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Theosophy (from Greek θεοσοφία theosophia, from θεός theos, God[1] + σοφία sophia, wisdom; literally "God's wisdom"), refers to systems of esoteric philosophy concerning, or investigation seeking direct knowledge of, presumed mysteries of being and nature, particularly concerning the nature of divinity. Theosophy is considered a part of the broader field of esotericism, referring to hidden knowledge or wisdom that offers the individual enlightenment and salvation. The theosophist seeks to understand the mysteries of the universe and the bonds that unite the universe, humanity, and the divine. The goal of theosophy is to explore the origin of divinity and humanity, and the world. From investigation of those topics, theosophists try to discover a coherent description of the purpose and origin of the universe.

The name Theosophy is often used in modern times to refer to the religio-philosophic doctrines of the Theosophical Society founded in New York City in 1875 by Henry Steel Olcott with William Quan Judge and Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. Blavatsky's magnum opus, one of the major foundational works of this Theosophy, was published in 1888 as The Secret Doctrine.[2] Theosophical Societies and Organizations remain active in more than 50 countries around the world.[a] Theosophy has also given rise to or influenced the development of other mystical, philosophical, and religious movements.[3]

Etymology[edit]

The word theosophia appeared in both Greek and Latin in the works of early church fathers as a synonym for "theology".[4] The "theosophoi" are "those who know divine matters."[5] The term "theosophy" has continuously had different meanings ascribed to it.[6] As such, the use of the term in antiquity, or even using a strictly etymological definition, is not common in the academy.

Traditional theosophy[edit]

Antiquity and Medieval ending c. 1450 CE[edit]

The term theosophy was used as a synonym for theology as early as the 3rd century CE[4] The 12th-century philosopher Al-Shahrastānī (died 548 AH / 1153 CE) explored theosophy in the context of Islamic thought.[citation needed] In the 13th century, a clear distinction was made between classical philosophers, modern (to the people then) philosophers, theosophers, and theologians in the work Summa philosophiae attributed to Robert Grosseteste.[citation needed] In Summa, theosophists were described as authors inspired by holy books, while theologians were described as persons whose task was to teach theosophy. During that time, the term theosopher was applied retroactively[by whom?] to include earlier people including Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, and Origen.[7][full citation needed].

In Jewish mysticism, the theosophical[8] doctrinal system of Kabbalah (Hebrew: "received tradition") emerged in late 12th-century southern France (the book Bahir), spreading to 13th-century Spain (culminating in the late 13th-century book Zohar). Kabbalah became the basis of later Jewish mystical development. The theosophical Kabbalah in Judaism was recast into its second version, Lurianic Kabbalah, in 16th-century Ottoman Palestine. From the Renaissance onwards, syncretic non-Jewish traditions of theological Christian Cabala and magical Hermetic Qabalah studied the Judaic texts, incorporating its system into their different philosophies, where it remains a central component of Western esotericism. Gershom Scholem, the founder of Jewish mysticism academia, saw Medieval and Lurianic Kabbalah as the incorporation into Judaism of Gnostic motifs,[9] though interpreted strictly monotheistically. At the centre of Kabbalah are the 10 Sephirot powers in the divine realm, their unification being the task of man. In Lurianism, man redeems the sparks of holiness in materiality, rectifying the divine persona from its primordial exile.

Theosophy in early modern Europe beginning in the 1500s[edit]

During the Renaissance, use of the term diverged to refer to gnostic knowledge that offers the individual enlightenment and salvation through a knowledge of the bonds that are believed to unite her or him to the world of divine or intermediary spirits.[5] By the 16th century the word theosophy was being used in at least one of its current meanings.[5][by whom?]. Christian theosophy arose in Germany in the 16th century. Inspired to a considerable extent by the works of Paracelsus (1493–1541),[10] theosophy flourished in the works of Aegidius Gutmann (de) (1490–1584), Valentin Weigel (1533–1588), Heinrich Khunrath (1560–1605), Johann Arndt (1555–1621), and Kaspar Schwenckfeld (1490–1584). The term had not yet reached a settled meaning, however, as the mid-16th century Theosophia by Johannes Arboreus provided a lengthy exposition that included no mention of esotericism.[7]

