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Thought identification refers to the empirically verified use of technology to, in some sense, read people's minds. Advances in research have made this possible by using human neuroimaging to decode a person's conscious experience based on non-invasive measurements of an individual's brain activity.[1]

Professor of neuropsychology, Barbara Sahakian, qualifies "A lot of neuroscientists in the field are very cautious and say we can't talk about reading individuals' minds, and right now that is very true, but we're moving ahead so rapidly, it's not going to be that long before we will be able to tell whether someone's making up a story, or whether someone intended to do a crime with a certain degree of certainty."[2]

History[edit]

MRI scanner that could be used for Thought Identification

Psychologist John Dylan-Haynes experienced breakthroughs in brain imaging research in 2006 with the use of a fMRI.This research included new findings on visual object recognition, tracking dynamic mental processes, lie detecting, and decoding unconscious processing. The combination of these four discoveries revealed such a significant amount of information about an individuals thoughts that Haynes termed it "brain reading."[1]

The fMRI has allowed research to expand by significant amounts because it can track the activity in an individual's brain by measuring the brain's blood flow. It is currently thought to be the best method for measuring brain activity, which is why it has been used in multiple research experiments in order to improve the understanding of how doctors and psychologists can identify thoughts.[3]

The term "Thought Identification" began being used in 2009 after neuroscientist Marcel Just termed it in a 60 minutes interview. His reasoning for this term pertains to his overall goal of his research to "to see if they could identify exactly what happens in the brain when people think specific thoughts."[4]

Examples[edit]

Identifying thoughts[edit]

When humans think of an object, like a screwdriver, many different areas of the brain activate

When humans think of an object, like a screwdriver, many different areas of the brain activate. Marcel Just and his colleague, Tom Mitchell, have used fMRI brain scans to teach a computer to identify the various parts of the brain associated with specific thoughts.[5]

This technology also yielded a discovery: similar thoughts in different human brains are surprisingly similar neurologically. To illustrate this, Just and Mitchell used their computer to predict, based on nothing but fMRI data, which of several images a volunteer was thinking about. The computer was 100% accurate, but so far the machine is only distinguishing between 10 images.[5]

John-Dylan Haynes states that fMRI can also be used to identify recognition in the brain. He provides the example of a criminal being interrogated about whether he recognizes the scene of the crime or murder weapons.[5] Just and Mitchell also claim they are beginning to be able to identify kindness, hypocrisy, and love in the brain.[5]

In 2008 IBM applied for a patent on how to extract mental images of human faces from the human brain. It uses a feedback loop based on brain measurements of the fusiform gyrus area in the brain which activates proportionate with degree of facial recognition.[6]

In 2011, a team led by Shinji Nishimoto used only brain recordings to partially reconstruct what volunteers were seeing. The researchers applied a new model, about how moving object information is processed in human brains, while volunteers watched clips from several videos. An algorithm searched through thousands of hours of external YouTube video footage (none of the videos were the same as the ones the volunteers watched) to select the clips that were most similar.[7][8] The authors have uploaded demos comparing the watched and the computer-estimated videos.[9]

Predicting intentions[edit]

Some researchers in 2008 were able to predict, with 60% accuracy, whether a subject was going to push a button with their left or right hand. This is notable, not just because the accuracy is better than chance, but also because the scientists were able to make these predictions up to 10 seconds before the subject acted - well before the subject felt they had decided.[10] This data is even more striking in light of other research suggesting that the decision to move, and possibly the ability to cancel that movement at the last second,[11] may be the results of unconscious processing.[12]

John Dylan-Haynes has also demonstrated that fMRI can be used to identify whether a volunteer is about to add or subtract two numbers in their head.[5]

Brain as input device[edit]

The Emotiv Epoc is one way that users can give commands to devices using only thoughts

Emotiv Systems, an Australian electronics company, has demonstrated a headset that can be trained to recognize a user's thought patterns for different commands. Tan Le demonstrated the headset's ability to manipulate virtual objects on screen, and discussed various future applications for such brain-computer interface devices, from powering wheel chairs to replacing the mouse and keyboard.[13]

Decoding brain activity to reconstruct words[edit]

