digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















This article is about politics in the British Isles. For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation).
"Black Robe Brigade" redirects here. For other uses, see Black robe.

A Tory holds a political philosophy (Toryism) based on the traditionalism and conservatism originating with the Cavalier faction during the English Civil War (sometimes more scrupulously known as the "Wars of the Three Kingdoms"). This ideology is prominent in the politics of the United Kingdom, and also appears in parts of The Commonwealth, particularly in Canada. It also had exponents in parts of the former British Empire, such as the Loyalists of British America who opposed American independence during the American Revolutionary War. The Tory ethos has been summed up with the phrase 'God, King and Country.'[1] Tories generally advocate monarchism, are usually of a High Church Anglican religious heritage,[2][3] and are opposed to the radical liberalism of the Whig faction. Under the Corn Laws (1815-1846) a majority of Tories supported protectionist agrarianism with tariffs being imposed abroad at the time for sustainability, self-sufficiency and enhanced wages in rural employment.

The Tory political faction emerged within the Parliament of England to uphold the legitimist rights of James, Duke of York to succeed his brother Charles II to the throne. James II was a Catholic, while the state institutions had broken from the Catholic Church—this was an issue for the Exclusion Bill supporting Patricians, the political heirs to the nonconformist Roundheads and Covenanters. There were two Tory ministries under James II; the first led by Lord Rochester, the second by Lord Belasyse. A significant faction took part in the ousting of James II with the Whigs to defend the Anglican Church or definitive protestantism. A large but dwindling faction of Tories held sympathy for Catholic Stuart heirs to the throne from the accession of the first Hanoverian monarch in 1714, many of which supported Jacobitism, the military campaigns of which saw them lost and castigated. After the advent of the Prime Ministerial system under the Whig Robert Walpole, Lord Bute's premiership in the reign of George III marked a revival.

Conservatism emerged by the end of the 18th century—it synthesized moderate Whig economic positions and many Tory social values to create a new political ideology, in opposition to the French Revolution. Edmund Burke and William Pitt the Younger led the way in this. Daring interventionism and a strong military was to prove a hallmark of Toryism under subsequent Prime Ministers. Due to these Tories leading the formation of the Conservative Party, members of the party are colloquially referred to as Tories, even if they are not traditionalists. Actual adherents to traditional Toryism in contemporary times may be referred to as High Tories as Tory values and Conservative values differ.

History of the term[edit]

Lord Rochester was the first Tory to lead a Ministry in the Parliament of England

The word "Tory" derives from the Middle Irish word tóraidhe; modern Irish tóraí: outlaw, robber or brigand, from the Irish word tóir, meaning "pursuit", since outlaws were "pursued men".[4][5] It was originally used to refer to an Irish outlaw and later applied to Confederates or Royalists in arms.[6] The term was thus originally a term of abuse, "an Irish rebel", before being adopted as a political label in the same way as Whig.

Towards the end of Charles II's reign (1660–85) there was some debate about whether or not his brother, James, Duke of York, should be allowed to succeed to the throne. 'Whigs', originally a reference to Scottish cattle-drivers (stereotypically radical anti-Catholic Covenanters), was the abusive term directed at those who wanted to exclude James on the grounds that he was a Roman Catholic. Those who were not prepared to exclude James were labelled 'Abhorrers' and later 'Tories'. Titus Oates applied the term "Tory," which then signified an Irish robber, to those who would not believe in his Popish plot, and the name gradually became extended to all who were supposed to have sympathy with the Catholic Duke of York.[7]

The suffix -ism was quickly added to both 'Whig' and 'Tory' to make Whiggism and Toryism, meaning the principles and methods of each faction.

English and British politics[edit]

Lord Belasyse was the second Tory to lead a Ministry

Historically, the term Tory has been applied in various ways to loyalists of the British monarchy. The term was initially applied in Ireland to the isolated bands of guerrillas resisting Oliver Cromwell's nine-month 1649–1650 campaign in Ireland, who were allied with Royalists through treaty with the Parliament of Confederate Ireland, signed at Kilkenny in January 1649;[8] and later to dispossessed Catholics in Ulster following the Restoration.[9]

During the Exclusion Bill Crisis the word Tory was applied in England as a nickname to the opponents of the bill, called the Abhorrers. The word 'Tory' had connotations of Papist and outlaw[10] derived from its previous use in Ireland.