The work of the 17th-century German Christian mystic Jakob Boehme (1575–1624) strongly contributed to spread the use of the word "theosophy", even though Boehme rarely used the word in his writings. It is on account of the title of some of his works, but these titles appear to have been chosen more by the editors than by Boehme himself.[11] Moreover, Boehme gave the word "theosophy" a limited meaning, making it clear that he he was not conflating nature with God.[12]

There were relatively few theosophers in the 17th century, but many of them were prolific.[13] Outside of Germany, there were also theosophers from Holland, England, and France. They included both theosophists, historians, and theologians with a strong interest in theosophy. This group is represented by Jan Baptist van Helmont (1618–1699), Robert Fludd (1574–1637), John Pordage (1608–1681), Jane Leade (1623–1704), Henry More (1614–1687), Pierre Poiret (1646–1719), and Antoinette Bourignon (1616–1680).[14]

Theosophists of this period often inquired into nature using a method of interpretation founded upon a specific myth or revelation, applying active imagination in order to draw forth symbolic meanings and further their pursuit of knowledge toward a complete understanding of these mysteries.[15][16]

18th century[edit]

In the 18th century, the word theosophy came into more widespread use among some philosophers. However, the term "theosophy" was still "practically absent" throughout the entire eighteenth century in dictionaries and encyclopedias, where it only appeared more and more frequently beginning in the second half of the nineteenth century.[17] Theosophers themselves used the word theosophy sparingly, at least up until the middle of the nineteenth century.[18] Johann Jakob Brucker (1696–1770) included a long chapter on theosophy in his monumental work Historia critica philosophia.  (1741). He included theosophists alongside other currents in esotericism in what was then a standard reference in the history of philosophy. German philosophers produced major works of theosophy during this period: Theophilosophia theoritica et practica.  (1710) by Samuel Richter (de) (pseudo. Sincerus Renatus) and Opus magocabalsticum et theosophicum.  (1721) by Georg von Welling (pseudo. Salwigt, 1655-1727).[citation needed] Other notable theosophists of the period include Johann George Gichtel (1638–1710), Gottfried Arnold (1666–1714), Friedrich Christoph Oetinger (1702–1782), William Law (1686–1761), and Dionysius Andreas Freher (1649–1728)[citation needed]. By the 18th century, the word theosophy was often used in conjunction with panosophy, i.e., a knowledge of divine things that is acquired by deciphering the supposed hieroglyphics of the concrete universe.[clarify] The term theosophy is more properly reserved for the reverse process of contemplating the divine in order to discover the content of the concrete universe.[19]

In England, Robert Hindmarsh, a printer with a Methodist background, formed a "Theosophical Society" in 1783, for translating, printing and distributing the writings of Swedenborg.[20] This society was renamed in 1785 as "The British Society for the Propagation of the Doctrines of the New Church", consisting of Swedenborgian based beliefs.[21][b]

In France, Louis Claude de Saint-Martin (1743–1803) and Jean-Philippe Dutoit-Membrini (alias Keleph Ben Nathan, 1721-1793) contributed to a resurgence of theosophy in the late 18th century. Other theosophical thinkers of this period include Karl von Eckartshausen (1752–1803), Johann Heinrich Jung (1740–1817), Frédéric-Rodolphe Saltzmann (fr) (1749–1821), Johann Michael Hahn (1758–1819), and Franz von Baader (1765–1841).[citation needed]. Denis Diderot gave the word theosophie more attention than other encyclopedias of this period by including an article on it in his Encyclopédie, published during the French Enlightenment.[22] The artice dealt mostly with Paracelsus and essentially plagiarized Brucker's "Historia".[23]

19th century[edit]

Groups such as the Martinist Order founded by Papus in 1891, followed the theosophical current closely linked to the Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition and Western esotericism. Theosophists outside of the initiate societies included people such as Vladimir Solovyov (1853–1900), whose views have been described as follows: "although empiricism and rationalism rest on false principles, their respective objective contents, external experience, qua the foundation of natural science, and logical thought, qua the foundation of pure philosophy, are to be synthesized or encompassed along with mystical knowledge in 'integral knowledge,' what Solovyov terms 'theosophy.'"[24]

