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toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1
Symbol TICAM1
Alt. symbols TRIF
Entrez 148022
HUGO 18348
OMIM 607601
RefSeq NM_014261
UniProt Q8IUC6
Other data
Locus Chr. 19 p13.3

TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) is an adapter in responding to activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs). It mediates the rather delayed cascade of two TLR-associated signaling cascades, where the other one is dependent upon a MyD88 adapter.[1]

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize specific components of microbial invaders and activate an immune response to these pathogens. After these receptors recognize highly-conserved pathogenic patterns, a downstream signaling cascade is activated in order to stimulate the release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as to upregulate the expression of immune cells. All TLRs have a TIR domain that initiates the signaling cascade through TIR adapters. Adapters are platforms that organize downstream signaling cascades leading to a specific cellular response after exposure to a given pathogen.[2]


TRIF is primarily active in the spleen and is often regulated when MyD88 is deficient in the liver, indicating organ-specific regulation of signaling pathways. Curiously, there is a lack of redundancy within the TLR4 signaling pathway that leads to microbial evasion of immune response in the host after mutations occur within intermediates of the pathway.[3] Three TRAF-binding motifs present in the amino terminal region of TRIF are necessary for association with TRAF6. Destruction of these motifs reduced the activation of NF-κβ, a transcription factor that is also activated by the carboxy-terminal domain of TRIF in the upregulation of cytokines and co-stimulatory immune molecules. This domain recruits receptor-interacting protein (RIP1) and RIP3 through the RIP homotypic interaction motif. Cells deficient for RIP1 gene display attenuated TLR3 activation of NF-κβ, indicating the use of the RIP1 gene in downstream TRIF activation, in contrast to other TLRs that use IRAK protein for the activation of NF-κβ.[4]

Areas of research[edit]

Investigations into the function of TRIF are of great significance to various fields of biomedical research. The pathogenesis of infectious disease, septic shock, tumor growth, and rheumatoid arthritis all have close ties with TLR signaling pathways, specifically to that of TRIF. Better understanding of the TRIF pathway will be therapeutically useful in the development of vaccines and treatments that can control associated inflammation and antiviral responses. Experiments involving wild-type and TRIF-deficient mice are critical for understanding the coordinated responses of TLR pathways. It is necessary to study the coordinated effects of these pathways in order to understand the complex responses initiated by TRIF.[5]


  1. ^ Palsson-McDermott, Eva and Luke A J O’Neill (2004) Immunology. 113(2) 153-162
  2. ^ Guo B, Cheng G (2007). "Modulation of the interferon antiviral response by the TBK1/IKKi adaptor protein TANK". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (16): 11817–26. doi:10.1074/jbc.M700017200. PMID 17327220. 
  3. ^ Palsson-McDermott, Eva and Luke A J O’Neill (2004) Immunology. 113(2) 153-162
  4. ^ Kawai, Taro and Shizuo Akira. (2004). Arthritis Res. Ter. 7(1) 12-19
  5. ^ Ouyang X, Negishi H, Takeda R, Fujita Y, Taniguchi T, Honda K (2007). "Cooperation between MyD88 and TRIF pathways in TLR synergy via IRF5 activation". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 354 (4): 1045–51. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.01.090. PMID 17275788. 

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRIF — Please support Wikipedia.
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175 news items


Wed, 09 Apr 2014 11:11:15 -0700

Florina Trif, o interpretă a cântecului popular și o reprezentantă de seamă a zonei Huedinului, demonstrează astfel că niciodată nu e prea târziu să-și îndeplinești visul. Artista nu s-a dat bătută, iar la aproape 40 de ani a reușit, cu sprijinul ...
Thu, 10 Apr 2014 18:41:15 -0700

“'Trif' has proven himself on and off the field that he's worthy of another year and we are really excited to see where we can take him with a full pre-season. We are going to work hard with him to take him to another level physically, because ...
7thSpace Interactive (press release)
Fri, 28 Mar 2014 09:30:00 -0700

However, the correlation between TLR4/MyD88-dependent and TLR4/TRIF-dependent pathways in BSCB dysfunction is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to characterize inflammatory responses in spinal cord I/R and the events that define its ...
The Daily Courier (subscription)
Tue, 18 Mar 2014 01:45:20 -0700

Kayne Bellinger, Cassidy Lawrence, Delaney Douglas, Cameron McConechy, Kaitlyn McConechy and Diana Trif swam all best times. The Lightning will be back in competition starting April 2 when four swimmers head to Victoria for Pan Pacific and ...


Tue, 15 Apr 2014 07:03:45 -0700

... Emöke Boldizsár, Cipariu Anca, Diana Fufezan, Raluca Iani, Dana Maria Lăzărescu, Mariana Mihu, Gabriela Neagu, Renate Muller Nica, Veronica Popescu, Serenela Mureșan, Cristina Ragos, Cristina Stoleriu, Dana Taloş, Arina Ioana Trif, Codruţa Vasiu, ...
Glasul Aradului
Sat, 12 Apr 2014 13:26:15 -0700

dinu-maghici Antrenorul Progresului și-a motivat extraordinar echipa pentru meciul cu UTA. Confruntat cu două suspendări (Trif și Best) plus doi titulari incomplet refăcuți (Angel Ponta şi Muhammed „Balotelli”), Dinu Maghici l-a retras pe Fritea în ...

Alba24 | Ştiri, evenimente şi informaţii din Alba. 24 de ore

Alba24 | Ştiri, evenimente şi informaţii din Alba. 24 de ore
Fri, 11 Apr 2014 02:28:44 -0700

Paraschiva Fărcaș (au obținut -3 puncte); Seminarul Teologic Liceal Ortodox „Mitropolit Simion Ștefan”: Robert Trif, Octavian Ghira, Cosmin Leah, Alexandru Apostol (au câștigat cu 7 puncte). Câștigătorii concursului au demonstrat la final că pe lângă ...
PR Newswire (Comunicado de prensa)
Mon, 07 Apr 2014 09:52:30 -0700

... una experiencia concreta de aprendizaje llamada Foro de Perspectivas para Minoristas y Distribuidores (TRIF, por sus siglas en inglés) de papel tissue, proporcionando a los gerentes de desarrollo de negocios, categorías y suministro de papel tissue ...

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