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toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1
Identifiers
Symbol TICAM1
Alt. symbols TRIF
Entrez 148022
HUGO 18348
OMIM 607601
RefSeq NM_014261
UniProt Q8IUC6
Other data
Locus Chr. 19 p13.3

TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) is an adapter in responding to activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs). It mediates the rather delayed cascade of two TLR-associated signaling cascades, where the other one is dependent upon a MyD88 adapter.[1]

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize specific components of microbial invaders and activate an immune response to these pathogens. After these receptors recognize highly-conserved pathogenic patterns, a downstream signaling cascade is activated in order to stimulate the release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as to upregulate the expression of immune cells. All TLRs have a TIR domain that initiates the signaling cascade through TIR adapters. Adapters are platforms that organize downstream signaling cascades leading to a specific cellular response after exposure to a given pathogen.[2]

Structure[edit]

TRIF is primarily active in the spleen and is often regulated when MyD88 is deficient in the liver, indicating organ-specific regulation of signaling pathways. Curiously, there is a lack of redundancy within the TLR4 signaling pathway that leads to microbial evasion of immune response in the host after mutations occur within intermediates of the pathway.[3] Three TRAF-binding motifs present in the amino terminal region of TRIF are necessary for association with TRAF6. Destruction of these motifs reduced the activation of NF-κβ, a transcription factor that is also activated by the carboxy-terminal domain of TRIF in the upregulation of cytokines and co-stimulatory immune molecules. This domain recruits receptor-interacting protein (RIP1) and RIP3 through the RIP homotypic interaction motif. Cells deficient for RIP1 gene display attenuated TLR3 activation of NF-κβ, indicating the use of the RIP1 gene in downstream TRIF activation, in contrast to other TLRs that use IRAK protein for the activation of NF-κβ.[4]

Areas of research[edit]

Investigations into the function of TRIF are of great significance to various fields of biomedical research. The pathogenesis of infectious disease, septic shock, tumor growth, and rheumatoid arthritis all have close ties with TLR signaling pathways, specifically to that of TRIF. Better understanding of the TRIF pathway will be therapeutically useful in the development of vaccines and treatments that can control associated inflammation and antiviral responses. Experiments involving wild-type and TRIF-deficient mice are critical for understanding the coordinated responses of TLR pathways. It is necessary to study the coordinated effects of these pathways in order to understand the complex responses initiated by TRIF.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palsson-McDermott, Eva and Luke A J O’Neill (2004) Immunology. 113(2) 153-162
  2. ^ Guo B, Cheng G (2007). "Modulation of the interferon antiviral response by the TBK1/IKKi adaptor protein TANK". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (16): 11817–26. doi:10.1074/jbc.M700017200. PMID 17327220. 
  3. ^ Palsson-McDermott, Eva and Luke A J O’Neill (2004) Immunology. 113(2) 153-162
  4. ^ Kawai, Taro and Shizuo Akira. (2004). Arthritis Res. Ter. 7(1) 12-19
  5. ^ Ouyang X, Negishi H, Takeda R, Fujita Y, Taniguchi T, Honda K (2007). "Cooperation between MyD88 and TRIF pathways in TLR synergy via IRF5 activation". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 354 (4): 1045–51. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.01.090. PMID 17275788. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRIF — Please support Wikipedia.
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2136 news items

 
Farmington Daily Times
Fri, 22 May 2015 14:56:15 -0700

Three Rivers Brewery kitchen manager Cotton York works the grill Friday during the TRIF music and lunch series at Orchard Park in Farmington. (Jon Austria — The Daily Times). Cooltones lead singer Paul Edney performs with his band Friday during the ...
 
Business Wire (press release)
Tue, 19 May 2015 02:00:00 -0700

... high-content analysis (HCA), fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), ratiometric imaging, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TRIF), multiphoton excitation microscopy (MPE), and other technologies. The fluorescence ...
 
Nature.com
Thu, 21 May 2015 06:30:00 -0700

LPS binding to TLR4 induces two main signalling pathways: (a) the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent and (b) the TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-dependent pathways.
 
Poynter.org
Wed, 29 Apr 2015 05:58:55 -0700

On Tuesday, Boston Globe editor Brian McGrory emailed Baltimore Sun editor Trif Alatzas to commend the newsroom's Freddie Gray coverage. The Globe also sent pizza. "We're looking on from here in deep admiration and empathy for what your newsroom ...

Baltimore Sun

Baltimore Sun
Fri, 01 May 2015 15:21:37 -0700

"Our newsroom is filled with talented journalists who care deeply about making this news organization the best it can be each day," said Trif Alatzas, The Sun's executive editor. "To see their work recognized in this way is a testament to their passion ...
 
MarketWatch
Tue, 12 May 2015 10:26:15 -0700

... in situ hybridization (FISH), high-content analysis (HCA), fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), ratiometric imaging, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TRIF), multiphoton excitation microscopy (MPE), and other ...

Poynter.org

Poynter.org
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 14:56:15 -0700

On Monday night, Annie Linskey sat up late watching news speed by on Twitter about the city where she once worked and the newsroom she once worked in. She woke up to fresh coverage on Tuesday from The Baltimore Sun. And she had an idea. Linskey ...
 
News Transcript
Tue, 12 May 2015 07:37:30 -0700

Eric Schneider, Anthony Triolo, Dan Jahn and Josh Trif have taken turns playing first singles. Colts Neck High School (7-9) is the No. 9 seed in Central Jersey Group III, and the Cougars defeated No. 8-seed Allentown High School, 5-0, in the first round.
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