Common characteristics[edit]

Theosophy actually designates a specific flow of thought or tradition within the modern study of esotericism. Thus, it follows the path starting from the more modern period of the 15th century onward (e.g. neo-Alexandrian, hermeticism, Christian Kaballah, Rosicrucianism, Alchemy etc.). According to Faivre, this usage is not intended to be inclusive of the concept as used in The Theosophical Society.[25][full citation needed] Faivre describes the "theosophic current" or theosophy as a single esoteric current among seven other esoteric currents in early modern Western thought (i.e., alchemy, astrology, Neo-Alexandrian hermetism, Christian Kabbalah, Paracelsism, philosophia occulta and Rosicrucianism).[26] Traditional theosophy is an under-researched area, a general history of it has never been written. [27]

Faivre noted that there are "obvious similarities" between earlier theosophy and modern Theosophy as both play an important part in Western esotericism and both claim to deal with wisdom from a gnostic perspective. But he says there are also differences, since they do not actually rely on the same reference works; and their style is different. The referential corpus of earlier theosophy "belongs essentially to the Judeo-Christian type", while that of modern Theosophy "reveals a more universal aspect".[28] Although there are many differences between traditional theosophy and the Theosophical movement begun by Helena Blavatsky, the differences "are not important enough to cause an insurmountable barrier."[29] When referring to the ideas related to Blavatsky and the Theosophical Society, the word "Theosophy" is capitalized; otherwise it is not. Blavatsky linked her use of the word theosophy to the Neoplatonists and Ammonius Saccas, rather than to the later Christian theosophers.[30]

Theosophists engage in analysis of the universe, humanity, divinity, and the reciprocal effects of each on the other. The starting point for theosophists may be knowledge of external things in the world or inner experiences and the aim of the theosophist is to discover deeper meanings in the natural or divine realm. Antoine Faivre notes, "the theosophist dedicates his energy to inventing (in the word's original sense of 'discovering') the articulation of all things visible and invisible, by examining both divinity and nature in the smallest detail."[5] The knowledge that is acquired through meditation is believed to change the being of the meditator.[31]

Faivre identified three characteristics of theosophy.[32] The three characteristics of theosophy are listed below.

Theosophy:

  1. Divine/Human/Nature Triangle: The inspired analysis which circles through these three angles. The intradivine within; the origin, death and placement of the human relating to Divinity and Nature; Nature as alive, the external, intellectual and material. All three complex correlations synthesize via the intellect and imaginative processes of Mind.
  2. Primacy of the Mythic: The creative Imagination, an external world of symbols, glyphs, myths, synchronicities and the myriad, along with image, all as a universal reality for the interplay conjoined by creative mind.
  3. Access to Supreme Worlds: The awakening within, inherently possessing the faculty to directly connect to the Divine world(s). The existence of a special human ability to create this connection. The ability to connect and explore all levels of reality; co-penetrate the human with the divine; to bond to all reality and experience a unique inner awakening.

Blavatskyan Theosophy and The Theosophical Society[edit]

The Theosophical Society was founded in New York City in 1875 with the motto, "There is no Religion higher than Truth".[33] Its principal founding members were Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831–1891), Henry Steel Olcott (1832–1907), and William Quan Judge (1851–1896).

After several changes and iterations its declared objectives became the following:[34]

  1. To form a nucleus of the Universal Brotherhood of Humanity, without distinction of race, creed, sex, caste, or color.
  2. To encourage the study of Comparative Religion, Philosophy, and Science.
  3. To investigate the unexplained laws of Nature and the powers latent in man.

