, AT160, and ST162. In May 1988 the 1.8 liter engine was replaced by the twin-cam 4S-FiLU.

Export markets

The Corona was eventually dropped in Australia in favor of the larger Camry, but in New Zealand, Toyota continued to offer versions of the Corona, assembled locally at Toyota's plant in Thames, New Zealand. With suspension fettled by racer Chris Amon, the New Zealand Coronas had carburetted 1.8s or a fuel injected 2 liter engine.[34] Later, Toyota New Zealand followed Australia's lead and dropped the Corona, instead marketing the Australian-built Camry as its offering in the mid-size segment of the market. In many markets (New Zealand, Southeast Asia, Latin America) the T150 Corona was also available with 2.0 liter engines.

Toyota's large family car lineup in Europe was quite confusing when looking over the past 25 years. The 1970 through 1983 Carina sister models had been sold in most of Europe, but in 1984 they were replaced with the "Carina II" — which was really the 1983 model Corona as sold in Japan with alterations to the headlights, grille and trim.

T170 series[edit]

Ninth generation
Corona T170.JPG
Overview
Also called Toyota Carina II (Europe)
Production Dec 1987—May 1992
Assembly
Body and chassis
Body style
Layout FF layout
Related Toyota Carina
Powertrain
Engine
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,525 mm (99.4 in)
Length 4,440 mm (174.8 in)
Width 1,690 mm (66.5 in)
Height 1,370 mm (53.9 in)
Curb weight 1,130 kg (2,491.2 lb)

The Corona and the Toyota Carina continued to increase in size as its popularity grew. Because of Japanese taxation laws, both models got to the maximum 1,700 mm (66.9 in) permitted for a lower tax bracket, and in the 1980s and early 1990s, the cars were the same size. The previous generation ST160 Corona Coupé did not update with this generation, and was not replaced until 1993, when it was renamed as the Toyota Curren. For this generation, the new Corona EXiV four-door hardtop would have to do for those looking for something extra. This was the last generation to offer the Corona GT to Japanese buyers, equipped with Toyota's active suspension technology called TEMS included with their "PEGASUS" branded four wheel independent suspension and "LASRE" branded multi-port fuel injection technology on the 3S-GELU engine. A limited production Corona was sold only in Japan in May 1990, to celebrate 10 million Corona's having been sold, called the Corona Super Roomy. It added 210 mm (8.3 in) to the wheelbase, and was limited to 500 units.

Again, a Carina T170 Series derivative was also available. It was launched in Japan in December 1987. Confusingly, the Corona was marketed as the Carina II in Europe.

T180 series Corona EXiV[edit]

The T180 series Corona was introduced as the Toyota Corona EXiV which was shared with a Carina twin, called the Toyota Carina ED. According to Toyota, the letters EXiV derived from the words EXtra impressiVe.[36] The Corona EXiV followed from the successes of the Corona Coupé, by introducing a sleek appearance of a low-slung coupé, while adding two more doors, in the tradition of a four-door coupé. Built on the same version of the Corona chassis as that used for the Celica, this was a continuation of the sporting T160 series Corona although it now received its own bodywork.

Toyota Corona T170 saloon (Malaysia/South East Asia) 
Toyota Corona Super Roomy saloon (Japan) 
1991 Toyota Corona EXiV hardtop sedan 
Toyota Corona Van / Business Wagon 

T190 series[edit]

Main article: Toyota Corona T190
Tenth generation
Toyota Corona Absolute 2.0 EXsaloon G.jpg
Overview
Also called
  • Toyota Corona Exsior
  • Toyota Corona Absolute
  • Toyota Carina E
Production Mar 1992[citation needed]—1998[citation needed]
Assembly
Body and chassis
Body style
Layout
Related
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,580 mm (101.6 in)
Length 4,520 mm (178.0 in)
Width 1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1,410 mm (55.5 in)
Curb weight 1,200 kg (2,645.5 lb)

Introduced in March 1992 the new Corona made its European debut at Geneva Auto Show. The Corona's platform twin, the Carina, was known in Europe as Carina E, which replaced the Carina II. The Carina E was built at Toyota's factory in Burnaston, Derbyshire, England, United Kingdom. The UK-produced Carina E was notorious for having some parts of slightly lower quality than the ones produced in Japan.[citation needed]

This generation of Corona was called Corona Absolute in Indonesia, or Corona Exsior in the Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. Generally the Carina E was offered in XL and GL trim levels, but in UK they were marketed as S, GS, CD, and CDX. The high performance GT-i with 3S-GE engine was offered in small numbers in certain European countries.

The T190 is the last Corona for most export markets, trim levels are XL, GX, and GLi with 1.6, 1.8, or 2.0 litre four-cylinder engines.

It was also sold in New Zealand, but not Australia. Engines were the same as the Toyota Carina E, except there was no diesel variant. The station wagon variant was a badge-engineered Toyota Caldina.

