digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

The Thai lunar calendar (Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ, RTGS: patithin chanthrakhati, pronounced [pà.tì.tʰīn tɕān.tʰrá.kʰā.tìʔ], literally, Specific days according to lunar norms), Dai calendar (傣历), or Tai calendar, is Thailand's version of the lunisolar Buddhist calendar. It is used in the southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos and Burma for calculating lunar-regulated holy days. Based on the Southeast Asia's siddhanta "SuriyaYatra", derived from the third-century Surya Siddhanta (a Hindu calendar), these combine lunar and solar calendars for a nominal year of 12 months. An extra day or an extra 30-day month is intercalated at regular intervals; Thai, Lao, and Cambodian versions do not add an extra day to years with an extra month.

Legal v. religious calendar[edit]

The Thai solar calendar (Thai: ปฏิทินสุริยคติ, RTGS: patithin suriyakhati,  [pà.tì.tʰin sù.rī.já.kʰā.tìʔ]), Thailand's version of the Gregorian calendar, replaced the patithin chanthrakhati in AD 1888 / 2431 BE for legal and commercial purposes. In both calendars, the four principal lunar phases determine Buddhist Sabbaths (Uposatha), obligatory holy days for observant Buddhists. Significant days also include feast days. Thai Chinese likewise observe their Sabbaths and traditional Chinese holidays according to solar terms, two of which correspond to one lunar phase. These move with respect to the solar calendar, so common Thai calendars incorporate both Thai and Chinese lunar dates for religious purposes.

Mundane astrology also figures prominently in Thai culture, so modern Thai birth certificates include lunar calendar dates and the appropriate Chinese calendar zodiacal animal year-name for both Thai Hora (Thai: โหราศาสตร์, RTGS: horasat) and Chinese astrology.

Years[edit]

Further information: Chula Sakarat, Lunar phase and Solar term

To keep the years in sync with the seasons, Thai lunar years may add a day to the 7th month or repeat the 8th month. Therefore, years may have one of three lengths – 354, 355 or 384 days – yet retain a nominal length of twelve months.

  • 354 day-long years consist of 12 "normal months", and such a year is called a "normal-month year" (Thai: (ปี) ปกติมาส, RTGS: (pi) pakatimat,  [(pī) pà.kà.ti.mâːt]).
  • 355 day-long years add an extra day to the normally 29-day-long 7th month; such a year is called an "extra-day year" (Thai: (ปี) อธิกวาร, RTGS: (pi) athikawan, Thai pronunciation: [(pīː) ʔà.tʰí.kà.waːn]).
AD 2004/2547BE Extra lunar month ended August 15
  • 384 day-long years repeat the 30-day-long 8th month, thus keeping the month count at 12. Nevertheless, a year of 384 days is called an "extra-month year" (Thai: (ปี) อธิกมาส, RTGS: (pi) athikamat,  [(pīː) ʔà.tʰí.kà.mâːt]).

New year[edit]

The Thai lunar calendar does not mark the beginning of a new year when it starts a new 1-to-12 count, which occurs most frequently in December.

August 1 and 2, 2004. Sunday, a holiday, on the left, and Monday, observed as the compensatory day, on the right

The Thai solar calendar determines a person's legal age and the dates of secular holidays, including the civil new year and the three days of the traditional Thai New Year, which begin the next Twelve-year animal cycle. Should the holidays fall on a weekend, it also accommodates these as well as some of the principal lunar festivals with a compensatory day off (Thai: วันชดเชย, RTGS: wan chotchoei).

Twelve-year animal cycle[edit]

Further information: Chinese zodiac

13 April of the solar calendar occasions the beginning of the traditional Thai New Year (Songkran) and is the day that a year assumes the name of the next animal in the twelve-year animal cycle;[1] Thai Chinese communities may observed the name-change earlier in accordance with the Chinese New Year.