The emblem of the Theosophical Society includes seven symbols of particular importance to the Society's symbology: 1) the motto of the Society; 2) a serpent biting its tail (ouroboros); 3) the swastika; 4) the hexagram; 5) the cruxansata (Ankh); 6) the pin of the Society, composed of cruxansata and serpent entwined, forming together "T.S.", and 7) Om (or aum). The seal of the Society contains all of these symbols, except aum, and thus contains, in symbolic form, the doctrines its members follow.[35]

The Society was organized as a non-proselytizing, non-sectarian entity.[36] Blavatsky and Olcott (the first President of the Society) moved from New York to Bombay, India in 1878. The International Headquarters of the Society was eventually established in Adyar, a suburb of Madras. The original organization, after splits and realignments has (as of 2011) several offshoots; all of them accept the three objectives above, and the precepts put forth by Blavatsky. Blavatsky was influential on spiritualism and related subcultures: "The western esoteric tradition has no more important figure in modern times."[37]

Helena Blavatsky was a charismatic, unconventional and controversial woman of mixed Russian and German descent, who had reputedly travelled extensively; she became the major proponent of both theoretical and practical Theosophy.[38] Since its inception, and through doctrinal assimilation or divergence, Theosophy has also given rise to or influenced the development of other mystical, philosophical, and religious movements.[3] Following Blavatsky's death, disagreements among prominent Theosophists caused a series of splits and several Theosophical organizations emerged.[c] The formal successor of the original Society is as of 2011 known as the Theosophical Society Adyar. After a split in 1895, William Quan Judge established a new Theosophical organization in New York City which later eventually moved to Pasadena, California. It is known as of 2011 as the Theosophical Society Pasadena. The latter split yet again; another Theosophical organization, the United Lodge of Theosophists was the result, formed by Robert Crosbie in 1909.

Contemporaries of Blavatsky, including William Quan Judge and Alfred Percy Sinnett, and later exponents have contributed to the development of this Theosophy, producing works that at times expanded on the original concepts.[d] Through the various Theosophical Societies and Organizations, Theosophy remains an active philosophical school with presences in more than 50 countries around the world.

The World Teacher Project[edit]

During the 1890s and 1900s, the international leadership of the Society and their circle became increasingly convinced that the appearance of an "emissary" from the Spiritual Hierarchy was imminent; the expected emissary was further identified as the so-called World Teacher or Maitreya, originally by Leadbeater, who "discovered" fourteen-year-old Jiddu Krishnamurti (1895–1986) as the entity's probable "vehicle".[39] Krishnamurti was groomed extensively for his expected messianic role, and a new organization, the Order of the Star in the East (OSE), was formed in 1911 to support him in this mission. The project received widespread publicity and enjoyed worldwide following, chiefly among Theosophists. It also encountered opposition within and without the Theosophical Society, and contributed or led to years of upheaval, power struggles and doctrinal schism within Theosophy.[40] Additional negative repercussions occurred in 1929, when Krishnamurti repudiated the messianic status claimed on his behalf and dissolved the OSE; soon after he severed ties with the Society and Theosophy in general. The adverse reactions and mixed publicity generated by the entire World Teacher Project, and especially by its demise and aftermath, damaged the standing of Theosophy and of its institutions. However, Krishnamurti eventually established a worldwide reputation as an original and respected independent speaker and thinker on spiritual and philosophical issues.[41]

Post-Blavatskyan Theosophy and new religious movements[edit]

Main article: Neo-Theosophy

Contemporaries of Blavatsky, as well as later theosophists, contributed to the development of this school of theosophical thought, producing works that at times sought to elucidate the ideas she presented (see Gottfried de Purucker), and at times to expand upon them.[e] Since its inception, and through doctrinal assimilation or divergence, Theosophy has also given rise to or influenced the development of other mystical, philosophical, and religious movements.[42]

During the two decades that followed the death of Blavatsky, a number of leading Theosophists expanded or reinterpreted her own and other theosophical works. Prominent among them were Charles Webster Leadbeater (1854–1934), then considered the Society's main occult investigator, and Annie Besant (1847–1933), who became the International President of the Society in 1907, following the death of Olcott. Some of their (and others') prolific commentaries and newly-introduced concepts became subjects of doctrinal debate and dispute; dissidents charged them with straying from Theosophical orthodoxy and derisively labeled such works Neo-Theosophy.[43] However in later usage the term came to signify presumed theosophical or quasi-theosophical thought advanced by people not directly connected to the Theosophical movement or its institutions, especially former Theosophist Alice Bailey and groups associated with her; and also the people and organizations mentioned below under the heading New Age Movement.