In the Philippines, the Corona was only available with the 2.0 litre I4 3S-FE engine throughout its production from 1993-1998. Early examples of the Corona T190 (ST191) looks similar to the 1992 Japanese spec model. It only has the 2.0 EX Saloon variant, with a choice of a 5-speed manual or a 4-speed automatic transmission. The 1995 model has the facelifted exterior, having the front and rear bumpers with the black trim, and the standard 3 piece rear spoiler. The Exsior was introduced in 1996, this time with extended bumpers and red/amber taillights and garnish. Another variant of the Corona Exsior was the LE, which had genuine leather seats, faux dash wood panel, and electronic air purifier/ionizer as standard equipment. It was eventually replaced in 1998 with the Toyota Camry XV20.

The five-door model was called the Corona SF in Japan, while the station wagon had become a separate line there, from 1993, called the Toyota Caldina.

T200 series Corona EXiV[edit]

The T200 series Corona was sold as the continuation of the Toyota Corona EXiV hardtop sedan, while the Corona Coupe was relocated to Toyota Vista Store locations and reintroduced as the Toyota Curren.

1993 Toyota Corona EXiV

1st generation Caldina (1992-1997)[edit]

T190 series Toyota Caldina
1992 Toyota Caldina 01.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1992–1997
Body and chassis
Body style
  • 5-door station wagon
  • 5-door van
Layout FF layout, four-wheel drive
Related Toyota Gaia
Powertrain
Engine

The first Toyota Caldina was the 5-door wagon or commercial van version (1992–2002) of the four-door sedan Toyota Corona in Japan. The wagon has independent strut rear suspension while the commercial wagon has semi-independent leaf springs. The wagon was given its own identity, whereas previous station wagon versions were named Corona wagons. The Caldina was introduced as a successor to the Corona and Carina wagons, and was sold at Toyota Japanese dealerships Toyota Store and Toyopet Store locations. The Caldina was introduced after the Subaru Legacy wagon and the Nissan Avenir wagon.

Toyota Caldina van (early model)
Toyota Caldina van (early model)

Production in Japan ended in 1995, but in Europe and South East Asia it lasted until 1997.

T210 series[edit]

T210 series Toyota Corona
Toyota Corona Premio 1998.JPG
Overview
Production 1996[citation needed]—2001[citation needed]
Assembly Toyota City, Japan
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
Layout FF layout
Related
Powertrain
Engine
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,580 mm (101.6 in)
Length 4,520 mm (178.0 in)
Width 1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1,410 mm (55.5 in)
Curb weight 1,190 kg (2,623.5 lb)
Chronology
Successor Toyota Premio

A final eleventh generation was built between 1996 and 2001 for the Japanese home market, with one particular model called the Toyota Corona Premio that was spun off into an independent model called the Premio (coded ST210), with the Allion following after the Carina after 2001. The Corona Premio was offered as Base Premio, Premio E, and Premio G. Four-cylinder engine choices are 1.6 litre 4A-FE, 1.8 litre lean burn 7A-FE, and 2.0 litre 3S-FE. Diesel engines offered were 2.0 L 2C-T and later on replaced by more economical 2.2 L 3C-T. This is the last model using Corona name in Japan.

The automatic model of the Corona Premio came with 3 selectable driving modes for its electronically controlled transmission: Normal, ECT PWR (power mode), and ECT MANU (manual mode).

2nd generation Toyota Caldina (1997-2002)[edit]

T210 series Toyota Caldina
1997 Toyota Caldina 01.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Also called Toyota Avensis
Production 1997–2002
Body and chassis
Body style 5-door station wagon
Layout FF layout, four-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine
2000 Toyota Caldina GT-T (later model)
2000 Toyota Caldina 2.0E (later model)

Sharing a platform with the T210 series Toyota Corona and Toyota Carina, the Caldina is the Japanese version of the Toyota Avensis, which replaced the Carina II in Europe.

The 4WD models are coded ST215, and are offered as Active Sports GT with the 3S-GE engine. The top of the line GT-T came with the turbocharged 260 PS (191 kW; 256 hp) 4th generation 3S-GTE engine, and included an all-wheel drive system similar to the Toyota Celica GT-Four. The GT-T also came with optional electronic stability control(VSC) (standard on Active Sports versions). The Aerial version features a large sunroof and countoured roof racks as standard.[37] Weighing 1,470 kg (3,241 lb), the Caldina GT-T offers similar performance to a Subaru WRX wagon achieving 0–100 km/h in 7 seconds. A refresh was given in 2000 with new bumpers and lamps a refreshed interior and extra lug added to the turbo manifold to stop the warping issue common on earlier GT-T models.

Engines for lesser models are the 1.8 L 7A-FE, the 2.0 L gasoline 3S-FE, and the 2.2 L diesel 3C-TE.

