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Soda bread
Ben W Bell Soda Bread Farl 05 June 2007.jpg
A soda farl; made by cutting a flattened round of dough into four pieces, then baking.
Type Quick bread
Main ingredients Flour, sodium bicarbonate, salt, buttermilk
Cookbook:Soda bread  Soda bread
Whole wheat soda bread (known as wheaten bread in parts of Ireland)
Polish flat soda bread (known as Proziaki in podkarpacie)

Soda bread (Irish: arán sóide, Scots: fardel, Serbian: česnica/чесница) is a variety of quick bread traditionally made in a variety of cuisines in which sodium bicarbonate (otherwise known as baking soda) is used as a leavening agent instead of the more common yeast. The ingredients of traditional soda bread are flour, bread soda, salt, and buttermilk. The buttermilk in the dough contains lactic acid, which reacts with the baking soda to form tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide. Other ingredients can be added such as butter, egg, raisins or nuts.

Origin[edit]

During the early years of European settlement of the Americas, settlers and some groups of Indigenous peoples of the Americas used soda or pearl ash, more commonly known as potash (pot ash) or potassium carbonate, as a leavening agent (the forerunner to baking soda) in quick breads.[1] In the US, soda breads were first publicised by Amelia Simmons as a quick and cheap method of bread making in her book American Cookery,[2] published in 1796. By 1824, The Virginia Housewife by Mary Randolph was published containing a recipe for Soda Cake.[3]

In Europe, soda breads began to appear in the mid-19th century when bicarbonate of soda first became available for use as a raising agent. Breads, griddle cakes and scones with bicarbonate of soda and cream of tartar or tartaric acid became popular in Austria, Polish cuisine and in the British Isles.[4] Traditional soda bread, eaten in Serbian cuisine, also uses bicarbonate of soda, particularly the traditional česnica (Serbian Cyrillic: Чесница), a soda bread made at Christmas.

Australia[edit]

Damper is a traditional Australian bread prepared in a similar style to the pan breads found in North American and native Inuit cuisine. First documented in 1827 and prepared by farm-men, damper was a quick and easy way to prepare bread in the Australian bush.[5] The word damper derives from the English word ‘snack’ or to dampen the flour in the fire or one's appetite.[6]

Scotland[edit]

In Scotland, varieties of soda breads and griddle sodas include bannocks and farls (from fardel: Scots for a fourth), soda scones or soda farls using baking powder or baking soda as a leavening agent giving them a light and airy texture.[7][8][9]

Bannocks are flat cakes of barley or oatmeal dough formed into a round or oval shape, then cooked on a griddle (or girdle, in the Scots). The most authentic versions are unleavened, but from the early 19th century bannocks have been made using baking powder, or a combination of baking soda and buttermilk or clabbered milk.[7] Before the 19th century, bannocks were cooked on a bannock stane (Scots for stone), a large, flat, rounded piece of sandstone, placed directly onto a fire, then used as a cooking surface.[10] Several varieties of bannock include Selkirk bannocks, beremeal bannocks, Michaelmas bannock, Yetholm bannock, and Yule bannock.[7]

The traditional soda farl is used in the Full Scottish breakfast along with the potato scone (Scots: tattie scone).

Ireland[edit]

Home-made Irish brown soda bread

In Ireland, the flour is typically made from soft wheat; so soda bread is best made with a cake or pastry flour (made from soft wheat), which has lower levels of gluten than a bread flour. In some recipes, the buttermilk is replaced by live yoghurt or even stout. Bakers recommend the minimum amount of mixing of the ingredients before baking; the dough should not be kneaded.

Various forms of soda bread are popular throughout Ireland. Soda breads are made using wholemeal, white flour, or both. In Ulster, the wholemeal variety is usually known as wheaten bread and normally sweetened, while the term "soda bread" is restricted to the white savoury form. In the southern provinces of Ireland, the wholemeal variety is usually known as brown bread and is almost identical to the Ulster wheaten. In some parts of Fermanagh, the white flour form of the bread is described as fadge. [11] [12]

The soda farl or "griddle cakes", "griddle bread" (or "soda farls" in Ulster) take a more rounded shape and have a cross cut in the top to allow the bread to expand. The griddle cake or farl is a more flattened type of bread. It is cooked on a griddle, allowing it to take a more flat shape and split into four sections. The soda farl is one of the distinguishing elements of the Ulster fry, where it is served alongside potato bread, also in farl form.[13]

Serbia[edit]

Members of a Serbian family break soda bread[citation needed] or česnica at a Christmas dinner

