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EXPO London 1851
Crystal Palace from the northeast from Dickinson's Comprehensive Pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851. 1854.jpg
The Great Exhibition 1851
Overview
BIE-class Universal exposition
Category Historical
Name Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations
Building The Crystal Palace
Invention(s) Telegraph, Vulcanised Rubber
Visitors 6,039,195
Participant(s)
Countries 28
Location
Country United Kingdom
City London
Venue Hyde Park
Coordinates 51°30′11″N 0°10′12″W / 51.50306°N 0.17000°W / 51.50306; -0.17000
Timeline
Bidding 1849
Awarded 1849
Opening 1 May 1851 (1851-05-01)
Closure 11 October 1851 (1851-10-11)
Universal expositions
Next Exposition Universelle in Paris
Queen Victoria opens the Great Exhibition in The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London, in 1851.
The enormous Crystal Palace went from plans to grand opening in just nine months.
Exhibition interior
The front door of the Great Exhibition
Paxton's Crystal Palace enclosed full-grown trees in Hyde Park.

The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations or The Great Exhibition, sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 11 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World's Fair exhibitions of culture and industry that were to become a popular 19th-century feature. The Great Exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert, husband of the reigning monarch, Queen Victoria. It was attended by numerous notable figures of the time, including Charles Darwin, Samuel Colt, members of the Orléanist Royal Family and the writers Charlotte Brontë, Charles Dickens, Lewis Carroll, George Eliot and Alfred Tennyson. Music for the opening was under the direction of Sir George Thomas Smart and the continuous music from the exhibited organs for the Queen's procession was "under the superintendence of William Sterndale Bennett".

Background[edit]

The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations was organized by Prince Albert, Henry Cole, Francis Henry, George Wallis, Charles Dilke and other members of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce as a celebration of modern industrial technology and design. It was arguably a response to the highly successful French Industrial Exposition of 1844: indeed, its prime motive was for "Great Britain [to make] clear to the world its role as industrial leader."[1] Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's consort, was an enthusiastic promoter of the self-financing exhibition; the government was persuaded to form the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 to establish the viability of hosting such an exhibition. Queen Victoria and her family visited three times. Although the Great Exhibition was a platform on which countries from around the world could display their achievements, Great Britain sought to prove its own superiority. The British exhibits at the Great Exhibition "held the lead in almost every field where strength, durability, utility and quality were concerned, whether in iron and steel, machinery or textiles."[2] Great Britain also sought to provide the world with the hope of a better future. Europe had just struggled through "two difficult decades of political and social upheaval," and now Great Britain hoped to show that technology, particularly its own, was the key to a better future.[1]

Sophie Forgan says of the Exhibition that "Large, piled-up ‘trophy’ exhibits in the central avenue revealed the organisers’ priorities; they generally put art or colonial raw materials in the most prestigious place. Technology and moving machinery were popular, especially working exhibits." She also notes that visitors "could watch the entire process of cotton production from spinning to finished cloth. Scientific instruments were found in class X, and included electric telegraphs, microscopes, air pumps and barometers, as well as musical, horological and surgical instruments."[3]

A special building, nicknamed The Crystal Palace, or "The Great Shalimar",[4] was built to house the show. It was designed by Joseph Paxton with support from structural engineer Charles Fox, the committee overseeing its construction including Isambard Kingdom Brunel, and went from its organisation to the grand opening in just nine months. The building was architecturally adventurous, drawing on Paxton's experience designing greenhouses for the sixth Duke of Devonshire. It took the form of a massive glass house, 1851 feet (about 564 metres) long by 454 feet (about 138 metres) wide and was constructed from cast iron-frame components and glass made almost exclusively in Birmingham and Smethwick. From the interior, the building's large size was emphasized with trees and statues; this served, not only to add beauty to the spectacle, but also to demonstrate man's triumph over nature.[1] The Crystal Palace was an enormous success, considered an architectural marvel, but also an engineering triumph that showed the importance of the Exhibition itself.[2] The building was later moved and re-erected in an enlarged form at Sydenham in south London, an area that was renamed Crystal Palace. It was destroyed by fire on 30 November 1936.[4]

