digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















Incomplete map of medieval universities in Europe. Some, such as Lund (1425), are missing.

Studium generale is the old customary name for a Medieval university.


There is no clear official definition of what constituted a Studium generale. The term Studium generale first appeared at the beginning of the 13th century, out of customary usage, and simply meant a place where students from everywhere were welcome (not merely those of the local district or region).[1]

In the course of the 13th century, the term gradually acquired a more precise (but still unofficial) meaning as a place that (1) received students from all places, (2) that it taught not only the Arts, but had at least one of the higher faculties (that is, Theology, Law or Medicine) and (3) that a significant part of the teaching was done by Masters.[2]

A fourth criterion slowly appeared, namely that a Master who had taught and was registered in the Guild of Masters of a Studium Generale was entitled to teach in any other Studium without further examination. This privilege, known as jus ubique docendi, was, by custom, reserved only to the Masters of the three oldest universities—Salerno, Bologna and Paris. Their reputation was so great that its graduates and teachers were welcome to teach in all other Studia, but themselves accepted no outside teachers without an examination.

This lock by was picked by Pope Gregory IX, who seeking to elevate the prestige of the papal-sponsored University of Toulouse which he had founded in 1229, issued a bull in 1233 automatically authorizing Masters of Toulouse to teach in any Studium without an examination. It consequently became customary for Studia generalia, eager to elevate themselves, to apply for similar bulls. The older universities at first disdained requesting such privileges themselves, feeling their reputation was sufficient. But Bologna and Paris eventually stooped down to apply for them too, receiving their papal bulls in 1292.[3]

Arguably the most coveted feature of the papal bulls was the special exemption (instituted by Pope Honorius III in 1219) that allowed teachers and students to continue reaping the fruits of any clerical benefices they might have elsewhere. This dispensed them from the residency requirements set out in Canon Law.[4] As this privilege was granted only to those in Studia generalia, certainly routinely by the 14th century, it began to be considered by many to be not only another (fifth) criterion, but the single semi-official definition of a "Studium generale" - that is, that a school which did not have that privilege, would not be considered "generale". (although the old universities of Oxford and Padua, who resisted asking for a papal bull, had sufficient reputation to be referred to as Studium generale title without it; nonetheless, Oxford masters were not allowed to teach in Paris without examination; Oxford reciprocated by demanding examinations from Paris masters, ignoring the papal privileges Paris enjoyed.)

Finally, the pope could issue bulls guaranteeing the autonomy of the university from the interference of local civil or diocesal authorities (a process begun with the issuing of the 1231 bull for the University of Paris). Although not a necessary criteria, it became customary to bestow the "privileges of Paris" to other Studia generalia.

The Pope was not the only supplier of these privileges. The Holy Roman Emperor also issued imperial charters granting much the same privileges - starting with the University of Naples in 1224.

These criteria - universal student body, one or more higher faculties, teaching by masters, the right to teach in other Studia, retention of benefices, autonomy - are common features found in most Medieval Studia generale (with some notable exceptions). In other respects, e.g. structure, administration, curriculum, etc., Studia generale varied. Generally speaking, most Studia generalia tended to copy one of two old models: the student-centered system of Bologna or the master-centered structure of Paris.


Most of the early studia generalia were found in Italy, France, England, Spain and Portugal, and these were considered the most prestigious places of learning in Europe. The Vatican continues to designate many new universities as studia generalia, although the popular significance of this honour has declined over the centuries.

As early as the 13th century, scholars from a studium generale were encouraged to give lecture courses at other institutes across Europe and to share documents, and this led to the current academic culture seen in modern European universities.

The universities generally considered as studia generalia in the 13th century were:

Both theological and secular universities were registered. This list quickly grew as new universities were founded throughout Europe. Many of these universities received formal confirmation of their status as studia generalia towards the end of the 13th century by way of papal bull, along with a host of newer universities. While these papal bulls initially did little more than confer the privileges of a specified university such as Bologna or Paris, by the end of the 13th century universities sought a papal bull conferring on them ius ubique docendi, the privilege of granting to masters licences to teach in all universities without further examination (Haskins, 1941:282).

Universities officially recognized as studia generalia in the first part of the 14th century were several, among these:

Today studium generale is primarily used within a European university context as a description for lectures, seminars and other activities which aim at providing academic foundations for students and the general public. They are in line with the humanistic roots of the traditional universities to reach outside of their boundaries and provide a general education.

Studium particulare[edit]

A studium particulare was a version of the Studium that tended to take local students. The studium generale, by contrast, would take students from all regions and all countries.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Rashdall (p.8)
  2. ^ Rashdall (p.9)
  3. ^ Rashdall, p.11-12
  4. ^ Rashdall, p.12
  5. ^ Georgedes, Kimberly (2006), "Religion, Education and the Role of Government in Medieval Universities: Lessons Learned or Lost?" (PDF), Forum on Public Policy 2 (1): 73–96 


  • Haskins, George L (1941) 'The University of Oxford and the Ius ubique docendi,' The English Historical Review, pp. 281-292.
  • Rashdall, H. (1895) The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, Vol. 1.