Gregorian year Chinese New Year's Day Thai beginning 13 April Animal
1998 January 28 Khan
(ขาล)
Tiger
1999 February 16 Tho
(เถาะ)
Rabbit
2000 February 5 Marong
(มะโรง)
Dragon
2001 January 24 Maseng
(มะเส็ง)
Snake
2002 February 12 Mamia
(มะเมีย)
Horse
2003 February 1 Mamae
(มะแม)
Goat
2004 January 22 Wok
(วอก)
Monkey
2005 February 9 Raka
(ระกา)
Rooster
2006 January 29 Cho
(จอ)
Dog
2007 February 18 Kun
(กุน)

Pig

2008 February 7 Chuat
(ชวด)
Rat
2009 January 26 Chalu
(ฉลู)
Ox
2010 February 14 Khan
(ขาล)
Tiger
2011 February 3 Tho
(เถาะ)
Rabbit
2012 January 23 Marong
(มะโรง)
Dragon
2013 February 10 Maseng
(มะเส็ง)
Snake
2014 January 31 Mamia
(มะเมีย)
Horse
2015 February 19 Mamae
(มะแม)
Goat

Months[edit]

In the modern Thai calendar, months (Thai: เดือน, RTGS: duean,  [dɯ̄an], meaning "month" or "Lunation") are defined by lunar cycles. Successive months (or lunations) are numbered from 1 to 12 within the Thai year. As in other Buddhist calendars, these months have names that derive from Sanskrit, but for the most part are only known by Thai astrologers.[2]

Two successive lunations take slightly more than 59 days. The Thai lunar calendar approximates this interval with "normal-month" pairs (ปกติมาส, RTGS: pakatimat) that are alternately 29 and 30 days long. 29-day "hollow months" (เดือนขาด, RTGS: duean khat,  [dɯ̄an kʰàːt]) are odd-numbered (เดือนคี่, RTGS: duean khi,  [dɯːan.kʰî]); 30-day "full months" (เดือนถ้วน, RTGS: duean thuan,  [dɯ̄an tʰûan]) are even-numbered (เดือนคู่, RTGS: duean khu,  [dɯ̄an kʰûː]).

To keep the beginning of the month in sync with the new moon, from time to time either the normally "hollow" Month 7 takes an extra day, or an extra "full" Month 8 follows a normal "full" Month 8.

Months 1 and 2 are named in archaic alternate numbers, with the remainder being named in modern numbers.[2]

Months 1 – 6[edit]

Month 1, "duean ai" (เดือนอ้าย,  [dɯ̄an ʔâːj]), begins the cycle of counting the months anew, most frequently in December, but does not signify the beginning of a new year.[2] ai, an archaic word in Thai but not in other dialects, means first-born (or eldest).[3] An odd-numbered hollow month, it is 29 days long.

Month 2, "duean yi", (เดือนยี่,  [dɯ̄an jîː], from archaic ญี่ meaning 2)[3] is an even-numbered full month.

Months 3–6, "duean 3–6", use the modern reading of Thai numerals, as do all remaining months. Months 3–6, alternate between 29-day hollow months and 30-day full months.

Month 7 and athikawan[edit]

Month 7, "duean 7", a hollow month is normally 29 days long in years of 354 days, but adds an extra day (อธิกวาร RTGS: athikawan) when required for 355-day-long years (ปีอธิกวาร, RTGS: pi athikawan).

Month 8[edit]

The eighth month, "duean 8", is a 30-day full month.

Month 8/8 "athikamat"[edit]

July 14 2007.jpg
July 15 2007.jpg

Athikamat (อธิกมาส, Thai pronunciation: [à.tʰí.kà.mâːt])) is the extra month needed for a 384-day-long pi athikamat (extra-month year; ปีอธิกมาส, Thai pronunciation: [pī.à.tʰí.kà.mâːt]). Month 8 repeats as เดือน ๘/๘ or Month 8/8, variously read as "duean paet thab paet" (เดือนแปดหลัง)

Months 9 – 12[edit]

Months 9–12, "duean 9–12", complete the lunar cycle.