English Tories from the time of the Glorious Revolution up until the Reform Bill of 1832 were characterized by strong monarchist tendencies, support for the Church of England, and hostility to reform, while the Tory Party was an actual organization which held power intermittently throughout the same period.[11]

Since 1832, the term "Tory" is commonly used to refer to the Conservative Party and its members.


The term was used to designate the pre-Confederation British ruling classes of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, known as the Family Compact and the Château Clique, an elite within the governing classes, and often members within a section of society known as the United Empire Loyalists.

In post-Confederation Canada the terms "Red Tory" and "Blue Tory" have long been used to describe the two wings of the Conservative and previously the Progressive Conservative (PC) parties. The diadic tensions originally arose out of the 1854 political union of British-Canadian Tories, French-Canadian traditionalists, and the monarchist and loyalist leaning sections of the emerging commercial classes at the time - many of whom were uncomfortable with the pro-American and annexationist tendencies within the liberal Grits. Tory strength and prominence in the political culture was a feature of life in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Ontario, and Manitoba.

By the 1930s, the factions within Canadian Toryism were associated with either the urban business elites, or with rural traditionalists from the country's hinterland. A "Red Tory" is a member of the more moderate wing of the party (in the manner of John Farthing and George Grant). They are generally unified by their adherence to British traditions in Canada.[12]

Throughout the course of Canadian history, the Conservative Party was generally controlled by MacDonaldian Tory elements, which in Canada meant an adherence to the English-Canadian traditions of Monarchy, Empire-Commonwealth, parliamentary government, nationalism, protectionism, social reform, and eventually, acceptance of the necessity of the welfare state.[13]

By the 1970s the Progressive Conservative Party was a Keynesian-consensus party. With the onset of stagflation in the 1970s, some Canadian Tories came under the influence of neo-liberal developments in Great Britain and the United States, which highlighted the policies for privatization and supply-side interventions. In Canada, these tories have been labeled neoconservatives - which has a somewhat different connotation in the US. By the early 1980s there was no clear neoconservative in the Tory leadership cadre, but Brian Mulroney, who became leader in 1983, eventually came to adopt many policies from the Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan governments.

As Mulroney took the Progressive Conservative Party further in this direction, with policy initiatives in the areas of deregulation, privatization, free-trade, and a consumption tax called the Goods and Services Tax (GST), many traditionally-minded Tories became concerned that a political and cultural schism was occurring within the party.

The 1986 creation of the Reform Party of Canada attracted some of the neo-liberals and social conservatives away from the Tory party, and as some of the neoconservative policies of the Mulroney government proved unpopular, some of the provincial-rights elements moved towards Reform as well. In 1993, Mulroney resigned, rather than fight an election based on his record after almost nine years in power. This left the PCs in disarray and scrambling to understand how to make toryism relevant in provinces such as Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia that had never had a strong tory tradition and political culture.

Thereafter in the 1990s, the PCs were a small party in the Canadian House of Commons, and could only exert legislative pressure on the government through their power in the Senate of Canada. Eventually, through death and retirements, this power waned. Joe Clark returned as leader, but the schism with the Reformers effectively watered down the combined Blue and Red Tory vote in Canada.

By the late 1990s, there was talk of the necessity of uniting the right in Canada, to deter further Liberal majorities. Many tories - both red and blue - opposed such moves, while others took the view that all would have to be pragmatic if there was any hope of reviving a strong party system. The Canadian Alliance party (as the Reform Party had become), and some leading tories came together on an informal basis to see if they could find common ground. While Progressive Conservative Leader Joe Clark rebuffed the notion, the talks moved ahead and eventually in December 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative parties voted to rejoin into a new party called the Conservative Party of Canada.

After the merger of the PCs with the Canadian Alliance in 2003, there was debate as to whether the "Tory" appellation should survive at the federal level. Although it was widely believed that some Alliance members would take offence to the term, it was officially accepted by the newly merged party during the 2004 leadership convention. Stephen Harper, leader of the Conservative Party of Canada, and the Prime Minister as a result of the January 2006 election, regularly refers to himself as a Tory and has suggested that the new party is a natural evolution of the conservative political movement in Canada.

