digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Tomé Pires
Born c. 1465
Lisbon, Portugal
Died 1524 or 1540
China
Nationality Portuguese
Occupation Apothecary, diplomat

Tomé Pires (1465?–1524 or 1540)[1] was a Portuguese apothecary from Lisbon who spent 1512 to 1515 in Malacca immediately after the Portuguese conquest, at a time when Europeans were only first arriving in South East Asia. After his arduous experiences in India and the East Indies, he headed the first official embassy from a European nation in China (Portugal to the Emperor of China, Zhengde, during the Ming Dynasty), where he died.

Pires was apothecary to the ill-fated Afonso, Prince of Portugal, son of King John II of Portugal. He went to India in 1511 invested as "factor of drugs",[2] the Eastern commodities that were an important element of what is generally called "the spice trade". In Malacca and Cochin he avidly collected and documented information from the Malay-Indonesia area, and personally visited Java, Sumatra (the two dominant islands of modern-day Indonesia) and Maluku.

The Suma Oriental[edit]

From his Malay-Indonesia travels, he wrote a landmark book on Asian trade, the Suma Oriental que trata do Mar Roxo até aos Chins (Summa of the East, from the Red Sea up to the Chinese). He wrote the book in Malacca and India between 1512 and 1515, completing it before the death of Afonso de Albuquerque (December 1515).[3]

It is the first European description of Malaysia and the oldest and most extensive description of the Portuguese East. It is a compilation of a wide variety of information: historical, geographical, ethnographic, botanical, economic, commercial, etc., including coins, weights and measures. Pires was careful to investigate the accuracy of the information collected from merchants, sailors and others with whom he had contact. It shows him to be a discriminating observer, in spite of his tangled prose,[4] but superior to other Portuguese writers of the time. The book, couched as a report to Manuel of Portugal, and perhaps fulfilling a commission undertaken before he left Lisbon,[5] is regarded as one of the most conscientious first-hand resources for the study of the geography and trade of the Indies at that time, including one of the most important resources for the study of the contemporaneous Islam in Indonesia. Although it cannot be regarded as completely free of inaccuracies in its detail, it is remarkably consistent with evidence of the time and makes no fundamentally erroneous statements about the area. Its contemporary rival as a source is only the better-known[6] book of Duarte Barbosa and, later Garcia de Orta.

The Suma Oriental, unpublished[7] and presumed lost in an archive until 1944, also includes the first written account of the 'Spice Islands' of Banda in Maluku,[8] the islands that first drew Europeans to Indonesia. In its detail "it was not surpassed, in many respects, for more than a century or two," its modern editor, Armando Cortesão, has asserted.[9] Suma Oriental is represented by a long-lost manuscript in Paris. Four letters written by Pires survive, and there are a scattering of references to him by contemporaries, including a letter of Albuquerque to the King, 30 November 1513.

Pires mentioned several Tamil cities of Ceylon he visited on his travels in the manuscript, including Kali, Nigumbo, Celabão and Tenavarque, home to the renowned temple complex of Tenavarai.

1516 embassy to China[edit]

In 1516, Tomé Pires went to Canton (Guangzhou) in the fleet of Fernão Pires de Andrade leading an embassy sent by king Manuel I to Zhengde Emperor of China.[10] However, was never received by the emperor, due to several setbacks, including the suspicion of the Chinese, and the plot moved by deposed sultan Mahmud Shah after the Portuguese conquest of Malacca in 1511. The embassy fell in disgrace, with some of its members killed starting a period of three decades of Portuguese persecution in China. Tomé Pires is said to have died of disease in 1524 in China, although some state he have lived up to 1540 in Jiangsu, but without permission to leave China.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Madureira, 150–151.
  2. ^ (Pires 1990:xi)
  3. ^ This is inferred from the tenor of his references to Albuquerque (Pires 1990:lxiii).
  4. ^ "His style is far from clear," his modern editor has noted (Pires 1990:lxxiii) "and no doubt it often becomes more confused, owing to the transcriber's mistakes."
  5. ^ Armando Cortesão, introduction to Pires 1990:lxxiii
  6. ^ Barbosa's work was translated into Spanish and Italian and published several times in the sixteenth century.
  7. ^ An excerpt was published anonymously by Giovanni Battista Ramusio
  8. ^ Muller, Karl; Pickell, David (ed) (1997). Maluku: Indonesian Spice Islands. Singapore: Periplus Editions. p. 86. ISBN 962-593-176-7. 
  9. ^ Armando Cortesão, introduction to Pires 1990:xix.
  10. ^ Detailed information on this embassy in Tomé Pires, Armando Cortesão, Francisco Rodrigues, The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: The Suma oriental of Tome Pires, books 1-5, Introduction p.27 - 32, Armando Cortesão, Publisher Asian Educational Services, 1990, ISBN 81-206-0535-7

References[edit]

  • Luis Madureira. "Tropical Sex Fantasies and the Ambassador's Other Death: The Difference in Portuguese Colonialism," Cultural Critique (Number 28; Fall of 1994): 149–173.
  • Muller, Karl, and David Pickell (eds) (1997). Maluku: Indonesian Spice Islands. (Singapore: Periplus Editions), p. 86.
  • (Pires 1990) Armando Cortesão, The 'Suma Oriental' of Tomé Pires: An Account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, 2 vols., (1944) 1990.
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1300 (2nd ed.). London: MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  • Albuquerque, L. “Tomé Pires”, in Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1974. Vol. 10, p. 616.
  • Cortesão, A. A propósito do ilustre boticário quinhentista Tomé Pires., Revista Portuguesa de Farmácia, 13,3 (1963), p. 298-307.