G.R.S. Mead was an early Theosophist. In 1909 he resigned from the Theosophical Society which was Orientalist. Prior to his break from the Society Mead had already begun emphasizing sources from the Western esoteric tradition in his writing. Mead was among the first Theosophists to explicate a "'Western' theosophy deriving from Alexandrian and Hellenistic sources in the early centuries A.D."[44]

Influence[edit]

The book The Voice of the Silence presented by Blavatsky to Leo Tolstoy
Following

During the 1920s the Theosophical Society Adyar had around 7,000 members in the USA.[45] According to a Theosophical source, the Indian section in 2008 was said to have around 13,000 members while in the US the 2008 membership was reported at around 3,900.[46]

India and Sri Lanka

The Theosophical Society Adyar was closely linked to the Indian independence movement: the Indian National Congress was founded across the street in 1885 during a Theosophical conference, and many of its leaders, including M. K. Gandhi were associated with Theosophy.[citation needed] However Hindu spiritual teacher and leader Swami Vivekananda has criticized Theosophy and Theosophists.[47]

Some early members of the Theosophical Society were closely linked to the Indian independence movement, including Allan Octavian Hume, Annie Besant and others. Hume was particularly involved in the founding of the Indian National Congress.[48]

The Theosophical Society had a major influence on Buddhist modernism[49] and Hindu reform movements, and the spread of those modernised versions in the west.[49]

Main article: Buddhist modernism

Blavatsky and Olcott took part in Anagarika Dharmapala's revival of Theravada Buddhism in Ceylon.[50][51]

Anthroposophy

Rudolf Steiner, head of the German branch of the Theosophical Society in the early part of the 20th-century, disagreed with the Adyar-based international leadership of the Society over several doctrinal matters including the so-called World Teacher Project (see above). Steiner left the Theosophical Society in 1913 to promote his own theosophy-influenced philosophy,[52][53] which he called Anthroposophy, through a new organization, the Anthroposophical Society; the great majority of German-speaking members of the Theosophical Society joined the newly formed Anthroposophical Society.

New Age movement

The present-day New Age movement is said to be based to a considerable extent on original Theosophical tenets and ideas. "No single organization or movement has contributed so many components to the New Age Movement as the Theosophical Society. ... It has been the major force in the dissemination of occult literature in the West in the twentieth century."[54]

Other organizations loosely based on Theosophical texts and doctrines include the Agni Yoga, and a group of religions based on Theosophy called the Ascended Master Teachings: the "I AM" Activity, The Bridge to Freedom and The Summit Lighthouse, which evolved into the Church Universal and Triumphant. These various offshoots dispute the authenticity of their rivals.

Scholarship

Scholar Alvin Boyd Kuhn wrote his thesis, Theosophy: A Modern Revival of Ancient Wisdom, on the subject – the first instance in which an individual obtained his doctorate with a thesis on Theosophy.[55]

Art, music, literature

Artists and authors who investigated Theosophy include Talbot Mundy, Charles Howard Hinton, Geoffrey Hodson, James Jones,[56] H. P. Lovecraft, and L. Frank Baum. Composer Alexander Scriabin was a Theosophist whose beliefs influenced his music, especially by providing a justification or rationale for his chromatic language. Scriabin devised a quartal synthetic chord, often called his "mystic" chord, and before his death Scriabin planned a multimedia work to be performed in the Himalayas that would bring about the armageddon; "a grandiose religious synthesis of all arts which would herald the birth of a new world."[57] This piece, Mysterium, was never realized, due to his death in 1915.

Leonid Sabaneyev, in his book Reminiscences about Scriabin (1925), wrote that The Secret Doctrine and journals "Bulletin of theosophy" constantly were on Scriabin's work table.[58] Scriabin reread The Secret Doctrine very carefully and marked the most important places by a pencil.[59][f]