American Revolution[edit]

Mobbing the Tories by American Patriots in 1775-76; the Tory is about to be tarred and feathered

The term Tory or "Loyalist" was used in the American Revolution to include those who remained loyal to the British Crown. Since early in the 18th century, Tory had described those upholding the right of the King over Parliament. During the revolution, particularly after the Declaration of Independence in 1776 this use was extended to cover anyone who remained loyal to the British Crown. Those Loyalists who settled in Canada, Nova Scotia, or the Bahamas after the American Revolution are known as United Empire Loyalists.

Texas Revolution[edit]

In Texas 1832–36 support for the Texas Revolution was not unanimous. The "Tories" were men who supported the Mexican government. The Tories generally were long-term property holders whose roots were outside of the lower South. They typically had little interest in politics and sought conciliation rather than war or they withheld judgment from both sides. The Tories preferred to preserve the economic, political, and social gains that they enjoyed as citizens of Mexico, and the revolution threatened to jeopardize the security of their world.[14]

Current usage[edit]

In Britain after 1832 the Tory Party was officially replaced by the Conservative Party, and "Tory" has become shorthand for a member of the Conservative Party or for the party in general. Some Conservatives call themselves "Tory" and the term is common in the media, but deprecated by some media channels.

In Canada, the term "Tory" may describe any member of the Conservative Party of Canada, its predecessor party the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, or any similarly named provincial party; the term is frequently used in contrast to "Grit", a shorthand for the Liberal Party of Canada.

In Australia, "Tory" is used as a pejorative term by members of the Labor Party to refer to members of the conservative and often coalition Liberal and National parties.[15]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Stuart Ball (2013). Portrait of a Party: The Conservative Party in Britain 1918-1945. Oxford U.P. p. 74. 
  2. ^ William L. Sachs (2002). The Transformation of Anglicanism: From State Church to Global Communion. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. 
  3. ^ John Charmley (2008). A history of conservative politics since 1830. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 103. 
  4. ^ Entry for "Tory" from Websters New World Dictionary & Thesaurus, version 2.0 for PC, 1998
  5. ^ Tory: Definition Answers.com
  6. ^ Oxford English Dictionary (Second Edition 1989) "1. a. In the 17th c., one of the dispossessed Irish, who became outlaws, subsisting by plundering and killing the English settlers and soldiers; a bog-trotter, a rapparee; later, often applied to any Irish Papist or Royalist in arms. Obs. exc. Hist."
  7. ^ Justin McCarthy, A History of the Four Georges, Volume I (of 4)
  8. ^ "Evil Oliver’s legacy of enduring hate". Camden New Journal. New Journal Enterprises. 25 June 2009. 
  9. ^ Sean J. Connolly Oxford Companion to Irish History, entry on Tory p498
  10. ^ Human Rights - Glossary The National Archives
  11. ^ Keith Feiling, The second Tory party, 1714-1832 (1959)
  12. ^ Heath Macquarrie, Red Tory blues: a political memoir (University of Toronto Press, 1992)
  13. ^ Denis Smith, Rogue Tory: The Life and Legend of John G. Diefenbaker (1997)
  14. ^ Margaret Swett Henson, "Tory Sentiment in Anglo-Texan Public Opinion, 1832-1836," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, July 1986, Vol. 90 Issue 1, pp 1-34
  15. ^ A. W. Sparkes (1994) Talking Politics: A Wordbook Google Books

Canada section:

  • W. Christian and C. Campbell (eds), Parties, Leaders and Ideologies in Canada
  • J. Farthing, Freedom Wears a Crown
  • G. Grant, Lament for a Nation: The Defeat of Canadian Nationalism
  • G. Horowitz, "Conservatism, Liberalism and Socialism in Canada: An Interpretation", CJEPS (1966)

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tory — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
547633 videos foundNext > 

أغنية تذكري Remember me مترجمة من فلم طروادة TORY

بعد حذف قناتي zzee2009 هذه قناتي البديلة zzee20091 بالأضافة لقناتي الثانية zzee2012 أغاني أجنبية مترجمة ترجمة أغنية أغنية تذكري Remember me مترجمة من فلم طرو...

