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For other uses, see Takeda clan (disambiguation).
In this Japanese name, the family name is Takeda.
Takeda clan
武田氏
Takeda mon.svg
The emblem (mon) of the Takeda clan
Home province Kai
Parent house Seiwa Genji
Titles Various
Founder Minamoto no Yoshikiyo
Final ruler Takeda Katsuyori
Founding year 12th century
Ruled until 1582, defeat by Oda Nobunaga
Cadet branches Aki
Wakasa
Kazusa
Matsumae clan
Nanbu clan
Yanagisawa clan
Gotō clan
Ogasawara clan
Miyako Todomaru clan
Akiyama clan

The Takeda clan (武田氏 Takeda-shi?) is a Japanese clan active from the late Heian Period (794 – 1185). The clan was historically based in Kai Province in present-day Yamanashi Prefecture.[1][2]

Crests[edit]

  • Four diamonds (pictured)
  • Four diamonds surrounded by a solid ring
  • Two cranes bowing their heads together
  • A centipede
  • Hanabishi (three vertical flowers)
  • Fūrinkazan (a battle standard with the writing: "風林火山", which literally means: "Wind, Forest, Fire, Mountain".)
  • The Tai (大) character

Major figures[edit]

Nobushige, Nobutake, Nobumitsu, Nobuyoshi, Nobutora, Harunobu (Shingen), Katsuyori

History[edit]

Origin[edit]

The Takeda were descendants of Emperor Seiwa (850-880) and are a branch of the Minamoto clan (Seiwa Genji), by Minamoto no Yoshimitsu (1056–1127), brother to the Chinjufu-shogun Minamoto no Yoshiie (1039–1106). Minamoto no Yoshikiyo (1075? – 1149?), son of Yoshimitsu, was the first to take the name of Takeda.

Kamakura to early Azuchi–Momoyama periods[edit]

In the 12th century, at the end of the Heian period, the Takeda family controlled Kai Province. Along with a number of other families, they aided their cousin Minamoto no Yoritomo against the Taira clan in the Genpei War. When Minamoto no Yoritomo was first defeated at Ishibashiyama (1181), Takeda Nobuyoshi was applied for help and the Takeda sent an army of 20,000 men to support Yoritomo. Takeda Nobumitsu (1162–1248), helped the Hōjō during the Shokyu War (1221) and in reward received the governorship of Aki Province. Until the Sengoku period, the Takeda were shugo of Kai, Aki and Wakasa provinces.

Sengoku period[edit]

Immediately prior to the Sengoku period, the Takeda helped to suppress the Rebellion of Uesugi Zenshū (1416 – 1417).[3] Uesugi Zenshū (? – 1417) was the kanrei chief advisor to Ashikaga Mochiuji, an enemy of the central Ashikaga shogunate and the Kantō kubō governor-general of the Kantō Region. Mochiuji, lord of the Uesugi clan, made a reprisal against the Takeda clan in 1415. This reprisal began a rivalry between the Uesugi and Takeda clans which would last roughly 150 years until the destruction of the Takeda clan at the end of the Sengoku period.[4]

Takeda Shingen[edit]

Takeda Harunobu (1467 – 1568) succeeded his father Nobutora in 1540 and became shugo lord of Kai Province in present-day Yamanashi Prefecture. In this period the Takeda began to quickly expand from their base in Kai Province. In 1559, Harunobu changed his name to the better-known Takeda Shingen. He faced the Hōjō clan a number of times, and most of his expansion was to the north, where he fought his most famous battles against Uesugi Kenshin. This series of regional skirmishes is known as the Battles of Kawanakajima. The battles began in 1553, and the best known and severest among them was fought on September 10, 1561.[5]

Shingen is famous for his tactical genius, and innovations, though some historians have argued that his tactics were not particularly impressive nor revolutionary. Nevertheless, Shingen is perhaps most famous for his use of the cavalry charge. Up until the mid-16th century and Shingen's rise to power, mounted samurai were primarily archers. There was already a trend at this time towards larger infantry-based armies, including a large number of foot archers. In order to defeat these missile troops, Shingen transformed his samurai from archers to lancers. Shingen used the cavalry charge to devastating effect at the Battle of Mikatagahara in 1572. The strength of Shingen's new tactic became so famous that the Takeda army came to be known as the kiba gundan (騎馬軍団), or 'mounted army.'