Blavatsky presented her book The Voice of the Silence, The Seven gates, Two Paths to Leo Tolstoy. In his works, Tolstoy used the dicta from the theosophical journal Theosophischer Wegweiser.[60] In his diary, he wrote on 12 February 1903, "I am reading a beautiful theosophical journal and find many common with my understanding."[61]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Societies and Organizations include, but are not limited to: The Theosophical Society, Adyar [1], The Theosophical Society, Pasadena [2], The United Lodge of Theosophists [3]
  2. ^ For mention of the 1783 Theosophical Society, see Odhner, Carl T., ed. (1898). Annals of the New Church. Philadelphia: Academy of the New Church. pp. 119–120, 122–123, 125, 127, 140, 219, 297, 314, 330, 405. OCLC 680808382. 
  3. ^ Some of the later works have become the focus of, or have contributed to, lively discussion among leading proponents of Theosophy, and on occasion have led to serious doctrinal disputes.
  4. ^ Some of the later works have become the focus of, or have contributed to, lively discussion among leading proponents of Theosophy, and on occasion have led to serious doctrinal disputes. See Neo-Theosophy.
  5. ^ Some of the later works have become the focus of, or have contributed to, lively discussion among leading proponents of Theosophy, and on occasion have led to serious doctrinal disputes. See Neo-Theosophy.
  6. ^ For more about how Scriabin was influenced by Blavatsky, see Adamenko, Victoria (2007) [2006]. Neo-mythologism in music : from Scriabin and Schoenberg to Schnittke and Crumb. Interplay series 5. Hillsdale, NY: Pendagon Press. pp. 152–154. ISBN 9781576471258. 

