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Stephen Wolfram
Stephen Wolfram PR.jpg
Born Stephen Wolfram
(1959-08-29) 29 August 1959 (age 54)
London, England, UK
Residence Concord, MA
Nationality British
Fields Mathematics[1]
Cellular automata
Institutions Wolfram Research
Sun Microsystems
Thinking Machines Corporation[2]
University of Oxford
California Institute of Technology
Institute for Advanced Study
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
Alma mater St John's College, Oxford
California Institute of Technology
Thesis Some Topics in Theoretical High-Energy Physics (1980)
Doctoral advisor Geoffrey C. Fox
Hugh David Politzer[3][4]
Known for Mathematica
Wolfram Alpha
A New Kind of Science[5]
Wolfram Language
Influences Richard Crandall[6]
Notable awards MacArthur Fellowship

Stephen Wolfram (born 29 August 1959) is a scientist and technologist,[7][8] known for his contributions to theoretical physics; for his pioneering work on knowledge-based programming; as the chief designer of the Mathematica software application and the Wolfram Alpha answer engine, as well as the CEO of Wolfram Research, and the author of A New Kind of Science.[2][9][10][11][12][13][14]


Wolfram's parents were Jewish refugees who emigrated from Germany to England in the 1930s.[5][15] Wolfram's father Hugo was a textile manufacturer and novelist (Into a Neutral Country) and his mother Sybil was a professor of philosophy at the University of Oxford.[16] He has a younger brother, Conrad Wolfram.[17] Wolfram is married to a mathematician and has four children.[18]


Wolfram was educated at Eton College, but left prematurely in 1976. He entered St John's College, Oxford at age 17 but found lectures "awful",[16] and left in 1978 without graduating.[19] He received a Ph.D.[3] in particle physics from the California Institute of Technology at age 20.[4] Wolfram's thesis committee included Richard Feynman, Peter Goldreich and Steven Frautschi[4] while the thesis research was supervised by Geoffrey C. Fox and Hugh David Politzer.[3]


Following his PhD, Wolfram joined the faculty at Caltech and received one of the first MacArthur Fellowships in 1981, at age 21.[19]

Wolfram presented a talk at the TED conference in 2010,[20][21][22] and he was named Speaker of the Event for his 2012 talk at SXSW.[23] In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society.[24]


According to Google Scholar, Stephen Wolfram is cited by over 30,000 publications (up to April 2012)[25] and has an h-index of 58. He has an Erdős number of 2.

Unpublished works[edit]

At the age of 12, he wrote a dictionary on physics,[26] and soon by ages 13 and 14 he wrote three books on particle physics.[27][28][29] They were not published.

Particle physics[edit]

By the time he was 15 he began to research in applied quantum field theory and particle physics and publish his first scientific papers. Topics included matter creation and annihilation, the fundamental interactions, elementary particles and their currents, hadronic and leptonic physics, and the parton model, published in professional peer-reviewed scientific journals including Nuclear Physics B, Australian Journal of Physics, Nuovo Cimento, and Physical Review D.[30] Working independently, Wolfram published a widely cited paper on heavy quark production at age 18[5] and nine other papers,[16] and continued to research and publish on particle physics into his early twenties. Wolfram's work with Geoffrey C Fox on the theory of the strong interaction is still used today in experimental particle physics.[31]

Symbolic Manipulation Program[edit]

Wolfram led the development of the computer algebra system SMP (Symbolic Manipulation Program) in the Caltech physics department during 1979–1981. A dispute with the administration over the intellectual property rights regarding SMP—patents, copyright, and faculty involvement in commercial ventures—eventually caused him to resign from Caltech.[32] SMP was further developed and marketed commercially by Inference Corp. of Los Angeles during 1983–1988.

Complex systems and cellular automata[edit]

In 1983, Wolfram left for the School of Natural Sciences of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, where he conducted research into cellular automata,[33][34][35][36][37] mainly with computer simulations. He produced a series of papers systematically investigating the class of elementary cellular automata, conceiving the Wolfram code, a naming system for one-dimensional cellular automata, and a classification scheme for the complexity of their behavior. He conjectured that the Rule 110 cellular automaton might be Turing complete. In the middle 1980s Wolfram worked on simulations of physical processes (such as turbulent fluid flow) with cellular automata on the Connection Machine alongside Richard Feynman[38] and helped ignite the field of complex systems founding the first institute devoted to this subject, The Center for Complex Systems Research (CCSR) at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign[39] and the journal Complex Systems in 1987.[39]


Main article: Mathematica

In 1986 Wolfram left the Institute for Advanced Study for the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign where he founded their Center for Complex Systems Research and started to develop the computer algebra system Mathematica, which was first released in 1988, when he left academia. In 1987 he co-founded a company called Wolfram Research which continues to develop and market the program.[5]

A New Kind of Science[edit]

Main article: A New Kind of Science

From 1992 to 2002, he worked on his controversial book A New Kind of Science,[5][40] which presents an empirical study of very simple computational systems. Additionally, it argues that for fundamental reasons these types of systems, rather than traditional mathematics, are needed to model and understand complexity in nature. Wolfram's conclusion is that the universe is digital in its nature, and runs on fundamental laws which can be described as simple programs. He predicts that a realization of this within the scientific communities will have a major and revolutionary influence on physics, chemistry and biology and the majority of the scientific areas in general, which is the reason for the book's title.