Month divisions[edit]

Months divide into two periods designated by whether they are waxing or waning:

  • Waxing : khang khuen (ข้างขึ้น), the period from new moon to full moon, is always 15 days long.
  • Waning : khang raem (ข้างแรม), the period from full moon to new moon, which is 14 days long in hollow months, except when Month 7 adds an extra day, and 15 days long in full months.

Weeks[edit]

A week is called Sapda/Sappada (Thai: สัปดาห์,  [sàp.dāː, sàp.pà.dāː]). From a Sanskrit word for "seven", it is now defined by the Royal Institute Dictionary (RID) as a 7-day period beginning on Sunday and ending Saturday.[4] When referring to lunations, however, it is the 7-, 8- or (rarely) 9-day interval between quartile lunar phases; that is, from one วันพระ to the next.

Days[edit]

While solar-calendar weekdays have names, lunar-calendar days number sequentially from 1 to 14 or 15 in two segments depending on whether the moon is waxing or waning. For example, "raem 15 kham duean 12 แรม ๑๕ ค่ำ เดือน ๑๒" means "Waning 15 Evening [of] Month 12".

Kham ค่ำ , evening, is considered to be the evening of the common day that begins and ends at midnight, rather than of a day that begins and ends at dusk. Past practice may have been different.

Named lunar days[edit]

  • Wan Phra วันพระ, Buddhist holy days
    • Wan Thamma Sawana วันธรรมสวนะ Buddhist Sabbath regularly fall on:
      • Khuen 8 ขึ้น ๘ first-quarter moon
      • Khuen 15 ขึ้น ๑๕ full moon; also called wan phen วันเพ็ญ day [of] full [moon]. However, Wan Deuan Phen วันเดือนเพ็ญ, the actual day of the full moon and khuen 15 kham do not always fall on the same day.
      • Raem 8 แรม ๘ third-quarter moon
      • Raem 14 (15) แรม ๑๔ (๑๕) the last day of the lunar month; also called wan dap วันดับ day [moon is] quenched, [or goes] out.
  • Wan wai phra chan วันไหว้พระจันทร์, called "Day [of] Respect [for] the Holy Moon", is the actual day the Harvest moon becomes full. It occurs on khuen 14 (15) kham duean 10 ขึ้น ๑๔ (๑๕) ค่ำ เดือน ๑๐ (Waxing 14 (15) Evening, Month 10.)

Holidays regulated by the moon[edit]

Buddhist Sabbaths, colloquially called วันพระ, are the New, First-quarter, Full, and Third-quarter Moon-days. These are not normally days off (วันหยุด), except for butcher, barber, and beautician shops that observe the Eight Precepts. Annual holidays and seasonal festivals collectively are called วันนักขัตฤกษ์.

Festivals or fairs are called เทศกาล; these may be further styled as ประเพณี "traditional" and as Thai: พิธี, "rite" or "ceremony". The table shows the principal ones governed by the moon in yellow.

Work holidays prescribed by the government are called Thai: วันหยุดราชการ; those regulated by the moon are red.

Weekends are normally days off; if a holiday normally observed by a day off falls on a weekend, the following Monday is a compensatory day off Thai: วันชดเชย.

