|ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ Basa Sunda|
|Region||West Java, Banten, Jakarta, parts of western Central Java|
|Ethnicity||Sundanese, Bantenese, Cirebonese, Badui|
|Native speakers||38 million (2007)|
|Writing system||Cacarakan (historical)
Pegon alphabet (religious use)
Sundanese script (optional)
|Official language in||West Java (as a regional language)|
sun – Sunda
bac – Badui
Sundanese // (Basa Sunda, in Sundanese script ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, literally "language of Sunda") is the language of about 39 million people from the western third of Java or about 15% of the Indonesian population.
- Western dialect, spoken in the provinces of Banten & some parts of Lampung,
- Northern dialect, spoken in Bogor & northern coastal area of West Java,
- Southern or Priangan dialect, (Bandung & its surroundings),
- Mid-east dialect, spoken in Majalengka & Indramayu,
- Northeast dialect, spoken in Kuningan, Cirebon & Brebes (Central Java), and
- Southeast dialect, spoken in Ciamis, Banjar & Cilacap (Central Java).
Priangan, which covers the largest area of Sunda (Tatar Pasundan in Sundanese), is the most widely spoken type of Sundanese language, taught in elementary till senior-high schools (equivalent to twelfth-year school grade) in West Java and Banten Province.
Sundanese orthography is highly phonetic (see also Sundanese script). There are five pure vowel sounds: a /ɑ/, é /ɛ/, i /i/, o /ɔ/, u /ʊ/, and two neutral[clarification needed] vowels; e /ə/, and eu /ɤ/. The consonantal phonemes (18—but see below) are transcribed with the letters p, b, t, d, k, g, c (pronounced /tʃ/), j, h, ng (/ŋ/), ny /ɳ/, m, n, s /s/, w, l, r (trilled or flapped), and y /j/. Other consonants that originally appear in Indonesian loanwords are mostly transferred into native consonants: f → p, v → p, sy → s, sh → s, z -> j, and kh /x/ → h.
Definition of Sundanese Phonology, according to Yayat Sudaryat (1985:26): "Fonologi nyaeta bagean tina elmu basa anu maluruh jeung medar sora-sora basa, prosesna, selang surupna, jeung parobahanana".
There are 16 consonants in Sundanese phonology, according to Yayat Sudaryat (1991,35): "fonem konsonan (contoid) nya eta sora omongan (fonem) anu kawangun ku hawa anu kaluar tina bayah sarta waktu liwat tikoro aya nu ngahalangan. konsonan nu aya dina basa sunda, nyaeta: /b/, /ts/, /d/, /g/, /h/, /dʒ/, /k/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /p/, /r/, /s/, /n/, /t/, /n'/, kuayana pangaruh basa kosta sok kapanggih konsonan /f/, /v/, /z/ mangrupa fomem nu asalna pangaruh basa kosta, saperti dina kecap: fonem, qur'an, xerox, zakat".[clarification needed]
Based on the statement above, it is clear that the Sundanese language has only 16 consonants, there are three consonants /f, v, z/ which exist in Sundanese as a result of borrowing words, but naturally they are not Sundanese consonants.
Furthermore, Sudaryat does not mention the phonemes /w, j/ as semi vowels, although as vowels, /w, j/ function as a glide sound between two different vowels, as in the words:
- Kueh - /kuweh/
- Muih - /muwih/
- Bear - /beAar/[clarification needed]
- Miang - /mijan/
Phonemes /w/ and /j/ function as glide sounds between two different vowels as in the words:[clarification needed]
- wa - rung
- wa - yang
- ba - wang
- ha - yang
- ku - ya
|eat ..||dahar ..||tuang ..(for other)
neda ..(for myself)
|drink ..||inum ..||leueut ..|
|write ..||tulis ..||serat ..|
|read ..||maca ..||maos ..|
|forget ..||poho ..||hilap ..|
|remember ..||inget ..||emut ..|
|sit ..||diuk ..||calik .. linggih|
|stand ..||tangtung ..||adeg ..|
|walk ..||leumpang ..||papah ..|
If other Austronesian languages commonly uses replication (duplifix) to create its plural form, Sundanese language insert ar infix in stem word to create plural form. If the stem words contains r after the infix, or starts with l, the infix ar becomes al. Also, as with other Sundanese infix (such as um), if the word starts with vowel, the infix becomes prefix. Example:
- "Mangga A, tarahuna haneut keneh" (please sir (offering), the tofus are still warm/hot), formed from tahu (tofu) inserted with ar to create plural form of tofus.
- "Barudak leutik lalumpatan" (Small children jumping around), formed from budak (child) inserted with ar and modified to barudak to create plural child (children), also lumpat (jump) inserted with ar (becomes al because lumpat starts with l) to create plural form.
- "Ieu kaen batik aralus sadayana" (All of this batik clothes are beautiful), formed from alus (nice, beautiful, good) with infix ar that becomes prefix because alus starts with vowel. It denotes adjective "beautiful" on plural subjects/noun (batik clothes).
- "Siswa sakola eta mah balageur" (The students of that school are good-behaving), formed from bageur (good-behaving, nice, polite, helpful) inserted with infix ar (becomes al because of r in the end of the word) to denote adjective "good-behaving" on plural students.
The prefix can be repeated twice to denote very-, or plural of groups. For example, "bararudak" denotes many, many child or many groups of children ("budak" is child in Sundanese). Another example, "balalageur" denotes plural adjective of "very good-behaving".
Most of active form in sundanese verb are in their root verb like 'diuk' or 'dahar'. Some other depend on first phonem in root verb:
- first phoneme in 'd' is eliminated and changed to prefix 'nga' like in 'ngadahar'
- first phoneme in 'i' is eliminated and changed to prefix 'ng' like in 'nginum'
- first phoneme in 'b' is eliminated and changed to prefix 'm' like in 'maca'
(to be written). "Abdi henteu acan neda". (I have not eaten yet.) Explanation: From the above example, "henteu" is used for negative term. "Buku abdi mah sanes nu ieu". (My book is not this one.) Explanation: From the above example, "sanes" is used for negative term.
(to be written).
- Dupi Bapa aya di bumi? (is your father at home?)
- Dupi bumi di palih mana? (where do you live?)
(to be written.) "Buku dibantun ku abdi". (The book is brought by me.) Explanation: "dibantun" (to be brought/passive) and "ngabantun" (active) The other examples: "Pulpen ditambut ku abdi". (The pen is borrowed by me.) "Soal ieu digawekeun ku abdi". (This problem is done by me.)
(to be written). example:
teuas (hard), tiis (cool), hipu (soft), lada (hot, usually for foods), haneut (warm), etc.
|above ..||diluhureun ..||diluhureun ..|
|behind ..||ditukangeun ..||dipengkereun ..|
|under ..||dihandapeun ..||dihandapeun ..|
|inside ..||di jero ..||di lebet ..|
|outside ..||di luar ..||di luar ..|
|di antara ..
|di antawis ..
|front ..||hareup ..||payun ..|
|back ..||tukang ..||pengker ..|
|Sundanese edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Sundanese-Indonesian and Indonesian-Sundanese Dictionary
- Sundanese converter Latin-Sudanese script (Aksara Sunda)
- Sundanese-Indonesian Translator