Since the release of the book in 2002, Wolfram has split his time between developing Mathematica and encouraging people to get involved with the subject matter of A New Kind of Science by giving talks, holding conferences, and starting a summer school devoted to the topic.[21]

Computational knowledge engine[edit]

Main article: Wolfram Alpha

In March 2009, Wolfram announced Wolfram|Alpha, an answer engine with a new approach to knowledge extraction and an easy-to-use interface, launched in May 2009[41][42] and a Pro version launched on February 2012.[43] The engine is based on natural language processing and a large library of algorithms, and answers queries using the approach described in A New Kind of Science. The application programming interface (API) allows other applications to extend and enhance Alpha.[44] Wolfram|Alpha is one of the answer engines behind Microsoft's Bing[45] and Apple's Siri (along with Google and Yelp!) answering factual questions.[46]

Wolfram Language[edit]

In June 2013, Wolfram officially announced the Wolfram Language as a new general multi-paradigm programming language.[47] The documentation for the language was pre-released in October 2013 to coincide with the bundling of Mathematica and the Wolfram Language on every Raspberry Pi computer. While the Wolfram Language has existed for over 25 years as the primary programming language used in Mathematica, it was not officially named until 2013.[48]


  1. ^ Wolfram, S. (2013). "Computer algebra". Proceedings of the 38th international symposium on International symposium on symbolic and algebraic computation - ISSAC '13. p. 7. doi:10.1145/2465506.2465930. ISBN 9781450320597.  edit
  2. ^ a b Stephen Wolfram from the Scopus bibliographic database.
  3. ^ a b c Stephen Wolfram at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  4. ^ a b c Wolfram, Stephen (1980). Some Topics in Theoretical High-Energy Physics (PhD thesis). California Institute of Technology. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Giles, J. (2002). "Stephen Wolfram: What kind of science is this?". Nature 417 (6886): 216–218. doi:10.1038/417216a. PMID 12015565.  edit
  6. ^ Wolfram, S. (2013). "Remembering Richard Crandall (1947--2012)". ACM Communications in Computer Algebra 47: 14. doi:10.1145/2503697.2503700.  edit
  7. ^ Stephen Wolfram. Wolfram Alpha. Retrieved 15 May 2012. 
  8. ^ Stephen Wolfram I am an information pack rat. New Scientist. Retrieved 19 April 2014. 
  9. ^ List of publications from the DBLP Bibliography Server
  10. ^ List of publications from Microsoft Academic Search
  11. ^ Stephen Wolfram from the ACM Portal
  12. ^ Appearances on C-SPAN
  13. ^ Works by or about Stephen Wolfram in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
  14. ^ Stephen Wolfram interviewed on the TV show Triangulation on the TWiT.tv network
  15. ^ "Jüdische Schriftsteller in Westfalen: Hogarth Wolfram". 
  16. ^ a b c Levy, Steven (10.06). "The Man Who Cracked The Code to Everything ...". Wired. Retrieved March 20, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Stephen Wolfram". nndb.com. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 
  18. ^ "Stephen Wolfram". Sunday Profile. 2009-05-31. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
  19. ^ a b Arndt, Michael (2002-05-17). "Stephen Wolfram's Simple Science". BusinessWeek. Retrieved March 20, 2011. 
  20. ^ Levy, Steven (12 Feb 2010). TED 2010: How to Ace a TED Talk. WIRED. Retrieved 16 May 2012 
  21. ^ a b Stephen Wolfram at TED
  22. ^ Stephen Wolfram: Computing a theory of everything. TED. Feb 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2012 
  23. ^ "SXSW Award Winners 2012". Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  24. ^ List of Fellows of the American Mathematical Society, retrieved 2013-09-01.
  25. ^ "Stephen Wolfram publications on Google Scholar". Retrieved 2012-04-07. 
  26. ^ S. Wolfram (1972). Concise Directory of Physics. 
  27. ^ S. Wolfram (1973). The Physics of Subatomic Particles. 
  28. ^ S. Wolfram (1974). Introduction to the Weak Interaction 1. 
  29. ^ S. Wolfram (1974). Introduction to the Weak Interaction 2. 
  30. ^ Stephen Wolfram: Articles on Particle Physics
  31. ^ Fox, G.; Wolfram, S. (1978). "Observables for the Analysis of Event Shapes in e^{+}e^{-} Annihilation and Other Processes". Physical Review Letters 41 (23): 1581. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.41.1581.  edit
  32. ^ Kolata, G. (1983). "Caltech Torn by Dispute over Software". Science 220 (4600): 932–934. doi:10.1126/science.220.4600.932. PMID 17816011.  edit
  33. ^ Wolfram, S. (1984). "Computation theory of cellular automata". Communications in Mathematical Physics 96: 15–57. doi:10.1007/BF01217347.  edit
  34. ^ Martin, O.; Odlyzko, A. M.; Wolfram, S. (1984). "Algebraic properties of cellular automata". Communications in Mathematical Physics 93 (2): 219. doi:10.1007/BF01223745.  edit
  35. ^ Wolfram, S. (1986). "Cellular automaton fluids 1: Basic theory". Journal of Statistical Physics 45 (3–4): 471–526. doi:10.1007/BF01021083.  edit
  36. ^ Wolfram, S. (1984). "Cellular automata as models of complexity". Nature 311 (5985): 419–424. doi:10.1038/311419a0.  edit
  37. ^ Wolfram, S. (1983). "Statistical mechanics of cellular automata". Reviews of Modern Physics 55 (3): 601. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.55.601.  edit
  38. ^ W. Daniel Hillis (February 1989). "Richard Feynman and The Connection Machine". Physics Today. Retrieved 3 November 2006. 
  39. ^ a b "The Man Who Cracked The Code to Everything". Wired. Retrieved 2012-04-07. 
  40. ^ ISBN 1579550088
  41. ^ Wolfram, Stephen (2009-03-05). "Wolfram|Alpha Is Coming!". Wolfram blog. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  42. ^ "Wolfram|Alpha". Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  43. ^ "Announcing Wolfram|Alpha Pro". Wolfram|Alpha blog. Retrieved 2012-04-07. 
  44. ^ Johnson, Bobbie (2009-03-09). "British search engine 'could rival Google'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  45. ^ "Answering your questions with Bing and Wolfram Alpha". "Microsoft's Bing blog". Retrieved 2012-04-07. 
  46. ^ "iPhone features". Apple. Retrieved 2012-04-07. 
  47. ^ Wolfram Language reference page Retrieved on 2014-05-14.
  48. ^ Slate's article Stephen Wolfram's New Programming Language: He Can Make The World Computable, March 6, 2014. Retrieved on 2014-05-14.