Six million people—equivalent to a third of the entire population of Britain at the time—visited the Great Exhibition. The average daily attendance was 42,831 with a peak attendance of 109,915 on 7 October.[5] The event made a surplus of £186,000 (£18,190,000 in 2015),[6], which was used to found the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum and the Natural History Museum. They were all built in the area to the south of the exhibition, nicknamed Albertopolis, alongside the Imperial Institute. The remaining surplus was used to set up an educational trust to provide grants and scholarships for industrial research; it continues to do so today.[7]

The Exhibition caused controversy as its opening approached. Some conservatives feared that the mass of visitors might become a revolutionary mob,[8] whilst radicals such as Karl Marx saw the exhibition as an emblem of a capitalist fetishism of commodities. King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, shortly before his death, wrote to Lord Strangford about it:

The folly and absurdity of the Queen in allowing this trumpery must strike every sensible and well-thinking mind, and I am astonished the ministers themselves do not insist on her at least going to Osborne during the Exhibition, as no human being can possibly answer for what may occur on the occasion. The idea ... must shock every honest and well-meaning Englishman. But it seems everything is conspiring to lower us in the eyes of Europe.[9]

In modern times, the Great Exhibition is a symbol of the Victorian Age, and its thick catalogue, illustrated with steel engravings, is a primary source for High Victorian design.[10] A memorial to the exhibition, crowned with a statue of Prince Albert, is located behind the Royal Albert Hall.[11] It is inscribed with statistics from the exhibition, including the number of visitors and exhibitors (British and foreign), and the profit made.

Exhibits[edit]

The official descriptive and illustrated catalogue of the event lists exhibitors not only from throughout Britain but also from its 'Colonies and Dependencies' and 44 'Foreign States' in Europe and the Americas. Numbering 13,000 in total, the exhibits included a Jacquard loom, an envelope machine, kitchen appliances, steel-making displays and a reaping machine that was sent from the United States.[12]

Admission fees[edit]

Admission prices to the Crystal Palace varied according to the date of visitation, with ticket prices decreasing as the parliamentary season drew to an end and London traditionally emptied of wealthy individuals. Prices varied from three guineas (£308.03 in 2015),[6](two for a woman) for a season ticket, or £1 per day (for the first two days only), then reducing down to five-shillings per day (until May 22nd).[14] The admission price was then further reduced down to one-shilling (£4.89 in 2015),[6] per day - except on Fridays when it was set at two-shillings-and-sixpence and on Saturdays when it remained at five-shillings.[14] The one-shilling ticket proved most successful amongst the industrial classes, with four and a half million shillings (£22,002,348 in 2015),[6] being taken from attendees in this manner.[15] 2,500 tickets were printed for the opening day, all of which were bought.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kishlansky, Mark, Patrick Geary and Patricia O'Brien. Civilization in the West. 7th Edition. Vol. C. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2008.
  2. ^ a b Ffrench, Yvonne. The Great Exhibition; 1851. London: Harvill Press, 1950.
  3. ^ Forgan, Sophie (10 February 2000), "A compendium of Victorian culture", Nature 403 (6880): 596, Bibcode:2000Natur.403..596F, doi:10.1038/35001134 
  4. ^ a b "The Great Exhibition of 1851". Duke Magazine. November 2006. Retrieved 30 July 2007. 
  5. ^ Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of important events of the year: 1862. New York: D. Appleton & Company. 1863. p. 412. 
  6. ^ a b c d UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2015), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  7. ^ The Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851. "About Us". Retrieved 1 November 2008. 
  8. ^ a b Newth, A.M. (1967). Britain and the World: 1789-1901. New York: Penguin Books. p. 97. ISBN 0-14-080304-1. 
  9. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 206–207.
  10. ^ Official Catalogue of the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations. 1851. 
  11. ^ "Memorial to the exhibition". Royal Institute of British Architects. Retrieved 18 October 2014. 
  12. ^ "The Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace". Victorian Station. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
  13. ^ "The Great Exhibition," Manchester Times, 24 May 1851.
  14. ^ a b Leapman, Michael (2001). The World For A Shilling. p. 72. 
  15. ^ "Entrance Costs to the Great Exhibition". Fashion Era. Retrieved 3 February 2009. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Auerbach, Jeffrey A. (1999). The Great Exhibition of 1851: A Nation on Display. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08007-7. 
  • Gibbs-Smith, Charles Harvard (1981) [1951]. The Great Exhibition of 1851 (Second ed.). London: HMSO. ISBN 0-11-290344-4. 
  • Greenhalgh, Paul (1988). Ephemeral Vistas: The Expositions Universelles, Great Exhibitions and World's Fairs, 1851–1939. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-2299-1. 
  • Leapman, Michael (2001). The World for a Shilling: How the Great Exhibition of 1851 Shaped a Nation. Headline Books. ISBN 0-7472-7012-0. 
  • Dickinson's Comprehensive Pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851. Dickinson Brothers. London. 1854. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Exhibition — Please support Wikipedia.
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1104 news items