On 31 January 2012 Brian Pasley and colleagues of University of California Berkeley published their paper in PLoS Biology wherein subjects' internal neural processing of auditory information was decoded and reconstructed as sound on computer by gathering and analyzing electrical signals directly from subjects' brains.[14] The research team conducted their studies on the superior temporal gyrus, a region of the brain that is involved in higher order neural processing to make semantic sense from auditory information.[15] The research team used a computer model to analyze various parts of the brain that might be involved in neural firing while processing auditory signals. Using the computational model, scientists were able to identify the brain activity involved in processing auditory information when subjects were presented with recording of individual words.[16] Later, the computer model of auditory information processing was used to reconstruct some of the words back into sound based on the neural processing of the subjects. However the reconstructed sounds were not of good quality and could be recognized only when the audio wave patterns of the reconstructed sound were visually matched with the audio wave patterns of the original sound that was presented to the subjects.[16] However this research marks a direction towards more precise identification of neural activity in cognition.

Recognizing brain waves in security[edit]

In 2013 a project led by University of California Berkeley professor John Chuang published findings on the feasibility of brainwave-based computer authentication as a substitute for passwords. Improvements in the use of biometrics for computer authentication has continually improved since the 1980s, but this research team was looking for a method faster and less intrusive than today's retina scans, fingerprinting, and voice recognition. The technology chosen to improve security measures is an electroencephalogram (EEG), or brainwave measurer, to improve passwords into "pass thoughts." Using this method Chuang and his team were able to customize tasks and their authentication thresholds to the point where they were able to reduce error rates under 1%, significantly better than other recent methods. In order to better attract users to this new form of security the team is still researching mental tasks that are enjoyable for the user to perform while having their brainwaves identified. In the future this method could be as cheap, accessible, and straightforward as thought itself.[17]

Ethical Issues[edit]

With brain scanning technology becoming increasingly accurate, experts predict important debates over how and when it should be used. One potential area of application is criminal law. Haynes states that simply refusing to use brain scans on suspects also prevents the wrongly accused from proving their innocence.[2] It has been argued that allowing brain scans would violate the 5th Amendment's right to not self incriminate. The important question is whether brain imaging is like testimony, or instead like DNA, blood, or semen. Paul Root Wolpe, director of the Center for Ethics at Emory University in Atlanta predicts that this question will be decided by a Supreme Court case.[4]

In other countries Thought Identification has already been used in criminal law. In 2008 an Indian woman was convicted of murder after an EEG of her brain allegedly revealed that she was familiar with the circumstances surrounding the poisoning of her ex-fiancé.[4]

Some neuroscientists and legal scholars doubt the validity of using thought identification as a whole for anything past research on the nature of deception and the brain.[18]

Future Research[edit]

Experts are unsure of how far Thought Identification can expand, but Marcel Just believes that in 3-5 years there will be a machine that is able to read complex thoughts such as'I hate so-and-so'.[4]

Dr. Donald Marks, founder and chief science officer of MMT, is working on playing back thought's individuals have after they have already been recorded.[19]

Researchers at the University of California Berkeley have already been successful in forming, erasing, and reactivating memories in rats. Dr. Marks says they are working on applying the same techniques to humans. This discovery could be monumental for war veterans who suffer from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.[19]