T220 series[edit]

The T220 was built as sedan, liftback, and wagon. Only the Wagon was sold in Japan as the Caldina built on the T210 platform. The Sedan and Liftback were mainly sold in Europe as Avensis, and the lower grade model for taxi called Corona. Four-cylinder engines for the Avensis is 1.6, 1.8, 2.0 gasoline, and diesel. The Corona Taxi has turbo diesel. In South America, the Avensis is renamed Corona and powered by 2.0 litre 3S-FE engine. This is the last Corona, and the third generation Caldina was built on the new T240 platform.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ruiz, Marco (1986). 'The Complete History of the Japanese Car: 1907 to the Present. Rome: ERVIN srl. p. 174. ISBN 0-517-61777-3. 
  2. ^ a b Car Graphic: Car Archives Vol. 1, '60s Japanese/American Cars (in Japanese). Tokyo: Nigensha. 2000. p. 8. ISBN 4-544-09171-3. 
  3. ^ "Overview of Overseas Production Affiliates: Oceania". Toyota Motor Corporation. 2012. Retrieved 2014-07-11. 
  4. ^ Toyota Australia:History Retrieved on 9 July 2011
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Toyota Vehicle Identification Manual. Japan: Toyota Motor Corporation - Overseas Parts Department. 1984. Catalog No.97913-84. 
  6. ^ a b "GM-Daewoo Auto - 40 turbulent years" (in Korean). 2001-11. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
  7. ^ a b "SteelBro history". 2007. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
  8. ^ "Used Car Test: 1966 Toyota Corona Estate". Autocar. 129. (nbr 3795): pages 29–31. 7 November 1968. 
  9. ^ a b c Hajek, Alexander. "Toyota Corona T4/T5". Toyotaoldies.de. Retrieved 2012-01-13. 
  10. ^ "Affiliates (Toyota wholly-owned subsidiaries)-Toyota Motor East Japan, Inc.". Toyota Motor Corporation. 2012. Retrieved 2014-07-21. 
  11. ^ Toyopet Corona Commercials, Toyota Motor Co, 1965 
  12. ^ Toyota Commercial Cars (Catalog), Toyota, 1969, p. 3 
  13. ^ Toyota 1600GT - Model RT55 Parts Catalog (in Japanese). Toyota. 1967. No. 53292-67. 
  14. ^ Toyota Twin Cam. Toyota. 
  15. ^ Toyota Vehicle Identification Manual, Japan: Toyota Motor Company, 1979, pp. 56-57, 97911-79 
  16. ^ Hajek, Alexander. "Toyota Corona T8/T9". Toyota Oldies. 
  17. ^ Toyopet Corona RT80, 90 (parts catalog) (in Japanese), Japan: Toyota, June 1978, pp. 2–4, 52229-78 
  18. ^ Graham Robson, A-Z of Cars of the 1970s, 1990, page 155
  19. ^ a b c d Toyota Corona brochure, No.121243-5210, 1977, Japan
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i Corona T130 Parts Catalog (Japanese Market), Toyota Motor Corporation, Japan
  21. ^ "Overview of Overseas Production Affiliates: Oceania". Toyota Motor Corporation. 2012. Retrieved 2014-07-11. 
  22. ^ a b Braunschweig, Robert; Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, eds. (March 6, 1980). Automobil Revue '80 75. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag, AG. pp. 503–504. 
  23. ^ "Overview of Overseas Production Affiliates: Oceania". Toyota Motor Corporation. 2012. Retrieved 2014-07-11. 
  24. ^ Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (March 10, 1983). Automobil Revue '83 (in German/French) 78. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag, AG. pp. 524–526. ISBN 3-444-06065-3. 
  25. ^ List of RT140 Coronas sold in Japan. Toyota Motor Co., No. 261150
  26. ^ a b Van Scheppingen, Art (2010-10-02). "Carina sightings: Corona CT141 taxi at JCCA NYM 2010". banpei.net. 
  27. ^ Yamaguchi, Jack K. (1984). "Technology On Full Boost". In Lösch, Annamaria. World Cars 1984 (Pelham, NY: L'Editrice dell'Automobile LEA/Herald Books). p. 66. ISBN 0-910714-16-9. 
  28. ^ World Cars 1985. Pelham, NY: The Automobile Club of Italy/Herald Books. 1985. p. 393. ISBN 0-910714-17-7. 
  29. ^ Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (March 5, 1987). Automobil Revue 1987 (in German/French) 82. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag AG. p. 544. ISBN 3-444-00458-3. 
  30. ^ Automobil Revue 1987, p. 545
  31. ^ http://www.7tune.com/1985-toyota-corona-coupe-2000-gt-r/
  32. ^ 別冊CG: 自動車アーカイヴ 80年代の日本 [Car Graphic: Car Archives Vol. 11, '80s Japanese Cars] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Nigensha. 2007. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-4-544-91018-6. 
  33. ^ Corona (brochure), New Zealand: Toyota New Zealand Limited, May 1986, p. 11, SB004 
  34. ^ "國瑞汽車股份有限公司 KUOZUI MOTORS, LTD". Kuozui.com.tw. Retrieved 2011-08-19. 
  35. ^ "75 Years of Toytoa". Toyota.com. 
  36. ^ "J-Spec Imports model lineup". www.j-spec.com.au. Retrieved 2010-12-10. 

External links[edit]


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