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ LIddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon.
  2. ^ Blavatsky 1888
  3. ^ a b Melton 1990, xxv–xxvi
  4. ^ a b Lobel 2007, p. 27
  5. ^ a b c d Faivre 1987
  6. ^ Faivre 2000, p. 4
  7. ^ a b Faivre 1987, p. 465
  8. ^ The Jewish Religion: A Companion, Louis Jacobs, Oxford University Press 1995; entry on Kabbalah
  9. ^ Kabbalah: A Very Short Introduction, Joseph Dan, Oxford University Press; chapters on Medieval and Lurianic Kabbalah
  10. ^ Faivre, Antoine (1994). Access to Western Esotericism. State University of New York Press. p. 8. ISBN 0791421783. 
  11. ^ Faivre 2000, p. 13, see also p.19
  12. ^ Faivre 2000, p. 13
  13. ^ Faivre 2000, p. 10-11 Faivre's list of 17th century theosophers in North-Western Europe (including Germany) consists of roughly ten names.
  14. ^ Faivre 2000, p. 10-11 Henry More is added to the list by Faivre with some reservations
  15. ^ OED 1989 v. XVII, p. 903.
  16. ^ Faivre 1987
  17. ^ Faivre 2000, p. 47 (Diderot is the one exception Faivre mentions)
  18. ^ Faivre 2000, p. 24
  19. ^ Faivre 1987, p. 467
  20. ^ Hindmarsh, Robert, Rise and Progress of The New Jerusalem Church In England, America and Other Parts, Hoderson and Sons, London 1861; ISBN 1-4021-3146. Online [4]
  21. ^ Rix 2007, p. 98; Goodick-Clarke 2008, pp. 168–169
  22. ^ Faivre 1987, p. 466
  23. ^ Faivre 2000, p. 18-19
  24. ^ Nemeth IEP
  25. ^ Faivre 2006, p. 259
  26. ^ Faivre 2000, p. 32
  27. ^ Faivre 2000, p. 31, also xxx.(Preface)
  28. ^ Faivre 2000, p. 4-5
  29. ^ Faivre 2000, p. 5 Faivre quotes and agrees with Jean-Louis Siémons.
  30. ^ Blavatsky, H.P. (1889). The Key to Theosophy. p. Section 1 "The name Theosophy dates from the third century of our era, and began with Ammonius Saccas and his disciples (1), who started the Eclectic Theosophical system.". 
  31. ^ Williamson, Lola (2010). Transcendent in America: Hindu-Inspired Meditation Movements (HIMM) as New Religion. New York, NY: New York University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-8147-9449-4. 
  32. ^ Faivre 2000, pp. 7–8
  33. ^ Blavatsky 1888, p. xli [Volume I: Introduction]. "In other words—'THERE IS NO RELIGION (OR LAW) HIGHER THAN TRUTH'—'SATYÂT NÂSTI PARO DHARMAH'—the motto of the Maharajah of Benares, adopted by the Theosophical Society."
  34. ^ Blavatsky 2002, pp. 39–41
  35. ^ Nilakant 1886.
  36. ^ Olcott 1891. "Article I: Constitution: 4. The Theosophical Society is absolutely unsectarian, and no assent to any formula of belief, faith or creed shall be required as a qualification of membership; but every applicant and member must lie in sympathy with the effort to create the nucleus of an Universal Brotherhood of Humanity."
  37. ^ Johnson 1994.
  38. ^ Davenport-Hines 2004
  39. ^ Wood 1964. Eyewitness account of Krishnamurti's "discovery", and comments on related events and controversies, by one of Leadbeater's close associates.
  40. ^ Tillet 1986, pp. 506–553 [Volume I: "Chapter 15: Conflict over Krishnamurti"]. Information on the contemporary controversies regarding Krishnamurti, inside and outside the Theosophical Society. See also Anthroposophy in this page.
  41. ^ Campbell 1980, p. 130; Vernon 2001, pp. 188–189, 268–270; see also alpheus 2001.
  42. ^ Melton 1990, xxv–xxvi.
  43. ^ Thomas c. 1930s.
  44. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, Claire and Nicholas (2005). G. R. S. Mead and the Gnostic Quest. North Atlantic Books. pp. 9, 19 and 32. ISBN 155643572X. 
  45. ^ Tillet 1986, pp. 942–947 [Volume III: "Appendix 4: Membership of the Theosophical Society"].
  46. ^ TIS 2009
  47. ^ Vivekananda 2001
  48. ^ Кранстон 1999, sect. 5/1.
  49. ^ a b MacMahan 2008.
  50. ^ Gombrich 1996, pp. 185–188.
  51. ^ Fields 1992, pp. 83–118.
  52. ^ Rudolf Steiner's book Theosophy, An Introduction to Supersensible Knowledge of the World and the Destination of Man (published in German as, "Theosophie. Einfuerung in uebersinnliche Welterkenntnis und Menschenbestimmung"), first appeared in 1904[5]
  53. ^ Rudolf Steiner, Theosophy of the Rosicrucian, lectures given in 1907[6]
  54. ^ Melton 1990, pp. 458–461. Note "Chronology of the New Age Movement" pp. xxxv–xxxviii in same work, starts with the formation of the Theosophical Society in 1875; see also Lewis & Melton 1992, xi.
  55. ^ Kuhn 1992
  56. ^ Carter 1998.
  57. ^ Minderovic 2011;
  58. ^ Сабанеев, Леонид Л., ed. (2000). Воспоминания о Скрябине. Москва: Классика-XXI. pp. 63, 173, 241. 
  59. ^ Schloezer, Boris de (1923). A. Skrjabin 1. Berlin: Grani. p. 27. OCLC 723767921.  Цит. по: Бандура А. И. А. Н. Скрябин и Е. П. Блаватская // 175 лет со дня рождения Е. П. Блаватской. Материалы Международной научно-общественной конференции. – Санкт-Петербургское отделение Международного Центра Рерихов, Санкт-Петербург, 2006 г. – С. 120 (А. И. Бандура – кандидат искусствоведения, председатель музыкально-философского общества имени А. Н. Скрябина, Москва)
  60. ^ Толстой 1955, p. 67.
  61. ^ Толстой 1935, p. 155.

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Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]


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Diffuser.fm

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Fri, 30 Jan 2015 07:24:48 -0800

In June 2014, he released his latest LP, 'Theosophy.' Chock full of various styles — from blues to indie rock to, yes, folk — 'Theosophy' is a perfect showcase of the British artist's talents and ability to transcend expectations. While at the ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
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In her early 20s, on the run from the Italian family she loathed, she attended a theosophy lecture in London and agreed next morning to marry the lecturer. Had she paused, she might have worked out that he was a conman about to be deported for ...

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The Hindu

The Hindu
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The New Indian Express
Fri, 26 Dec 2014 16:33:45 -0800

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Straight.com

Straight.com
Wed, 14 Jan 2015 12:03:45 -0800

It would have helped to mention Theosophy and the other proto-new-age interests that greeted the Indian-born yogi when he moved to Los Angeles. After initial success at his Mount Washington headquarters, he was plagued by media-hyped scandals and ...
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