Decline of the Takeda clan[edit]

Gold coin of the Takeda clan of Kōshū (甲州金) in the 16th century, an early example of Japanese currency.

Shingen died in on May 13 1573 at age 53 from illness.[6][5] his son Takeda Katsuyori (1546 – 1582) effectively succeeded Shingen though the nominal head of the family was his grandson Takeda Nobukatsu, Katsuyori continued Shigen's aggressive expansion plan south and westward and was initially successful, briefly achieving the largest extent of Takeda rule, however he was defeated in the Battle of Nagashino in 1575 by Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu.

After Nagashino, the Takeda clan fell into sharp decline as it had lost many of its most notable samurai during the battle. Katsuyori's position within the clan also became precarious (as he did not fully inherit the clan leadership position); in 1582, two of his relatives defected to the Oda/Tokugawa alliance and Nobunaga succeeded in destroying the Takeda clan shortly thereafter. The campaign saw most of the Takeda followers simply abandoning Katsuyori and the other Takeda family members to their fate. The clan was effectively eliminated, although descendants of the Takeda clan would take prominent positions in the Tokugawa shogunate, established in 1603.[5]

Modern period[edit]

Takeda is also a fairly common family name in modern Japan, though it is unlikely that everyone with the Takeda name is descended from this noble house (several divisions of the family have the Takeda name).

In fact, most of the real descendants of the Takeda had a different name when they created a cadet branch. During the Tokugawa period, several daimyō families were direct descendants of the Takeda.

In 1868, these daimyō families were :

Cadet branches[edit]

Site of Mariyatsu Castle, base of the Kazusa Takeda clan, Kisarazu, Chiba Prefecture

Three major branches of the Takeda clan were established across Japan along with other smaller branches. Due to the establishment of cadet branches, the main Takeda clan in Kai Province is also referred to as the Kai Takeda clan. All the cadet branches of the Takeda clan were ended shortly after the defeat of the Kai Takeda clan by Oda Nobunaga.[2]

Aki Takeda[edit]

The Aki Takeda clan, established in Aki Province in the present-day western part of Hiroshima Prefecture.[1]

Wakasa Takeda[edit]

The Wakasa Takeda clan was established in Wakasa Province in present-day southern Fukui Prefecture in approximately 1440. The Wakasa were an offshoot of the Aki Takeda clan.[1] The Wakasa Takeda were known for their patronage of the arts and developing the Takeda school of military etiquette.[2]

Kazusa Takeda[edit]

The Kazusa Takeda clan, established at the beginning of the Sengoku period in Kazusa Province in the present-day central area of Chiba Prefecture. Along with the Satomi clan of Awa Province in the southern part of present-day Chiba Prefecture the two clan replaced the dominance of the Chiba clan in the region. The Kazusa Takeda are also known as the Mariyatsu Takeda, a reference to their base of power, Mariyatsu Castle.[1]

Clan literature[edit]

The Kōshū Hatto, composed at some point in the 15th century, is the code of law of the Takeda family, while the Kōyō Gunkan, composed largely by Kōsaka Masanobu in the mid-16th century, is an epic poem recording the family's history and Shingen's innovations in military tactics.

Important members of the Takeda family[edit]

Historical[edit]

  • Takeda Nobutora - Shingen's father.
  • Takeda Shingen - one of Japan's most famous warlords, Shingen expanded his domains greatly, and became one of the major powers in the country for a time.
  • Takeda Katsuyori - Shingen's son, Katsuyori commanded his father's armies after his death, and saw the fall of the Takeda family.
  • Takeda Nobushige - Shingen's younger brother, held their father's favour to be heir of the clan, continued to support his older brother throughout his life, he also wrote the Kyūjūkyū Kakun, a set of 99 short rules for Takeda house members.
  • Sōkaku Takeda (1859 – 1943) was the restorer of the Daitō-ryū aiki-jūjutsu school of jūjutsu, and the first to teach the art outside of the Takeda family.[7]

Popular Culture[edit]

Takeda is a playable faction in Shogun 2.

