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toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1
Identifiers
Symbol TICAM1
Alt. symbols TRIF
Entrez 148022
HUGO 18348
OMIM 607601
RefSeq NM_014261
UniProt Q8IUC6
Other data
Locus Chr. 19 p13.3

TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) is an adapter in responding to activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs). It mediates the rather delayed cascade of two TLR-associated signaling cascades, where the other one is dependent upon a MyD88 adapter.[1]

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize specific components of microbial invaders and activate an immune response to these pathogens. After these receptors recognize highly-conserved pathogenic patterns, a downstream signaling cascade is activated in order to stimulate the release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as to upregulate the expression of immune cells. All TLRs have a TIR domain that initiates the signaling cascade through TIR adapters. Adapters are platforms that organize downstream signaling cascades leading to a specific cellular response after exposure to a given pathogen.[2]

Structure[edit]

TRIF is primarily active in the spleen and is often regulated when MyD88 is deficient in the liver, indicating organ-specific regulation of signaling pathways. Curiously, there is a lack of redundancy within the TLR4 signaling pathway that leads to microbial evasion of immune response in the host after mutations occur within intermediates of the pathway.[3] Three TRAF-binding motifs present in the amino terminal region of TRIF are necessary for association with TRAF6. Destruction of these motifs reduced the activation of NF-κβ, a transcription factor that is also activated by the carboxy-terminal domain of TRIF in the upregulation of cytokines and co-stimulatory immune molecules. This domain recruits receptor-interacting protein (RIP1) and RIP3 through the RIP homotypic interaction motif. Cells deficient for RIP1 gene display attenuated TLR3 activation of NF-κβ, indicating the use of the RIP1 gene in downstream TRIF activation, in contrast to other TLRs that use IRAK protein for the activation of NF-κβ.[4]

Areas of research[edit]

Investigations into the function of TRIF are of great significance to various fields of biomedical research. The pathogenesis of infectious disease, septic shock, tumor growth, and rheumatoid arthritis all have close ties with TLR signaling pathways, specifically to that of TRIF. Better understanding of the TRIF pathway will be therapeutically useful in the development of vaccines and treatments that can control associated inflammation and antiviral responses. Experiments involving wild-type and TRIF-deficient mice are critical for understanding the coordinated responses of TLR pathways. It is necessary to study the coordinated effects of these pathways in order to understand the complex responses initiated by TRIF.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palsson-McDermott, Eva and Luke A J O’Neill (2004) Immunology. 113(2) 153-162
  2. ^ Guo B, Cheng G (2007). "Modulation of the interferon antiviral response by the TBK1/IKKi adaptor protein TANK". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (16): 11817–26. doi:10.1074/jbc.M700017200. PMID 17327220. 
  3. ^ Palsson-McDermott, Eva and Luke A J O’Neill (2004) Immunology. 113(2) 153-162
  4. ^ Kawai, Taro and Shizuo Akira. (2004). Arthritis Res. Ter. 7(1) 12-19
  5. ^ Ouyang X, Negishi H, Takeda R, Fujita Y, Taniguchi T, Honda K (2007). "Cooperation between MyD88 and TRIF pathways in TLR synergy via IRF5 activation". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 354 (4): 1045–51. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.01.090. PMID 17275788. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRIF — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

6835 news items

 
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Fri, 04 Sep 2015 07:03:45 -0700

... 103.7000 8.6100 2.00 INE400K07051 ANDHRA PRADESH EXPRESSWAY LIMITED 0.00% 15-Oct-22 137.0609 9.4000 494.00 INE850K07016 TRIF AMRITSAR PROJECTS PRIVATE LTD 12.40% 15-Oct-22 100.2225 10.2738 473.50 INE572E09189 PNB ...
 
Science Magazine
Tue, 14 Jul 2015 12:06:29 -0700

Through a combination of mathematical modeling and single-cell imaging analysis, Cheng et al. found that whereas MyD88 was required for the initial peak of transient NF-κB activation in all LPS-stimulated cells, TRIF was required for more sustained NF ...

The Scientist

The Scientist
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:59:34 -0700

Further, lard-fed mice lacking MyD88 or TRIF—adaptor proteins necessary for interpreting TLR signals—showed reduced inflammation in fat tissues and lowered insulin sensitivity compared to wild-type lard-fed mice. However, mice lacking TRIF remained ...

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Staples notes that total recordable injury frequency (TRIF)—COAA's preferred safety benchmark—has been effectively halved in the past 10 years. On average, the industry sits at around 2.5 at the moment, but the top performers routinely achieve TRIFs ...
 
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Wed, 19 Aug 2015 08:09:20 -0700

... SONS LIMITED 9.71% 29-Aug-22 104.0724 8.9000 50.00 INE850K07016 TRIF AMRITSAR PROJECTS PRIVATE 12.40% 15-Oct-22 100.3372 10.1408 947.00 INE268A07129 STERLITE INDUSTRIES (INDIA) LTD 9.24% 20-Dec-22 99.3989 9.4866 250.00 ...

Viaţa liberă

Viaţa liberă
Fri, 04 Sep 2015 02:00:00 -0700

Dar urmarea imediată, „Filosoful fără soţ”, care se dedică lui Petre Ţuţea, ne arată o cu totul altă dimensiune a gândirii lui Ion Trif Pleşa, deschis spre universalitate, chiar dacă printr-un românism autentic, substanţial, aproape singular, deloc ...
 
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RMOL. Pemerintah harus bersunguh-sunguh dalam perbaikan ekonomi bangsa. Ini menyusul laporan Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) tentang inflasi per Agustus 2015 yang hanya mencapai angka 0,39 persen merupakan inflasi terendah sejak 6 tahun terakhir.
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