Tory Lanez - Know What's Up feat. Kirko Bangz (Prod. DJ Mustard) - OFFICIAL VIDEO

Tory Lanez - Know What's Up feat. Kirko Bangz (Prod. DJ Mustard) Directed/Edited by Tyler Yee -- https://www.facebook.com/SwaveNation @TLANEZ CONFLICTS OF MY...

Tory! Tory! Tory! - Ep 1: Outsiders - BBC 2007

Series exploring the history of the people and ideas behind what became known as Thatcherism. This edition tells of the radicals in the political wilderness ...

jak sie buduje tory kolejowe 2013 ciekawe

film przedstawia prace przy budowie torow kolejowych.

Tory Lanez - Friends [Conflicts Of My Soul]

Tory Lanez - Friends Tory Lanez - Friends Tory Lanez - Friends Tory Lanez - Friends Tory Lanez - Friends Tory Lanez - Friends Tory Lanez - Friends Tory Lanez...

toys tory 3 triler jeje ya esta pasado

Hi-Tone ALL DOWN (feat. Tory Lanez)

Available on iTunes https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/all-down-feat.-tory-lanez/id902772754?ls=1.

Tory Lanez - Teyana *NEW 2014*

New Music Every Week SUBSCRIBE Here ⬇︎ https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC7VvoTNKBTIK6a8R_NX8QVQ Tory Lanez - Teyana Tory Lanez - Teyana Tory Lanez - Teyan...

Tory Lanez - 40 Days n 40 Nights

Tory Lanez - 40 Days n 40 Nights Tory Lanez - 40 Days n 40 Nights Tory Lanez - 40 Days n 40 Nights Tory Lanez - 40 Days n 40 Nights Tory Lanez - 40 Days n 40...

Tory Lanez - Talk On Road

Tory Lanez - Talk On Road Tory Lanez - Talk On Road Tory Lanez - Talk On Road Tory Lanez - Talk On Road Tory Lanez - Talk On Road Tory Lanez - Talk On Road T...

547633 videos foundNext > 

34457 news items

Toronto Sun

Toronto Sun
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 04:26:15 -0700

According to the poll, Tory leads with 30% (around 35% of decided voters), Chow is in second with 26% (31% of decided voters) and Mayor Rob Ford is in third with 23% (27% of decided voters). Councillor Karen Stintz and David Soknacki were tied at 3% of ...
National Post
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:48:45 -0700

Mr. Tory and his wife Barbara Hackett, who both turned 60 in May, recently bought a condo in a new building on Bloor at Bedford Street. The consummate Bay Street blue-blood and University of Toronto alum, Mr. Tory meets me at the Gallery Grill in Hart ...
Huffington Post UK
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 09:41:15 -0700

This week, the Tory Lie Machine has been cranked into action. We knew this would happen - the Tories don't have a positive vision for the country, so they're reduced to spreading lies about Labour's plans. As my colleague Michael Dugher showed in his ...

Toronto Star

Toronto Star
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 03:00:25 -0700

Chow and John Tory, the best-organized and best-funded mayoral candidates, have sparred through the media about everything from taxes to character — and, away from the spotlight, sent their volunteer armies across the city to talk about one thing.


Fri, 01 Aug 2014 07:22:54 -0700

On the question of whether Ms James' call for a government policy shift on the Gaza conflict was widely supported within the Tory's ranks, Treacy was unable to specify. Since becoming Foreign Secretary, Hammond has criticized Israel's Operation ...

The Independent

The Independent
Thu, 31 Jul 2014 09:30:00 -0700

Isabella Acevedo, the cleaner who worked illegally for Tory Minister Mark Harper, has been deported to Colombia. Border Force officers took Ms Acevedo from her room at Yarl's Wood immigration removal centre in the early hours of Thursday morning, ...

RT (blog)

Yorkshire Post
Thu, 31 Jul 2014 20:45:00 -0700

But Britain's first-past-the-post electoral system is likely to deny Mr Farage's party more than a handful of MPs, and Michelle Harrison, the chief executive of TNS, the market research firm behind the survey, said it was questionable whether a Tory ...
Newstalk 1010
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 03:18:45 -0700

It shows John Tory with 30 percent support, Olivia Chow at 27 percent and Rob Ford 23 percent. The margin of error in this survey is 3.5 percent up or down. In statistical terms, Tory and Chow are tied and Ford is close behind. Councillor Karen Stintz ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Tory

You can talk about Tory with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!