Work holidays and festivals regulated by the moon: x = waxing moon; n = waning
Mo. Day Event ไทย Comment
3† 1x Chinese New Year ตรุษจีน Most shops owned by Chinese-Thai close
3 15x Magha Puja วันมาฆบูชา Makha Bucha
6 15x Vesak วิสาขบูชา Wisakha Bucha
8‡ 15x Asalha Puja อาสาฬหบูชา Asanha Bucha
8‡ 1n Wan Khao Phansa วันเข้าพรรษา Begin Rains Retreat, or "Buddhist Lent"
10 15n Thetsakan Sat เทศกาลสารท The Vegetarian Festival (เทศกาลวันสารท)[5] now appears on calendars as thetsakan kin che kao wan (เทศกาลกินเจเก้าวัน), (begin) Nine-day Vegetarian Festival. Kin Jae [6] means (to vow) in the manner of Vietnamese or Chinese Buddhists to eat a strict vegetarian diet. (เทศกาลกินเจ)
11 15x Wan Ok Phansa วันออกพรรษา End Rains Retreat, or "Buddhist Lent"
11 1n Thot Kathin ทอดกฐิน Presentation of Monk's Robes after Rains Retreat
12 15x Loi Krathong ลอยกระทง Note that Loi Krathong dates are based on the Lanna (Northern Thailand) Lunar Calendar which is two months later than the Thai Lunar Calendar. Loy Krathong is actually on the second month of the Lanna calendar which is the 12th month of the central Thai calendar.

Notes:

† The Chinese New Year uses different methods of determining intercalary months, so this festival sometimes occurs a month earlier or later.
‡ Month 8/8 in years with the extra month.

Thai year vocabulary[edit]

Thai orthography spells most native words phonetically, though there is no definitive system for transcription into Roman letters. Here, native Thai words are immediately followed by a vocabulary entry in this pattern:

Phonetic Thai (Thai phonetic respelling, if different) [Comment] definition; variant definitions.

Example:

Thai ไทย (ไท) [Archaic] free, frank; Thai race, language, alphabet ; citizen of Thailand.

Sanskrit loan words follow different rules [the way English grammatical rules vary for words of Greek and Latin origin ('ph-' in 'phonetic' being pronounced /f/, for example.)] Entered below in order of first appearance, these vocabulary entries are in this pattern:

Sanskrit สันสกฤต (สันสะกฺริด /san-sa-krit/)  

Literally means "self-made" or "self-done", or "cultured" in a modern usage (which implies the language of cultured persons); Sanskrit alphabet, language, writing; [presumed] compound of

  • san สัน (-/son/) derived from the word, "saṃ" meaning "self, together, with"
  • skrit สกฤต (สะกฺริต /sa-krit/) derived from the word "(s)kar" meaning "do or make".
Chanthrakhati จันทรคติ (จันทฺระคะติ) 
"Lunar norms", Lunar Calendar; compound of
  • Chanthra- จันทร- (จันทฺระ) : Chan จันทร์ (จัน) moon, lunar +
  • Kati คติ (คะติ) : ways, principles, norms
Patithin ปฏิทิน (ปะติทิน) 
Calendar; compound of
  • Pati- ปฏิ- (ปะติ-) : anti-, re-, for, specific +
  • -thin (-ทิน) : [from Sanskrit dina] : day.
  • patithin means for days, specific days or fixed days
Patitin Chanthakhati ปฏิทินจันทรคติ (ปะติทินจันทระคะติ) 
"Specific days according to lunar norms", Lunar Calendar
Suriyakhati สุริยคติ (สุริยะคะติ) 
Solar norms, Solar Calendar; compound of
  • Suriya สุริย or สุริยะ : Athit อาทิตย์, the sun, Sol +
  • Khati คติ (คะติ) : ways, principles, norms
Prokkatimat ปรกติมาส (ปฺรกกะติมาด) 
normal month; compound of
  • Prokkati ปรกติ (ปฺรกกะติ) : pakati ปกติ (ปะกะติ) ordinary, usual, normal +
  • Mat มาส (มาด) : duean (เดือน) month.
Athikamat อธิกมาส (อะทิกะมาด) 
month added in leap-month lunar years
Athikawan อธิกวาร (อะทิกะวาน) 
day added in leap-day lunar years; compound of
  • Athika (Sanskrit: adhika) : additional +
  • -wan วาร (Sanskrit: vāra) : wan วัน day.
Athikasurathin อธิกสุรทิน (อะทิกะสุระทิน) 
day added to February in a solar leap year.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ J.C. Eade. The calendrical systems of mainland southeast asia. E.J. Brill, Leiden. p. 22. ISBN 90-04-10437-2.  According to some scholars including George Coedes, the change originally occurred at the beginning of the 5th lunar month, a few days before Songkhran.
  2. ^ a b c Diller, Anthony; Preecha Juntanamalaga (2000). "Thai Time". Faculty of Asian Studies Australian National University. p. 25. Archived from the original on 2002-01-10. Retrieved 2008-05-08. "(5.1) ...names would be known only by Thai astrologers (Prasert Na Nagara 1998:524)." 
  3. ^ a b On-line Royal Institute Dictionary (ORID - 1999).
  4. ^ RID on-line
  5. ^ สารท ๑
  6. ^ กินเจ