Further research is also being done in analyzing brain activity during video games to detect criminals, neuromarketing, and using brain scans in government security checks.[4][3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Haynes, John-Dylan; Geraint, Rees. "Decoding mental states from brain activity in humans". Nature Reviews. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  2. ^ a b The Guardian, "The brain scan that can read people's intentions"
  3. ^ a b Saenz, Aaron. "fMRI Reads the Images in Your Brain – We Know What You’re Looking At". SingularityHUB. Singularity University. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "How Technology May Soon "Read" Your Mind". CBS News. CBS. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e 60 Minutes "Technology that can read your mind"
  6. ^ IBM Patent Application: Retrieving mental images of faces from the human brain
  7. ^ Nishimoto, Shinji; Vu, An T.; Naselaris, Thomas; Benjamini, Yuval; Yu, Bin; Gallant, Jack L. (2011), "Reconstructing Visual Experiences from Brain Activity Evoked by Natural Movies", Current Biology 21 (19): 1641–1646, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.08.031 
  8. ^ American Blog, Breakthrough Could Enable Others to Watch Your Dreams and Memories [Video], Philip Yam
  9. ^ Nishimoto et al. uploaded video, "Nishimoto.etal.2011.3Subjects.mpeg" on Youtube
  10. ^ Soon, C.; Brass, M.; Heinze, H.; Haynes, J. (2008). "Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain". Nature Neuroscience 11 (5): 543–545. doi:10.1038/nn.2112. PMID 18408715.  edit
  11. ^ Kühn, S., & Brass, M. (2009). Retrospective construction of the judgment of free choice.Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 12-21.
  12. ^ Matsuhashi, M., & Hallett, M. (2008). The timing of the conscious intention to move. European Journal of Neuroscience , 28, 2344-2351.
  13. ^ Tan Le: A headset that reads your brainwaves
  14. ^ Pasley BN, David SV, Mesgarani N, Flinker A, Shamma SA, et al. (2012) Reconstructing Speech from Human Auditory Cortex. PLoS Biol 10(1): e1001251. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001251
  15. ^ [1] Science decodes 'internal voices' BBC News 31 January 2012
  16. ^ a b [2] Secrets of the inner voice unlocked 1 Feb 2012
  17. ^ "NEW RESEARCH: COMPUTERS THAT CAN IDENTIFY YOU BY YOUR THOUGHTS". UC Berkely School of Information. UC Berkely. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  18. ^ Stix, Gary. "Can fMRI Really Tell If You're Lying?". Scientific American. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  19. ^ a b Cuthbertson, Anthony. "Mind Reader: Meet The Man Who Records and Stores Your Thoughts, Dreams and Memories". International Business Times. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thought_identification — Please support Wikipedia.
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14 news items

International Business Times UK

International Business Times UK
Wed, 10 Dec 2014 02:07:28 -0800

"Some people call it thought identification but it's essentially mind reading," Donald Marks, founder and chief science officer of MMT, told IBTimes UK. "The visual reconstruction (of the thoughts) is kind of crude right now but the data is definitely ...
 
CBS News
Sun, 04 Jan 2009 16:43:34 -0800

He calls it "thought identification." Whatever you want to call it, what Just and his colleague Tom Mitchell at Carnegie Mellon University have done is combine fMRI's ability to look at the brain in action with computer science's new power to sort ...

Yahoo News UK

Yahoo News UK
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 04:48:45 -0700

"Some people call it 'thought identification' but it is essentially mind reading. It is the process of recognising activation patterns in the brain and identifying what thoughts are associated with them," Marks tells IBTimes UK. The service is ...

IBTimes

IBTimes
Thu, 11 Dec 2014 23:07:29 -0800

これを思考識別(thought identification)と呼ぶ人もいますが、要するに心を読むということです。(思考を)視覚的に再構成することは、現段階ではまだ粗削りではあります。しかしデータは明らかにそこにあり、改良されていくでしょう。洗練の度合いだけの問題です。その情報は保存 ...

International Business Times UK

International Business Times UK
Tue, 16 Sep 2014 02:36:48 -0700

"Some people call it 'thought identification' but it's essentially mind reading," Marks told IBTimes UK. Initially intended for Preclinical Alzheimer's patients and other people wanting to preserve memories that they are worried might fade, the service ...

Irish Independent

Irish Independent
Thu, 25 Sep 2014 18:38:57 -0700

This app allows you to 'log' thoughts through its thought-identification tool and thought-challenging tool. The aim is to identify and challenge your core beliefs. Daily and weekly mood assessment and reports are available through the app. Get It Done.
 
Pittsburgh Post Gazette
Sat, 26 Apr 2014 21:03:30 -0700

Mr. Lund was inspired, in part, by a 2009 "60 Minutes" story addressing "thought identification" mind-reading techniques developed at CMU. The film is set in a future where MRI technology can read your mind. A sensational trial begins when a defendant ...
 
Marketing
Thu, 30 Jan 2014 03:23:59 -0800

An interesting area of work currently within the field of neuroscience is 'Thought Identification'. To date, this is concentrated on neuroimaging of brain patterns, but theoretically this is just one type of data. Google has more global behavioural ...
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