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This article is a general timeline of psychology. A more general description of the development of the subject of psychology can be found in the History of psychology article. Related information can be found in the Timeline of psychiatry article. A more specific review of important events in the development of psychotherapy can be found in the Timeline of psychotherapy article.

Ancient history - B.C.E.[edit]

Ancient history - C.E.[edit]

First century[edit]

  • ca. 50 - Aulus Cornelius Celsus died, leaving De Medicina, a medical encyclopedia; Book 3 covers mental diseases. The term insania, insanity, was first used by him. The methods of treatment included bleeding, frightening the patient, emetics, enemas, total darkness, and decoctions of poppy or henbane, and pleasant ones such as music therapy, travel, sport, reading aloud, and massage. He was aware of the importance of the doctor-patient relationship.[3]
  • ca. 100 - Rufus of Ephesus believed that the nervous system was instrumental in voluntary movement and sensation. He discovered the optic chiasma by anatomical studies of the brain. He stressed taking a history of both physical and mental disorders. He gave a detailed account of melancholia, and was quoted by Galen.[3]
  • 93-138 - Soranus of Ephesus advised kind treatment in healthy and comfortable conditions, including light, warm rooms.[3]

Second century[edit]

  • ca. 130-200 - Galen "was schooled in all the psychological systems of the day: Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, and Epicurean"[4]
  • ca. 150-200 - Aretaeus of Cappadocia[4]

Third century[edit]

  • 155 - 220 Tertullian[2]
  • 205-270 Plotinus wrote Enneads a systematic account of Neoplatonist philosophy, also nature of visual perception and how memory might work.[5]

Fourth century[edit]

Fifth century[edit]

  • 5th century - Caelius Aurelianus opposed harsh methods of handling the insane, and advocated humane treatment.[3]
  • ca. 423-529 - Theodosius the Cenobiarch founded a monastery at Kathismus, near Bethlehem. Three hospitals were built by the side of the monastery: one for the sick, one for the aged, and one for the insane.[3]
  • ca. 451 - Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople: his followers dedicated themselves to the sick and became physicians of great repute. They brought the works of Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen, and influenced the approach to physical and mental disorders in Persia and Arabia[3]

Seventh century[edit]

  • 625-690 - Paul of Aegina suggested that hysteria should be treated by ligature of the limbs, and mania by tying the patient to a mattress placed inside a wicker basket and suspended from the ceiling. He also recommended baths, wine, special diets, and sedatives for the mentally ill. He described the following mental disorders: phrenitis, delirium, lethargus, melancholia, mania, incubus, lycanthropy, and epilepsy

Eighth century[edit]

Ninth century[edit]

Tenth century[edit]

  • ca. 900 – The concept of mental health (mental hygiene) was introduced by Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi. He also recognized that illnesses can have both psychological and/or physiological causes.[8]
  • ca. 900 – al-Razi (Rhazes) recognized the concept of "psychotherapy" and referred to it as al-‘ilaj al-nafs.[9]

Eleventh century[edit]

Twelfth century[edit]

Thirteenth century[edit]

  • ca. 1180-1245 Alexander of Hales
  • ca. 1190 -1249 William of Auvergne
  • 1215 -1277 Peter Juliani taught in the medical faculty of the University of Siena, and wrote on medical, philosophical and psychological topics. He personal physician to Pope Gregory X and later became archbishop and cardinal. He was elected pope under the name John XXI in 1276.[5][12]
  • ca. 1214–1294 Roger Bacon
  • 1221 – 1274 Bonaventure
  • 1193 – 1280 Albertus Magnus
  • 1225 – Thomas Aquinas
  • 1240 - Bartholomeus Anglicus published De Proprietatibus Rerum, which included a dissertation on the brain, recognizing that mental disorders can have a physical or psychological cause.
  • 1247 - Bethlehem Royal Hospital in Bishopsgate outside the wall of London, one of the most famous old psychiatric hospitals was founded as a priory of the Order of St. Mary of Bethlem to collect alms for Crusaders; after the English government secularized it, it started admitting mental patients by 1377 (1403?), becoming known as Bedlam Hospital; in 1547 it was acquired by the City of London, operating until 1948; it is now part of the British NHS Foundation Trust.[13]
  • 1266 – 1308 Duns Scotus
  • ca. 1270 - Witelo wrote Perspectiva, a work on optics containing speculations on psychology, nearly discovering the subconscious.
  • 1295 Lanfranc writes Science of Cirurgie[5]

Fourteenth century[edit]

  • 1347-50 - The Black Death devastated Europe.
  • ca. 1375 - English authorities regarded mental illness as demonic possession, treating it with exorcism and torture.[14]

Fifteenth century[edit]

  • ca. 1400 - Renaissance Humanism caused a reawakening of ancient knowledge of science and medicine.
  • 1433-1499 Marsilio Ficino was a renowned figure of the Italian Renaissance, a Neoplatonist humanist, a translator of Greek philosophical writing, and the most influential exponent of Platonism in Italy in the fifteenth century.[4]
  • ca. 1450 - The pendulum in Europe swings, bringing witch mania, causing thousands of women to be executed for witchcraft until the late 17th century.

Sixteenth century[edit]

  • 1590 – Scholastic philosopher Rudolph Goclenius coined the term "psychology"; though usually regarded as the origin of the term, there is evidence that it was used at least six decades earlier by Marko Marulić.

Seventeenth century[edit]

Eighteenth century[edit]

  • 1781 - Immanuel Kant published Critique of Pure Reason, rejecting Hume's extreme empiricism and proposing that there is more to knowledge than bare sense experience, distinguishing between "a posteriori" and "a priori" knowledge, the former being derived from perception, hence occurring after perception, and the latter being a property of thought, independent of experience and existing before experience.

Nineteenth century[edit]

1800s[edit]

  • ca. 1800 - Franz Joseph Gall developed cranioscopy, the measurement of the skull to determine psychological characteristics, which was later renamed phrenology; it is now discredited.
  • 1807 - Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel published Phenomenology of Spirit (Mind), which describes his thesis-antithesis-synthesis dialectical method, according to which knowledge pushes forwards to greater certainty, and ultimately towards knowledge of the noumenal world.

1810s[edit]

1820s[edit]

1840s[edit]

1850s[edit]

1860s[edit]

1870s[edit]

1880s[edit]

1890s[edit]

Twentieth century[edit]

1900s[edit]

1910s[edit]

1920s[edit]

1930s[edit]

1940s[edit]

1950s[edit]

1960s[edit]

1970s[edit]

1980s[edit]

1990s[edit]

Twenty-first century[edit]

2000s[edit]

2010s[edit]

References[edit]

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  4. ^ a b c d Radden, Jennifer (2002-04-04). The Nature of Melancholy: From Aristotle to Kristeva. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195151657. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
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