Further reading[edit]

  • Diller, Anthony; Preecha Juntanamalaga (December 1995). "Thai Time". International Conference on Tai Languages and Cultures, Thammasat University. Australian National University. Archived from the original on 2002-12-10. Retrieved 22 June 2008. 
  • Eade, J.C. The calendrical systems of mainland south-east Asia. ISBN 90-04-10437-2 (Cited by Diller & Preecha)
  • Sethaputra, So. New Model English - Thai Dictionary, ISBN 974-08-3253-9

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thai_lunar_calendar — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
3920 videos foundNext > 

12 Animals of the Thai Lunar calendar | Thailand | ปฏิทินจันทรคติ

The Thai lunar calendar pronounced in Thai as ปฏิทินจันทรคติ consists of 12 animals. This is Thailand's version of the lunisolar Buddhist calendar. 13 April ...

Phuket Vegetarian Festival 2010, Chinese Lunar Calendar, Phuket, Thailand

Phuket Vegetarian Festival 2010..... One of the famous year event of Phuket Island [South of Thailand], is the Phuket Vegetarian Festival (or jia chai in loc...

Thai Lunar Calendar Program by Major General Boonnak Thongniem

อ.พลตรีบุนนาค ทองเนียม บรมครูโหราศาสตร์ภาคคำนวณ อธิบายถึงวิธีการค้นคิดวิธีคำนวณ และเขียนโปรแกรมปฏิทินจันทรคติตามแนวทางของ อ.พลตรีบุนนาค ทองเนียม.

THAILAND LUNAR NEW YEAR

In Thailand, years are based on the Buddhist era (B.E.), which started 543 years earlier than the Christian era. Thus the year 2010 A.D. is recognised as 255...

When is Second day of Chinese Lunar New Year in Thailand 2015

When is Second day of Chinese Lunar New Year in Thailand 2015 . . . . . . . Chinese Lunar New Year's Day in Thailand - Time and Date www.timeanddate.com › Ca...

When is Third day of Chinese Lunar New Year in Thailand 2015

When is Third day of Chinese Lunar New Year in Thailand 2015 . . . . . . . Chinese New Year - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_...

Yee Peng, Festival of Lights in Chiang Mai, North Thailand

Loy Krathong (ลอยกระทง), sometimes spelled Loy Kratong or Loi Kratong, is a colorful festival held every year on the full moon of the twelfth month in the Th...

Loy Krathong | Thai Guru

Loy Krathong is a festival celebrated annually throughout Thailand. It takes place on the evening of the full moon of the 12th month in the traditional Thai ...

Loy Krathong Festival in Rural Thailand 2013

A nice night out with the family. Thus is by far my favorite festival of all the festivals in Thailand. Loi Krathong takes place on the evening of the full m...

Loy Krathong, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Loy Krathong is a festival celebrated annually throughout Thailand, and especially in Chiang Mai. It takes place on the evening of the full moon of the 12th ...

3920 videos foundNext > 

1 news items

Phuketindex.com

Phuketindex.com
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 21:30:00 -0700

The Por Tor, originally called Ul Lampon, takes place on the 15th day of the Chinese seventh lunar month (around the 9th month of Thai lunar calendar). It is believed that during this time the souls of departed ancestors come home to visit the living ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Thai lunar calendar

You can talk about Thai lunar calendar with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!