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toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1
Identifiers
Symbol TICAM1
Alt. symbols TRIF
Entrez 148022
HUGO 18348
OMIM 607601
RefSeq NM_014261
UniProt Q8IUC6
Other data
Locus Chr. 19 p13.3

TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) is an adapter in responding to activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs). It mediates the rather delayed cascade of two TLR-associated signaling cascades, where the other one is dependent upon a MyD88 adapter.[1]

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize specific components of microbial invaders and activate an immune response to these pathogens. After these receptors recognize highly-conserved pathogenic patterns, a downstream signaling cascade is activated in order to stimulate the release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as to upregulate the expression of immune cells. All TLRs have a TIR domain that initiates the signaling cascade through TIR adapters. Adapters are platforms that organize downstream signaling cascades leading to a specific cellular response after exposure to a given pathogen.[2]

Structure[edit]

TRIF is primarily active in the spleen and is often regulated when MyD88 is deficient in the liver, indicating organ-specific regulation of signaling pathways. Curiously, there is a lack of redundancy within the TLR4 signaling pathway that leads to microbial evasion of immune response in the host after mutations occur within intermediates of the pathway.[3] Three TRAF-binding motifs present in the amino terminal region of TRIF are necessary for association with TRAF6. Destruction of these motifs reduced the activation of NF-κβ, a transcription factor that is also activated by the carboxy-terminal domain of TRIF in the upregulation of cytokines and co-stimulatory immune molecules. This domain recruits receptor-interacting protein (RIP1) and RIP3 through the RIP homotypic interaction motif. Cells deficient for RIP1 gene display attenuated TLR3 activation of NF-κβ, indicating the use of the RIP1 gene in downstream TRIF activation, in contrast to other TLRs that use IRAK protein for the activation of NF-κβ.[4]

Areas of research[edit]

Investigations into the function of TRIF are of great significance to various fields of biomedical research. The pathogenesis of infectious disease, septic shock, tumor growth, and rheumatoid arthritis all have close ties with TLR signaling pathways, specifically to that of TRIF. Better understanding of the TRIF pathway will be therapeutically useful in the development of vaccines and treatments that can control associated inflammation and antiviral responses. Experiments involving wild-type and TRIF-deficient mice are critical for understanding the coordinated responses of TLR pathways. It is necessary to study the coordinated effects of these pathways in order to understand the complex responses initiated by TRIF.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palsson-McDermott, Eva and Luke A J O’Neill (2004) Immunology. 113(2) 153-162
  2. ^ Guo B, Cheng G (2007). "Modulation of the interferon antiviral response by the TBK1/IKKi adaptor protein TANK". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (16): 11817–26. doi:10.1074/jbc.M700017200. PMID 17327220. 
  3. ^ Palsson-McDermott, Eva and Luke A J O’Neill (2004) Immunology. 113(2) 153-162
  4. ^ Kawai, Taro and Shizuo Akira. (2004). Arthritis Res. Ter. 7(1) 12-19
  5. ^ Ouyang X, Negishi H, Takeda R, Fujita Y, Taniguchi T, Honda K (2007). "Cooperation between MyD88 and TRIF pathways in TLR synergy via IRF5 activation". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 354 (4): 1045–51. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.01.090. PMID 17275788. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRIF — Please support Wikipedia.
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Glamour (blog)

Glamour (blog)
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 08:24:52 -0700

Mrs. Di cheated on her husband, Spencer's dad cheated with Mrs. Di, and the two had an illegitimate child, Aria's dad cheated on her mom, and Spence made out with two of Melissa's boyfriends. Trif. Ling. Mo and Spence manage to sneak out of Radley.

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Thu, 07 Aug 2014 06:18:00 -0700

L'incendie qui s'est déclaré mercredi après-midi à Jbal Trif (délégation de Grombalia), est à 90 % maîtrisé, a affirmé le gouverneur de Nabeul Mohamed Akremi Hamdi. Et d'ajouter, jeudi, dans une déclaration à l'agence TAP : « l'incendie a ravagé 10 ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 14:56:15 -0700

“The Wolves were exactly what I expected. I coached in the State League for nine years. I got Trif [Glen Trifiro] and Matty Sim from the NPL last season and they are no longer State League players - they are fully fledged A-League players. I thought ...
 
Wall Street Journal
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:56:15 -0700

Capital Power (TSX:CPX) today released its 2013 Corporate Responsibility Report for the fifth consecutive year. "In July 2014, we celebrated our fifth-year anniversary as Capital Power. Achieving this milestone takes sustained commitment, deliberate ...
 
Seeking Alpha (registration)
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 15:32:30 -0700

And very pleasing to see a very significant improvement in our safety performance where our TRIF is down to 5 from 6.5 in the prior year. So overall, profits down a bit; we can explain why that's happening. Cash flow, very, very strong. And obviously ...
 
Pipeline News North
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 07:37:30 -0700

"Our total recordable injury frequency (TRIF) for the last quarter of 2010 was 4.12, which is stable. We've been around the 4.0 level since the third quarter of 2009 Just for perspective, when we switched over to the new measurement standard in the ...
 
Wall Street Journal
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 13:03:45 -0700

Total TRIF Lower on Less than 3.25 3.95 Recordable Year-over-Year 2.00 TTM TTM Injury basis Renewed Frequency focus in ("TRIF") Health, Safety and Environment aims to enhance performance in all areas.
 
CBC.ca
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 14:44:35 -0700

Do what they want to do,” said Trif Lambos. “The way we see it, we're not competing against them. They're competing against us.” Dairi-Wip Drive-In opened in 1956, the same year A&W arrived in Canada. A&W's first Canadian location was a drive-in spot ...
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