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Reciprocating motion, used in reciprocating engines and other mechanisms, is back-and-forth motion. Each cycle of reciprocation consists of two opposite motions: there is a motion in one direction, and then a motion back in the opposite direction. Each of these is called a stroke. The term is also used to mean the length of the stroke.

In a steam locomotive, or in a steam, Otto or Diesel piston engine, a stroke is the action of a piston travelling the full length of its locomotive cylinder or engine cylinder in one direction.

The stroke length is determined by the cranks on the crankshaft. Stroke can also refer to the distance the piston travels. Engine displacement is dependent on both the diameter of the cylinder, known as its bore, and the stroke of the cylinder.

In a pistonless rotary engine, the term is applied to the corresponding rotor movement, see dead centre.

Four-stroke internal combustion engine[edit]

Main article: Four-stroke engine

Most modern internal combustion engines work on a four-stroke cycle; that is, a complete cylinder cycle consists of four discrete strokes, as described below. Other types of engines can have very different stroke cycles.

Induction stroke[edit]

The induction stroke is the first stroke in a four-stroke internal combustion engine cycle. It involves the downward movement of the piston, creating a partial vacuum that draws (allows atmospheric pressure to push) a fuel/air mixture into the combustion chamber.

In a reciprocating engine, it is that portion of the cycle when the pistons move from TDC (top dead center) to BDC (bottom dead center) and the fuel-air mixture is drawn into the cylinders....

Compression stroke[edit]

The compression stroke is the second of four stages in an otto cycle or diesel cycle internal combustion engine.

In this stage, the mixture (in the case of an Otto engine) or air (in the case of a Diesel engine) is compressed to the top of the cylinder by the piston until it is either ignited by a spark plug in an Otto engine or, in the case of a Diesel engine, reaches the point at which the injected fuel spontaneously combusts, forcing the piston back down.

Compression serves to increase the proportion of energy which can be extracted from the hot gas and should be optimised for a given application. Too high a compression can cause detonation, which is undesirable compared with a smooth, controlled burn. Too low a compression may result in the fuel/air mixture still burning when the piston reaches the bottom of the stroke and the exhaust valve opens.

\frac{T3}{T2}= \left(\frac{V2}{V3}\right)^{\gamma-1}

Solve for variable

Power stroke/expansion stroke[edit]

A power stroke is, in general, the stroke or movement of a cyclic motor while generating force and thus power. It is used in describing mechanical engines. This force is the result of the spark plug igniting the compressed fuel-air mixture.

Exhaust stroke[edit]

The exhaust stroke is the fourth of four stages in a four stroke internal combustion engine cycle. In this stage gases remaining in the cylinder from the fuel ignited during the compression step are removed from the cylinder through an exhaust valve at the top of the cylinder. The gases are forced up to the top of the cylinder as the piston rises and are pushed through the opening, which then closes to allow a fresh air/fuel mixture into the cylinder so the process can repeat itself.

See also[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stroke_(engine) — Please support Wikipedia.
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434 news items

Seatrade Global

Seatrade Global
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 04:20:52 -0700

“In particular, Wärtsilä's unique low-pressure dual-fuel two-stroke engine development, the further expansion of the environmentally friendly Generation X -engines, as well as emission reduction technologies will benefit from this increased focus ...

Marine Log

Marine Log
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 05:59:37 -0700

JULY 18, 2014 — Wärtsilä and China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) have signed an agreement to establish a joint venture that will take over Wärtsilä's two-stroke engine business. Through the agreement, government-owned CSSC will own 70% of ...
Lloyd's List Daily Commercial News
Sun, 20 Jul 2014 19:37:30 -0700

ASIA: Wärtsilä sells two-stroke engine business to China State Shipbuilding Corp. by Max Tingyao Lin — last modified Jul 21, 2014 01:36 PM. Wärtsilä has agreed to sell its two-stroke engine business to China State Shipbuilding Corp (CSSC) in a deal ...


Thu, 10 Jul 2014 12:33:34 -0700

Byron's sure to be hunched over a laptop after the checkers are flown, caught in his own little version of heaven. Whether on dirt, street or a combination of both, MotoUSA's newest addition knows the only thing better than actually riding is telling ...
Ship Technology
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 03:28:18 -0700

Wärtsilä has entered into an agreement with China State Shipbuilding (CSSC) to establish a joint venture (JV), which will acquire Wärtsilä's two-stroke engine business. CSSC's subsidiary CSSC Investment and Development will own a 70% stake in the JV, ...

Construction Equipment

Construction Equipment
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 08:33:45 -0700

On the 5-mile downgrade, the Power Stroke's engine brake—a function of redirecting vanes in the turbo—helped keep us at safe speeds, within or close to the posted 45-mph limit for trucks, if we wanted. When prompted by stabs at the brake pedal, the ...

Rush Lane

Rush Lane
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 23:33:45 -0700

Compression ratio is 12.6:1; 89mm x 60mm Bore x Stroke. Engine is mated to wet multi-disc, six-speed chain drive. Fuel is supplied by Bosch electronic fuel injection system. Front suspension features 43mm WP inverted fork tube with 125mm travel and ...


Tue, 29 Jul 2014 03:07:30 -0700

Not only for its beauty, but its 102cc four-stroke engine with power output of 6.74 Bhp and 7.4 Nm can give you an unforgettable ride. The story line of the TVC shows Bhatt driving her Pleasure far away from the city. She smiles as she passes through a ...

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