In Serbian tradition, soda bread is prepared by various rules and rituals[citation needed]. A coin is often put into the dough during the kneading; other small objects may also be inserted. At the beginning of Christmas dinner, the česnica is rotated three times counter-clockwise, before being broken among the family members. The person who finds the coin in his piece of the bread will supposedly be exceptionally lucky in the coming year. Before baking, the upper surface of the loaf may be inscribed with various symbols,[14] such as a Christogram, or stars, circles, and impressions of keys or combs.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.davidwalbert.com/2010/02/03/early-american-gingerbread-cakes/
  2. ^ Simmons, Amelia; Mary Tolford Wilson (1984) [1958]. The First American Cookbook (1984 reprint ed.). Mineola, NY: Dover. ISBN 0-486-24710-4. 
  3. ^ The Virginia Housewife by Mary Randolph 1824
  4. ^ English Bread and Yeast Cookery, Elizabeth David [Penguin:Middlesex England] 1977 (p. 517-8)
  5. ^ Austral English: A Dictionary of Australasian Words, Phrases and Usages By Edward Ellis Morris Cambridge University Press, 2011 p114
  6. ^ One continuous picnic: a gastronomic history of Australia By Michael Symons Melbourne Univ. Publishing, 2007. p31[no source I can find states this bread was brought over to Australia by Irish immigrants]
  7. ^ a b c "Bannock". Practically Edible: The Web's Biggest Food Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  8. ^ Ingram, Christine; Jennie Shapter (2003). BREAD: the breads of the world and how to bake them at home. (Originally published as The World Encyclopedia of Bread and Bread Making.) London: Hermes House. p. 54. ISBN 0-681-87922-X. 
  9. ^ Clayton, Bernard Jr. (2003). Bernard Clayton's New Complete Book of Breads. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 555. ISBN 0-7432-3472-3. 
  10. ^ Feilden, Rosemary (1999). "Bannock Stane at Aberdeen University's Virtual Museum". Aberdeen University. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  11. ^ "Fermanagh Gold Thread". 
  12. ^ "Irish Blessings Tours". 
  13. ^ Ulster Fry: Channel 4
  14. ^ Plotnikova, A. A. (2001). "Чесница". In Svetlana Mikhaylovna Tolstaya and Ljubinko Radenković. Словенска митологија: енциклопедијски речник [Slavic mythology: encyclopedic dictionary] (in Serbian). Belgrade: Zepter Book World. pp. 577–78. ISBN 86-7494-025-0. 
  15. ^ Vukmanović, Jovan (1962). "Božićni običaji u Boki Kotorskoj" [Christmas traditions in the Bay of Kotor]. Zbornik za narodni život i običaje Južnih Slovena (in Serbian) (Zagreb: The Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts) 40: 491–503. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soda_bread — Please support Wikipedia.
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STV Glasgow

STV Glasgow
Thu, 13 Nov 2014 09:03:45 -0800

Clare McMaster of the Two Fat Ladies Group cooked the traditional Scottish dish with smoked haddock, potatoes and onions on the Riverside Show on Wednesday evening, pairing it with delicious homemade soda bread.
 
South Wales Argus
Sun, 02 Nov 2014 06:26:15 -0800

Soda bread comes in both white and brown forms, the recipe here is for white. This Irish bread does not use yeast to rise, rather it relies on the chemical reaction between baking soda (bi-carbonate of soda) and buttermilk to produce bubbles of carbon ...
 
NRToday.com
Tue, 25 Nov 2014 12:26:15 -0800

Potato and leek soup is a traditional Irish comfort food and perfect served with Irish soda bread. Photo courtesy of Jayne Gautreau. Expand Photo. Douglas County Mom blogger, Jayne Gautreau. Expand Photo. Douglas County Mom, Jayne Gautreau.

NDTV

NDTV
Mon, 24 Nov 2014 04:22:30 -0800

Take garam masala - we associate it with Indian food, yet it's a great all purpose mix that's delicious in many contexts beyond sprinkling it in our curries. I add it to oatmeal cookies, chuck a pinch in soda bread, add a touch to zesty vinaigrettes ...

Larne Times

Larne Times
Mon, 24 Nov 2014 22:00:00 -0800

Young people on the Step Up programme attending cookery classes at Carrickfergus Cookery School, YMCA Carrickfergus, loved baking this amazing homemade soda bread. On the day, the students couldn't wait to let it cool so they choose to eat it warm, ...

Forbes

Forbes
Mon, 17 Mar 2014 13:18:11 -0700

One of the first things on my Facebook feed this morning was a cousin's photo of her soda bread. It was the same soda bread I made last night, when I drove out to Long Island and finally convinced my father to teach it to me the same way he learned it ...

New York Times (blog)

New York Times (blog)
Fri, 21 Mar 2014 07:53:22 -0700

Not all Irish soda bread is made with whole-grain flour, but the ones I like the best are. They are one of the reasons I love going to Ireland. I especially love the moist brown pan-baked loaves served with smoked salmon, butter and cheese. It took me ...

The Muskegon Chronicle

The Muskegon Chronicle
Mon, 27 Oct 2014 08:36:25 -0700

The Fall meal includes roasted pumpkin and acorn squash soup topped with toasted seeds and a side of Irish Whole grain Soda Bread with Jalapenos. "It's a basic recipe," said Chef Bruce Konowalow, dean of Culinary Arts for The Culinary Institute of ...
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