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studium_generale — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
25535 videos foundNext > 

Maarten van Rossem - Studium Generale

Eigenlijk was het een avond cabaret, waarin van Rossem vertelde dat Amerikanen toch anders over humor denken dan wij.

ZEIT Akademie STUDIUM GENERALE - Probevideo

Video-Seminar »Entscheiden. Handeln. Verantworten.« Das Studium generale - online oder auf DVD! Wie denken, urteilen und handeln wir? Wie können wir richtige...

Studium Generale SZPRÉ

A Studium Generale Szóbeli Próbaérettségije. Jelentkezés: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/viewform?formkey=dDM1ZFZZaXZUckR2cWpZd3FVbW9HQnc6MQ.

Studium Generale - Nyári Tábor 2014

Studium Generale idén is megrendezi INGYENES nyári táborát Somogyzsitfán július 16-23-ig Jelentkezni az alábbi linken tudsz: http://kerdoiv.studiumgenerale.h...

Studium Generale - Tavaszi Tábor 2014

Studium Generale Tavaszi Tábor 2014 -- Útlevél a Corvinusra Csatlakozzatok a facebook eseményhez, hogy mindig képben legyetek a legfrissebb információkkal a ...

Az Év Közösségi Kezdeményezése 2012.- Studium Generale

Studium Generale - Próbaérettségi Nap 2013

Aggódsz a közelgő érettségi miatt? Gyakorolj, szerezz tapasztalatot és tudd meg, milyen szinten állsz! Valós érettségi környezetben megírt dolgozatodat mi ki...

Studium Generale - Matek Maraton 2012

Egy utolsó hajrá érettségi előtt a Corvinuson!

Studium Generale - Bemutatkozás

A Studium Generale Brand videója. Kreatív Team: Nagy Vitéz, Szeitz Dániel, Miskó Judit, Végh Domonkos, Nyáry Olivér, Oláh Bálint, Földi Katinka, Hegedüs...

Studium Generale : Raja Sapta Oktohari

Studium Generale Raja Sapta Oktohari (Ketua HIPMI Indonesia) "Networking in Entrepreneurship" Rabu, 6 November 2013, Aula Barat ITB.

25535 videos foundNext > 

144 news items

Mon, 18 Aug 2014 05:33:45 -0700

Das Studium Generale bietet ab Herbst allen interessierten Bürgern die Möglichkeit, in ein Universitätsstudium hineinzuschnuppern. Bei dieser universitären Form des lebenslangen Lernens können innerhalb von drei Jahren sechs Fächer belegt werden.
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 02:31:28 -0700

Quest'anno, la Libera Università di Bolzano, nell'ambito dello Studium generale ha istituito anche un percorso peculiare intitolato “Didattica: apprendere insieme”. Si tratta di un corso che è rivolto a 10 partecipanti con disabilità cognitive e ad ...
inOisterwijk (persbericht)
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 06:41:15 -0700

Andere interessante lezingen dit najaar zijn ondermeer 'Liefdesbang' van Hannah Cuppen op 8 oktober en 'UFO's bestaan gewoon' op 12 november met Coen Vermeeren (hoofd Studium Generale aan de Faculteit Lucht- en Ruimtevaartechniek van de ...
Pressemeldung Bayern (Pressemitteilung)
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 04:15:00 -0700

... für Alle etwas geboten. So lässt sich im Studium Generale die Zeit vor 100 Jahren kulturgeschichtlich und gesellschaftlich genauer betrachten. Jüdische Koch- und Erzählabende ermöglichen die Begegnung mit einer uralten Kultur auf kulinarische Weise.
Alto Adige
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 17:56:15 -0700

BOLZANO. Un corso per persone con difficoltà cognitive partirà, in autunno, nelle aule dell'Università di Bolzano. Si tratta di una novità non solo per la Lub, ma anche a livello nazionale. Questo corso speciale, istituito nell'ambito dello “Studium ...
Ad-Hoc-News (Pressemitteilung)
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 04:06:09 -0700

Die Theologische Fakultät vervollständigte erst ab 1432 den Rahmen der vier Traditionsfakultäten eines "studium generale". Blicken wir zurück auf die nunmehr fast 580jährige Universitätsgeschichte und benennen für die Gesamtdauer ein Generalthema, ...
Alto Adige
Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:30:00 -0700

Sono solo alcune delle materie che, a partire dall'autunno, ogni persona interessata potrà approfondire nella nuova edizione dello Studium Generale. Un'offerta formativa di livello universitario che permette di frequentare sei corsi in tre anni ...
dé Weekkrant
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 20:45:00 -0700

BEMMEL - Het Park Lingezegen komt in een nieuwe fase: Van het maken van plannen, via realisatie naar een fase van onderhoud en doorontwikkelen. Ook de setting wijzigt: vanuit een tijd waarin overheden de kar trokken naar een fase waarin nadrukkelijk ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Studium generale

You can talk about Studium generale with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!