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Not to be confused with Sudanese.
Sundanese
ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ Basa Sunda
Native to Indonesia
Region West Java, Banten, Jakarta, parts of western Central Java
Ethnicity Sundanese, Bantenese, Cirebonese, Badui
Native speakers
38 million  (2007)[1]
Cacarakan (historical)
Latin (present)
Pranagari (historical)
Pegon alphabet (religious use)
Sundanese script (present)
Vatteluttu (historical)
Official status
Official language in
West Java (as a regional language)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 su
ISO 639-2 sun
ISO 639-3 Either:
sun – Sunda
bac – Badui
Glottolog sund1251[3]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Sundanese /sʌndəˈnz/[4] (Basa Sunda /basa sʊnda/, in Sundanese script ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, literally "language of Sunda") is the language of about 39 million people from the western third of Java or about 15% of the Indonesian population.

Dialects[edit]

Sundanese appears to be most closely related to Madurese and Malay, and more distantly related to Javanese. It has several dialects, conventionally described according to the locations of the people:

Priangan, which covers the largest area of Sunda (Tatar Pasundan in Sundanese), is the most widely spoken type of Sundanese language, taught in elementary till senior-high schools (equivalent to twelfth-year school grade) in West Java and Banten Province.

Writing[edit]

Sundanese can be written in different writing systems, the Old Sundanese script (Aksara Sunda Kuno) and Pegon in historical times, and in modern times the Latin script and the modern Sundanese script.

Phonology[edit]

Sundanese orthography is highly phonetic (see also Sundanese script). There are five pure vowel sounds: a /ɑ/, é /ɛ/, i /i/, o /ɔ/, u /ʊ/, and two neutral[clarification needed] vowels; e /ə/, and eu /ɤ/. The consonantal phonemes are transcribed with the letters p, b, t, d, k, g, c (pronounced /tʃ/), j, h, ng (/ŋ/), ny /ɳ/, m, n, s /s/, w, l, r (trilled or flapped), and y /j/. Other consonants that originally appear in Indonesian loanwords are mostly transferred into native consonants: f → p, v → p, sy → s, sh → s, z → j, and kh /x/ → h.

According to Yayat Sudaryat (1991,35) there are 16 consonants in Sundanese phonology: /b/, /tʃ/, /d/, /g/, /h/, /dʒ/, /k/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /p/, /r/, /s/, /ŋ/, /t/; /ɳ/, however, influences from foreign languages have introduced several additional consonants such as /f/, /v/, /z/ (as in fonem, qur'an, xerox, zakat).

There are also /w/ and /j/ as semi vowels, they function as glide sound between two different vowels, as in the words:

  • kuéh - /kuwɛh/
  • muih - /muwih/
  • béar - /bejar/
  • miang - /mijaŋ/

Phonemes /w/ and /j/ function as glide sounds between two different vowels as in the words:[clarification needed]

  • wa - rung
  • wa - yang
  • ba - wang
  • ha - yang
  • ku - ya

Basic grammar[edit]

Root word[edit]

Root verb[edit]

English Sundanese
(normal)
Sundanese
(polite)
eat .. dahar .. tuang ..(for other)
neda ..(for myself)
drink .. inum .. leueut ..
write .. tulis .. serat ..
read .. maca .. maos ..
forget .. poho .. hilap ..
remember .. inget .. emut ..
sit .. diuk .. calik .. linggih
stand .. tangtung .. adeg ..
walk .. leumpang .. papah ..

Plural form[edit]

If other Austronesian languages commonly uses replication (duplifix) to create its plural form, Sundanese language insert ar infix in stem word to create plural form. If the stem words contains r after the infix, or starts with l, the infix ar becomes al. Also, as with other Sundanese infix (such as um), if the word starts with vowel, the infix becomes prefix. Example:

  1. "Mangga A, tarahuna haneut keneh" (Please sir (offering), the tofus are still warm/hot), formed from tahu (tofu) inserted with ar to create plural form of tofus.
  2. "Barudak leutik lalumpatan" (Small children jumping around), formed from budak (child) inserted with ar and modified to barudak to create plural child (children), also lumpat (jump) inserted with ar (becomes al because lumpat starts with l) to create plural form.
  3. "Ieu kaen batik aralus sadayana" (All of this batik clothes are beautiful), formed from alus (nice, beautiful, good) with infix ar that becomes prefix because alus starts with vowel. It denotes adjective "beautiful" on plural subjects/noun (batik clothes).
  4. "Siswa sakola eta mah balageur" (The students of that school are good-behaving), formed from bageur (good-behaving, nice, polite, helpful) inserted with infix ar (becomes al because of r in the end of the word) to denote adjective "good-behaving" on plural students.

The prefix can be repeated twice to denote very-, or plural of groups. For example, "bararudak" denotes many, many child or many groups of children ("budak" is child in Sundanese). Another example, "balalageur" denotes plural adjective of "very good-behaving".

Active form[edit]

Most of active form in Sundanese verb are in their root verb like 'diuk' or 'dahar'. Some other depend on first phonem in root verb:

  1. first phoneme in 'd' is eliminated and changed to prefix 'nga' like in 'ngadahar'
  2. first phoneme in 'i' is eliminated and changed to prefix 'ng' like in 'nginum'
  3. first phoneme in 'b' is eliminated and changed to prefix 'm' like in 'maca'

Negation[edit]

(to be written). "Abdi henteu acan neda". (I have not eaten yet.) Explanation: From the above example, "henteu" is used for negative term. "Buku abdi mah sanes nu ieu". (My book is not this one.) Explanation: From the above example, "sanes" is used for negative term.

Question[edit]

(to be written).

Dupi -(question)

example:saya

Polite-

  • Dupi Bapa aya di bumi? (is your father at home?)
  • Dupi bumi di palih mana? (where do you live?)

Passive form[edit]

(to be written.) "Buku dibantun ku abdi". (The book is brought by me.) Explanation: "dibantun" (to be brought/passive) and "ngabantun" (active) The other examples: "Pulpen ditambut ku abdi". (The pen is borrowed by me.) "Soal ieu digawekeun ku abdi". (This problem is done by me.)

Adjectives[edit]

(to be written). example:

teuas (hard), tiis (cool), hipu (soft), lada (hot, usually for foods), haneut (warm), etc.

Prepositions[edit]

Place[edit]

English Sundanese
(normal)
Sundanese
(polite)
above .. diluhureun .. diluhureun ..
behind .. ditukangeun .. dipengkereun ..
under .. dihandapeun .. dihandapeun ..
inside .. di jero .. di lebet ..
outside .. di luar .. di luar ..
between ..
and ..
di antara ..
jeung ..
di antawis ..
sareng ..
front .. hareup .. payun ..
back .. tukang .. pengker ..

Time[edit]

English Sundanese
(normal)
Sundanese
(polite)
before saacan sateuacan
after sanggeus saparantos
during basa nalika
past baheula kapungkur

Miscellaneous[edit]

English Sundanese
(normal)
Sundanese
(polite)
from tina tina
for jang kanggo
Languages Spoken in Java

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
  2. ^ Karl Andebeck, 2006. 'An initial reconstruction of Proto-Lampungic'
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Sundanese". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh

External links[edit]


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