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Soda bread
Ben W Bell Soda Bread Farl 05 June 2007.jpg
A soda farl; made by cutting a flattened round of dough into four pieces, then baking.
Main ingredient(s) Flour, sodium bicarbonate, salt, buttermilk
Whole wheat soda bread (known as wheaten bread in parts of Ireland)
Polish flat soda bread (known as Proziaki in podkarpacie)

Soda bread (Irish: arán sóide, Scots: fardel, Serbian: česnica/чесница) is a variety of quick bread traditionally made in a variety of cuisines in which sodium bicarbonate (otherwise known as baking soda) is used as a leavening agent instead of the more common yeast. The ingredients of traditional soda bread are flour, bread soda, salt, and buttermilk. The buttermilk in the dough contains lactic acid, which reacts with the baking soda to form tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide. Other ingredients can be added such as butter, egg, raisins or nuts.

Origin[edit]

During the early years of European settlement of the Americas, settlers and some groups of Indigenous peoples of the Americas used soda or pearl ash, more commonly known as potash (pot ash) or potassium carbonate, as a leavening agent (the forerunner to baking soda) in quick breads.[1] In the US, soda breads were first publicised by Amelia Simmons as a quick and cheap method of bread making in her book American Cookery,[2] published in 1796. By 1824, The Virginia Housewife by Mary Randolph was published containing a recipe for Soda Cake.[3]

In Europe, soda breads began to appear in the mid-19th century when bicarbonate of soda first became available for use as a raising agent. Breads, griddle cakes and scones with bicarbonate of soda and cream of tartar or tartaric acid became popular in Austria, Polish cuisine and in the British Isles.[4] Traditional soda bread, eaten in Serbian cuisine, also uses bicarbonate of soda, particularly the traditional česnica (Serbian Cyrillic: Чесница), a soda bread made at Christmas.

Australia[edit]

Damper is a traditional Australian bread prepared in a similar style to the pan breads found in North American and native Inuit cuisine. First documented in 1827 and prepared by farm-men, damper was a quick and easy way to prepare bread in the Australian bush.[5] The word damper derives from the English word ‘snack’ or to dampen the flour in the fire or ones appetite.[6]

Scotland[edit]

In Scotland, varieties of soda breads and griddle sodas include bannocks and farls (from fardel: Scots for a fourth), soda scones or soda farls using baking powder or baking soda as a leavening agent giving them a light and airy texture.[7][8][9]

Bannocks are flat cakes of barley or oatmeal dough formed into a round or oval shape, then cooked on a griddle (or girdle, in the Scots). The most authentic versions are unleavened, but from the early 19th century bannocks have been made using baking powder, or a combination of baking soda and buttermilk or clabbered milk.[7] Before the 19th century, bannocks were cooked on a bannock stane (Scots for stone), a large, flat, rounded piece of sandstone, placed directly onto a fire, then used as a cooking surface.[10] Several varieties of bannock include Selkirk bannocks, beremeal bannocks, Michaelmas bannock, Yetholm bannock, and Yule bannock.[7]

The traditional soda farl is used in the Full Scottish breakfast along with the potato scone (Scots: tattie scone).

Ireland[edit]

Home-made Irish brown soda bread

In Ireland, the flour is typically made from soft wheat; so soda bread is best made with a cake or pastry flour (made from soft wheat), which has lower levels of gluten than a bread flour. In some recipes, the buttermilk is replaced by live yoghurt or even stout. Bakers recommend the minimum amount of mixing of the ingredients before baking; the dough should not be kneaded.

Various forms of soda bread are popular throughout Ireland. Soda breads are made using wholemeal, white flour, or both. In Ulster, the wholemeal variety is usually known as wheaten bread and normally sweetened, while the term "soda bread" is restricted to the white savoury form. In the southern provinces of Ireland, the wholemeal variety is usually known as brown bread and is almost identical to the Ulster wheaten.

The soda farl or "griddle cakes", "griddle bread" (or "soda farls" in Ulster) take a more rounded shape and have a cross cut in the top to allow the bread to expand. The griddle cake or farl is a more flattened type of bread. It is cooked on a griddle, allowing it to take a more flat shape and split into four sections. The soda farl is one of the distinguishing elements of the Ulster fry, where it is served alongside potato bread, also in farl form.[11]

Serbia[edit]