The Lincolnite

The Lincolnite
Mon, 29 Jun 2015 04:34:52 -0700

Besides the Luttrell Psalter, the Great Exhibition boasts: The magnificent Heneage Jewel – one of the most important Tudor jewels in the Victoria & Albert Museum's collection. A detailed map of Australia by Donington-born explorer Matthew Flinders ...

The Arts Desk

The Arts Desk
Wed, 01 Jul 2015 21:22:50 -0700

It was the Great Exhibition of 1851 that put photography on the world map of human invention and innovation, and Tripe, home in England on leave, joined the Photographic Society as a founder member. He had found a new and surprising skill, using the ...

Lincolnshire Echo

Lincolnshire Echo
Mon, 22 Jun 2015 08:45:00 -0700

It will be part of the Great Exhibition collection on show – together with over 100 other Lincolnshire-related exhibits – at The Collection, Usher Gallery, Lincoln Cathedral's Wren and Medieval Libraries and Lincoln Castle. Lord Cormack, chairman of ...

Daily Beast

Daily Beast
Sat, 27 Jun 2015 03:47:32 -0700

When the Boston Evening Transcript proposed sending Laura to the Great Exhibition in London in 1851 as “the showpiece with which no nation could compete,” Howe adamantly declined. When she was 20, he turned on his once beloved prodigy, claiming in ...

Irish Times

Irish Times
Mon, 15 Jun 2015 17:06:55 -0700

Arguably, the first Expo was “The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations”, held in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London in 1851. It focused essentially on trade and design. Today's Expo is the world's biggest non-sporting recurring ...

ITV News

ITV News
Sat, 27 Jun 2015 12:30:00 -0700

Running until the end of September, "The Great Exhibition" will display copies of the document in five venues across the city, and for the first time in four hundred years, two copies of the Chapter Bible will be on display side by side. Last updated ...

Herald Sun

Herald Sun
Wed, 01 Apr 2015 17:22:30 -0700

Premier Daniel Andrews revealed the Masterpieces from the Hermitage: the Legacy of Catherine the Great exhibition at the gallery this morning. “This exhibition will continue the National Gallery of Victoria's tradition of bringing some of the biggest ...

Telegraph.co.uk

Telegraph.co.uk
Fri, 26 Jun 2015 09:18:45 -0700

He has discovered that there is a bath in the house from the Great Exhibition of 1851, that the fireplace and panelling in the study are said to have come from Arundel Castle, in Sussex, and that previous owners of the house included the great ...
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