Further reading[edit]

  • Cortesão, A. A Suma Oriental de Tomé Pires e o Livro de Francisco Rodrigues. Coimbra, 1978.
  • Cortesão, A. Primeira embaixada europeia à China. o boticário e embaixador Tomé Pires. Lisboa, 1945.
  • Dias, J. Lopes. Medicinas da 'Suma Oriental' de Tomé Pires. Porto, 1947. Sep. ``Jornal do Médico, vol. 9, n.º 208, pp. 76-83.
  • Dias, J. P. Sousa. A Farmácia em Portugal. Uma introdução à sua história. 1338-1938. Lisboa: ANF, 1994.
  • Loureiro, Rui M. O manuscrito de Lisboa da "Suma Oriental" de Tomé Pires (Contribuição para uma edição crítica). Macau: Instituto Português do Oriente, 1996.
  • Donald Ferguson, ed. (1902). Title Letters from Portuguese captives in Canton, written in 1534 & 1536: with an introduction on Portuguese intercourse with China in the first half of the sixteenth century. Educ. Steam Press, Byculla.  - letters from the survivors of the Pires' embassy, imprisoned in Canton. According to Cortesão's later research, the letters were actually written in 1524.

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomé_Pires — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
2858 videos foundNext > 

Aventuras de Tomé Pires (Norma Ramos)

livro enviado pela editora parceira Dublinense.

Tome Tome Tome / Clases Ale Pires

Super Clase de Axe con Ale Pires Chilavert 473, Benavidez Sabados de 14 a 16hs Tema: Tome Tome Tome - Saiddy Bamba Coreografia: Troupe Dance.

EX PRESIDENTE CABO VERDIANO PEDRO PIRES EM SÃO TOMÉ

Tome uma atitude de fé. Missionária Letícia Pires

Missionária Letícia Pires Curta esta página: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Cantora-Let%C3%ADcia-Pires/594654757240828?fref=ts.

EUJAPE.ALEXANDRE PIRES EM SÃO TOMÉ DE PARIPE.DSCF4962.AVI

VIRADA DO ANO DE 2012 PARA 2013.

BANDA FLOR DE FARINHA NA VIGILIA EZEQUIEL PIRES TOME POSSE

Casa De Pai Tome autores. valdir pires e victor carvalho Canta.Valdir Pires

Contato (21) 9113-6009 Fala Com Victor Carvalho.

Alexandre Pires no Farol de São tomé

André Pires - Toma o meu coração.

Congresso setorial Jubrac 2014.

FPKS CAMPEONATO REGIONAL CENTRO SUL NOVEMBRO 2009 EDUARDO PIRES - SCP VS DAVID TOMÉ - GINÁSIO EIRA

FPKS CAMPEONATO REGIONAL CENTRO SUL NOVEMBRO 2009 EDUARDO PIRES - SCP VS DAVID TOMÉ - GINÁSIO EIRA.

2858 videos foundNext > 

6 news items

El Mundo

El Mundo
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 12:41:15 -0700

Así, tal como dijo Tomé Pires, frustrado embajador portugués en la China del siglo XVI, se puede decir que «quien posee Malaca tiene en sus manos la garganta de China» y también del resto del Asia marítima. Precisamente la dependencia de China del ...

JPNN.com

JPNN.com
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 00:30:00 -0700

Kisah lain diceritakan pula bahwa pada awal abad ke 16, Tome Pires dalam bukunya Suma Oriental mencatat bahwa kota-kota di pesisir timur Sumatera antara Arcat (Aru dan Rokan) hingga Jambi banyak menjadi pelabuhan para raja-raja yang kemudian ...

Voz Da Planicie

Voz Da Planicie
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 23:11:15 -0700

... depois do sucesso da primeira edição, surge na sequência da linha iniciada nas décadas de 1980 e 90, com os festivais Ilha do Sons, Planície do Sons e Dias Concelhios da Juventude como afirma Tomé Pires, presidente da Câmara Municipal de Serpa.

Surgiu

Surgiu
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 04:26:15 -0700

... concorrem os administradores Evaleda Linhares Nunes, Flavio Terence Barreira de Sousa, Fabiano Roberto Matos do Vale Filho, Raimundo Augusto Delgado Junior, Jucilene Barreira Bezerra Vasconcelos e Callisthenes Mario Tome Pires Nunes.

Rádio Pax

Rádio Pax
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:03:45 -0700

Vão estar presentes José Baguinho, da Cooperativa Cultural Alentejana, José Augusto, presidente da Junta de Freguesia de Pias, Hermínia Vicente, dirigente da Cooperativa de Casebres, Ana Caeiro, da Confederação Nacional da Agricultura, Tomé Pires, ...

Rádio Pax

Rádio Pax
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 16:03:45 -0700

... população e as decisões administrativas. Também hoje, são entregues nove lotes a empresários: dois na zona de actividades económicas de Pias e sete lotes na zona industrial de Serpa, revelou à Rádio Pax Tomé Pires, presidente da Câmara de Serpa.
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Tomé Pires

You can talk about Tomé Pires with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!