Members of a Serbian family break soda bread or česnica at a Christmas dinner

In Serbian tradition, soda bread is prepared by various rules and rituals. A coin is often put into the dough during the kneading; other small objects may also be inserted. At the beginning of Christmas dinner, the česnica is rotated three times counter-clockwise, before being broken among the family members. The person who finds the coin in his piece of the bread will supposedly be exceptionally lucky in the coming year. Before baking, the upper surface of the loaf may be inscribed with various symbols,[12] such as a Christogram, or stars, circles, and impressions of keys or combs.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.davidwalbert.com/2010/02/03/early-american-gingerbread-cakes/
  2. ^ Simmons, Amelia; Mary Tolford Wilson (1984) [1958]. The First American Cookbook (1984 reprint ed.). Mineola, NY: Dover. ISBN 0-486-24710-4. 
  3. ^ The Virginia Housewife by Mary Randolph 1824
  4. ^ English Bread and Yeast Cookery, Elizabeth David [Penguin:Middlesex England] 1977 (p. 517-8)
  5. ^ Austral English: A Dictionary of Australasian Words, Phrases and Usages By Edward Ellis Morris Cambridge University Press, 2011 p114
  6. ^ One continuous picnic: a gastronomic history of Australia By Michael Symons Melbourne Univ. Publishing, 2007. p31[no source I can find states this bread was brought over to Australia by Irish immigrants]
  7. ^ a b c "Bannock". Practically Edible: The Web's Biggest Food Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  8. ^ Ingram, Christine; Jennie Shapter (2003). BREAD: the breads of the world and how to bake them at home. (Originally published as The World Encyclopedia of Bread and Bread Making.) London: Hermes House. p. 54. ISBN 0-681-87922-X. 
  9. ^ Clayton, Bernard Jr. (2003). Bernard Clayton's New Complete Book of Breads. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 555. ISBN 0-7432-3472-3. 
  10. ^ Feilden, Rosemary (1999). "Bannock Stane at Aberdeen University's Virtual Museum". Aberdeen University. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  11. ^ Ulster Fry: Channel 4
  12. ^ Plotnikova, A. A. (2001). "Чесница". In Svetlana Mikhaylovna Tolstaya and Ljubinko Radenković. Словенска митологија: енциклопедијски речник [Slavic mythology: encyclopedic dictionary] (in Serbian). Belgrade: Zepter Book World. pp. 577–78. ISBN 86-7494-025-0. 
  13. ^ Vukmanović, Jovan (1962). "Božićni običaji u Boki Kotorskoj" [Christmas traditions in the Bay of Kotor]. Zbornik za narodni život i običaje Južnih Slovena (in Serbian) (Zagreb: The Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts) 40: 491–503. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soda_bread — Please support Wikipedia.
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1697 news items

 
Parade
Tue, 25 Mar 2014 10:03:45 -0700

You might be wondering why this post is going up several days after St. Patrick's Day. Well, I decided to make this delicious Irish Soda Bread recipe on a whim this St. Paddy's Day. After making and enjoying it, I just had to share it! I love this ...

Telegraph.co.uk

Telegraph.co.uk
Thu, 27 Mar 2014 23:56:15 -0700

Apple and raisin soda bread recipe. A spin on the easiest buttermilk bread. This is perfect with good mature cheddar, or eaten warm with butter. Raisin bread. Photo: ALAMY. Diana Henry. By Diana Henry. 7:00AM GMT 28 Mar 2014. Follow · Comments.
 
Waterloo Record
Wed, 23 Apr 2014 14:45:00 -0700

In this land of Irish football, where, in my opinion, the best foods are cream, whipped cream, brown soda bread and Jameson's whiskey, Lynch feels at home. Back in Michigan, people do know him as a poet, mortician and a runner-up for the National Book ...
 
New York Times
Tue, 22 Apr 2014 14:56:15 -0700

Maria Fumaso, the owner of the 36-year-old Pelham Bake Shop and Cafe, said she's had a similar experience, though she has also expanded her offerings from Italian bread and pastries to include “soda bread for the Irish, challah bread for the Jewish, ...

Irish Independent

Irish Independent
Wed, 16 Apr 2014 04:22:53 -0700

It's no wonder that I make soda bread at least once a week. To explain how I came to the ingredient costs, I've included an image of a spreadsheet which shows you the ingredients you would need to buy to make the scones from scratch, the costs of these ...

Belfast Telegraph

Belfast Telegraph
Tue, 22 Apr 2014 20:24:53 -0700

Our latest pink watch yesterday uncovered not only pink soda bread, but a pink fisherman and even an obelisk on the Shore Road which was repainted pink. In case the reason for this explosion of pink has somehow passed you by – it's all part of the ...
 
Reuters India
Tue, 22 Apr 2014 07:37:30 -0700

... slather some mayonnaise and put a good dash of Srircha. Irish Soda Bread (Makes 1 one-pound loaf). 4 cups all-purpose flour. 1 teaspoon baking soda. 1 teaspoon kosher salt. 1/2 cup cold unsalted butter, diced, plus more for serving. 2-1/4 cups ...

USA TODAY

USA TODAY
Tue, 22 Apr 2014 08:33:30 -0700

Serve your stew with other Irish favorites like potatoes colcannon and soda bread. IRISH LAMB STEW. 4 pounds boneless lamb shoulder, cut into spoon-size pieces. 1 tablespoon salt. ½ teaspoon ground white pepper. 2 quarts chicken or vegetable stock.
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