Temenggung (Jawi: تمڠݢوڠ; also Temenggong and Tumongong) is an ancient Malay title of nobility, usually given to the chief of public security. The Temenggung is usually responsible for the safety of the monarch as well as the state police and army. The office was usually a stepping stone to the higher title of Bendahara, or Grand vizier.
In the Sultanate of Johor, the Temenggung of Muar held a fief (centered in Segamat) for approximately two centuries and the Temenggung of Johor was of the head of fief (Johor mainland) between 1760 and 1868. The full rendition of the Johor Temenggung was Temenggung Seri Maharaja. Although the Temenggung was the head of the fief's administration, the Temenggung held the kingdom of Johor and Singapore by virtue of his being a vassal of the Sultan. During that time, the sultan was practically a puppet. In 1868, Temenggung Abu Bakar declared himself as a maharaja, assumed control over Muar and declared himself an independent ruler. In 1885, he assumed the title of sultan with the blessing of Britain.
- ^ a b Turnbull, C.M. (1977). A History of Singapore: 1819-1975. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-580354-X.
- ^ Buckley, Charles Burton (1965). An Anecdotal History of Old Times in Singapore. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press.