Takeda is a playable nation in Europa Universalis IV.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Takeda-shi (武田氏)". Kokushi Daijiten (国史大辞典) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  2. ^ a b c "Takeda family". Encyclopedia of Japan. Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-17. 
  3. ^ "Uesugi Zenshū, Rebellion of". Encyclopedia of Japan. Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-17. 
  4. ^ "Uesugi family". Encyclopedia of Japan. Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-17. 
  5. ^ a b c "Takeda Shingen". Encyclopedia of Japan. Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-17. 
  6. ^ E. Deal, William (2007). Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Oxford University Press US. pp. 44–45. ISBN 0-19-533126-5. 
  7. ^ "Takeda Sōkaku (武田惣角)". Nihon Jinmei Daijiten (日本人名大辞典) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-10. 
  • Ogino,Shozo, The History of Kyushu Japanese Publishing.
  • Sansom, George (1961). 'A History of Japan: 1334-1615'. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Turnbull, Stephen (1998). 'The Samurai Sourcebook'. London: Cassell & Co.
  • Turnbull, Stephen (2002). 'War in Japan 1467-1615'. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takeda_clan — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

31 news items

RocketNews24

RocketNews24
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 21:00:36 -0700

Instead, the pieces are held together with plastic brackets, with assembly taking about 90 minutes, giving you a manageable craft project to work on while waiting for your spies to report back about the Takeda Clan's latest troop movements. ▽ Prefect ...

Siliconera

Siliconera
Tue, 05 Apr 2016 02:50:17 -0700

Sion12. just had a thought, isnt Sangoku and Sengoku really similar? Zhao yun= Yukimura. Shu=Takeda clan, Cao cao=Nobunaga, Honda vs Lubu etc. Unknownorigin. Not really, they are very, very different. It's just Koei trying to give some equivalence to ...
 
Seeking Alpha
Sun, 17 Apr 2016 11:56:15 -0700

During these three years, their target was never reached. Back in March 2013 in our conversation, "the rise of the Kagemusha", we hinted that the BOJ would fail in its attempts in the similar fashion the Takeda clan failed in hiding the death of their ...

RocketNews24

RocketNews24
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 07:00:50 -0700

Samurai armor looks undeniably cool, and is a great thing to wear if you're headed to a special photo shoot or a battle with the forces of the Takeda Clan. However, lamellar isn't generally the best wardrobe choice for most situations on our modern era.

The Diplomat

The Diplomat
Tue, 10 Nov 2015 12:13:55 -0800

Prior to the cataclysmic clash in June 1575, a small 500-men strong garrison withstood sustained assaults of a force of several thousand soldiers of the Takeda clan on Nagashino Castle. During the siege, a samurai named Torii Suneemon snuck out of the ...

Gaming Union

Gaming Union
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 08:22:30 -0700

The Takeda Clan, on the other hand, just want to unite Chubu and the Utsunomiya and Satake Clans simply want to defeat the Hojo Clan. It means that depending on which clan you choose, the scenarios can change in difficulty and depth based on the ...

n3rdabl3

n3rdabl3
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 10:37:30 -0700

Going with the Battle of Okehazama, I decided to choose the Takeda clan, nominating the marvelously moustached Shingen Takeda as my Daimyo and player character, whose ambition was simply to reach the capital. As the capital was around 6 territories ...

Hardcore Gamer

Hardcore Gamer
Wed, 08 Jul 2015 06:02:25 -0700

He is a thief turned warlord in the movie of the same name, later becoming leader of the Takeda clan because of his resemblance to the former head of clan who is now deceased. Kagemusha has a rough road ahead of him in the film, constantly helping his ...
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