|Southern Railway 1401|
Southern Railway 1401 seen in the National Museum of American History in Washington, DC
|Builder||American Locomotive Company Richmond works|
|UIC classification||2′C1′ h|
|Gauge||4 ft 8½ in (1.435 m)|
|33 in (0.838 m)|
|Driver diameter||73 in (1.854 m)|
|43 in (1.092 m)|
|Locomotive weight||304,000 lb (138,000 kg)|
|Locomotive and tender
|565,600 lb (256,600 kg)|
|Tender capacity||Coal: 16 short tons (14.5 t)
Water: 14,000 US gal (53,000 l; 12,000 imp gal)
|Boiler pressure||200 psi (1.38 MPa)|
|Cylinder size||27 × 28 in (0.686 × 0.711 m)|
|Tractive effort||47,500 lbf (211.29 kN)|
|Railroad(s)||Southern Railway (U.S.)|
|Number in class||46 of 64|
|Locale||United States, South and Midwest|
|Current owner||Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.|
Southern Railway 1401 is a steam locomotive that is the sole survivor of Southern Railway's Ps-4 class. Today it is on permanent display at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.. It has a Pacific-type or 4-6-2 (Whyte notation) wheel arrangement and was built in 1926 by the American Locomotive Company (ALCO) at their Richmond works. It pulled Southern's highest-level passenger trains from 1926 until Dieselization in the early 1950s, mostly on Southern's Charlotte Division. Its most famous and historic use was as one of the locomotives that pulled President Franklin Roosevelt's funeral train from Warm Springs, Georgia, to Washington in April 1945. The Smithsonian Institution gathered information on two of 1401's engineers from a 1962 Greenville, SC newspaper interview with one of the Southern's fireman nicknamed "Box Car". "Box Car" (fireman for "DC") accidentally confused the engineers, who happened to be brothers. Oscar "OC" Surratt was one of the engineers on the train that took Roosevelt to Warm Springs. His brother Cleve "DC" Surratt was one of the engineers that brought Roosevelt's body back to Washington. In the 1950s, war hero and outside legal counsel to Southern Graham Claytor (who would later become Southern's president) convinced then-Southern president Harry deButts to donate one of the retired Ps-4s to the Smithsonian instead of scrapping it. In this way 1401 was saved, and has been on display at the Smithsonian since the early 1960s.
Today Southern Railway 1401 is one of the attractions at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.. Southern cosmetically restored the locomotive just before sending it for display at the Smithsonian, and it was probably stored serviceable when it was retired from active service, but it has not operated in more than half a century. When Graham Claytor was a Southern executive in the mid-1960s, he attempted to lease 1401 from the Smithsonian for operational use in Southern's steam excursion program. The Smithsonian refused, and Claytor leased Southern Railway 4501 (originally a freight locomotive with a 2-8-2 wheel arrangement) and painted it in the green, gold, and silver scheme instituted for the Ps-4s. Accordingly, it seems unlikely that 1401 will ever again steam. Because it is believed to have been in good condition when retired, and has spent most of the time since inside, it is probably in relatively good internal and mechanical condition. Cosmetically, it is in excellent shape.
- Prince, Richard E., Southern Railway System Steam Locomotives and Boats (Rev. ed. 1983)
- Ranks, Harold E. & Shelby F. Lowe, Southern Steam Power (1966)
- Wrinn, Jim (2000). Steam's Camelot: Southern and Norfolk Southern Excursions in Color. TLC Publishing. ISBN 1-883089-56-5.
- Bryant, H. Stafford, Jr., "Ps-4" Trains __:20-26 (October 1950)
- King, Ed, "Whence the Ps-4, Really?" Ties 16(1):3-9 (Southern Railway Historical Association, January 2002) (origins of Ps-4 design)
- Morgan, David P., "A Paean to the Ps-4" Trains __:28-34 (December 1978)
- Smithsonian page about Southern Railway 1401
- picture of Southern Railway 1401 awaiting the Smithsonian in 1953
- picture of Southern Railway 1401 in service in 1933
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