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Wolfram — Please support Wikipedia.
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Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 20:37:42 -0700

Or a collection of substances that form an (arguably) intelligent entity, such as a colony of bees, the ecosphere of a planet, a group of algorithms, a group of cellular automata (which a number of thinkers, most notably Stephen Wolfram, believe ...


Mon, 11 Aug 2014 11:22:30 -0700

Inventor Stephen Wolfram responds to the turbulence and fuss that he instigated when he published his book, A New Kind of Science. IMAGES: Courtesy IBM, Courtesy IBM. Last updated: Aug 11, 2014. More: 6 Tips for the Perfect Startup Name · How I Run a ...

Champaign/Urbana News-Gazette

Champaign/Urbana News-Gazette
Sun, 10 Aug 2014 05:22:30 -0700

Gray then converts her art into stitching patterns, or data files, using sophisticated math aided by the Mathematica software he created in the late '80s with Stephen Wolfram. "It's fun, it's interesting and it's also wide-open territory because no one ...
Targeted News Service (subscription)
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:45:00 -0700

ALEXANDRIA, Va., July 25 -- Wolfram Alpha, Champaign, Illinois, has been assigned a patent (8,788,524) developed by Stephen Wolfram, Champaign, Illinois, and Oyvind Tafjord, Eugene, Oregon, for a "method and system for responding to queries in an ...
Tue, 12 Aug 2014 09:18:45 -0700

除了订票以外,Viv 也可以像Stephen Wolfram 要打造的雄心勃勃的感知编程那样回答“林肯出生地的人口是多少?”这样的问题。你告诉它“去我哥家的路上我得买点搭配烤宽面条的葡萄酒。”它也能照办。 其关键是对句子的正 ...

Beats of Bits

Beats of Bits
Tue, 12 Aug 2014 03:22:34 -0700

Siri 背后的智能搜索引擎Wolfram Alpha 创始人史蒂芬·沃尔弗拉姆(Stephen Wolfram)称,让人工智能特别的,是其融入了人类细节,文化背景等元素的人性化元素,区别于一般的计算机算法。其实就是背后数据的丰富程度和运 ...
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 07:26:15 -0700

好吧,最起码算法统治互联网。但是鉴于互联网即将统治世界,所以这句话也没错。算法决定了你用Google搜索的结果,算法决定了新浪微博侧栏向你展示的话题,算法决定了Netflix向你推荐的电影,算法决定了你QQ对话窗弹出的 ...
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 06:07:30 -0700

Mathematica wurde von dem genialen Stephen Wolfram entwickelt, der bereits im Alter von 15 Jahren Artikel zur Teilchenphysik veröffentlichte. Er betreibt auch die »Suchmaschine« Wolfram Alpha. Mathematica ist ein Computeralgebra-System (CAS), das ...

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