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Languages Sinhala
Time period
C. 700–present
Parent systems
Child systems
Dhives Akuru
Sister systems
Malayalam script
Tamil script
Tigalari script
ISO 15924 Sinh, 348
Direction Left-to-right
Unicode alias

The Sinhalese alphabet is an abugida used by the Sinhala people in Sri Lanka and elsewhere to write the Sinhala language and also the liturgical languages Pali and Sanskrit.[1] Being a member of the Brahmic family of scripts, the Sinhalese script can trace its ancestry back more than 2,000 years.[1]

Sinhalese is often considered two alphabets, or an alphabet within an alphabet, due to the presence of two sets of letters. The core set, known as the śuddha siṃhala (pure Sinhalese, ශුද්ධ සිංහලimg) or eḷu hōḍiya (Eḷu alphabet එළු හෝඩිය img), can represent all native phonemes. In order to render Sanskrit and Pali words, an extended set, the miśra siṃhala (mixed Sinhalese, මිශ්‍ර සිංහලimg), is available.[2]


The basic form of the letter k is ක "ka". For "ki", a small arch is placed over the ක: කි. This replaces the inherent /a/ by /i/. It is also possible to have no vowel following a consonant. In order to produce such a pure consonant, a special marker, the hal kirīma has to be added: ක්. This marker suppresses the inherent vowel.

The alphabet is written from left to right. The Sinhalese script is an abugida, as each consonant has an inherent vowel (/a/), which can be changed with the different vowel signs or removed (see image on left for examples).

Most of the Sinhalese letters are curlicues; straight lines are almost completely absent from the alphabet. This is because Sinhala used to be written on dried palm leaves, which would split along the veins on writing straight lines. This was undesirable, and therefore, the round shapes were preferred.

The core set of letters forms the śuddha siṃhala alphabet (pure Sinhalese, ශුද්ධ සිංහලimg), which is a subset of the miśra siṃhala alphabet (mixed Sinhalese, මිශ්‍ර සිංහලimg). This "pure" alphabet contains all the graphemes necessary to write Eḷu (classical Sinhalese) as described in the classical grammar Sidatsan̆garā (1300 AD).[3] This is the reason why this set is also called Eḷu hōdiya ("Eḷu alphabet" එළු හෝඩියimg).

The definition of the two sets is thus a historic one. Out of pure coincidence, the phoneme inventory of present-day colloquial Sinhala is such that yet again the śuddha alphabet suffices as a good representation of the sounds.[3]

All native phonemes of the Sinhala spoken today can be represented in śuddha, while in order to render special Sanskrit and Pali sounds, one can fall back on miśra siṃhala. This is most notably necessary for the graphemes for the Middle Indic phonemes that the Sinhalese language lost during its history, such as aspirates.[3]

Sinhalese had special symbols to represent numerals, which were in use until the beginning of the [19th] century. This system is now superseded by Arabic numerals.[4][5]

Neither the Sinhalese numerals nor U+0DF4 ෴ Sinhalese punctuation kunddaliya is in general use today. The kunddaliya was formerly used as a full stop.[6]

History and usage[edit]

The Sinhalese script originated from the Brahmi script, thought to have been brought from Northern India, around the 3rd century B.C.,[1][7] however there are recent findings on pottery from Anuradhapura, dating from the 6th century BCE,[8] with lithic inscriptions dating from the 2nd century BC.[9] Thereafter it underwent a largely separate process of development, than the mainland scripts. It was also influenced by south Indian scripts, at various stages of its development, particularly the Pallava script (early Grantha script).[10] By the 9th century CE, literature written in Sinhalese script had emerged and the script began to be used in other contexts. For instance, the Buddhist literature of the Theravada-Buddhists of Sri Lanka, written in Pali, used the Sinhalese alphabet.

Today, the alphabet is used by approximately 16,000,000 people to write the Sinhalese language in very diverse contexts, such as newspapers, TV commercials, government announcements, graffiti, and schoolbooks.

Sinhala is the main language written in this script, but rare instances of Sri Lanka Malay are recorded.

Areas of use of the Sinhalese alphabet. Sinhala is more prominent in the Southern and Western regions, while the Tamil language and script are used more often in the north and east of the island.

Relations between orthography and phonology[edit]

Most phonemes of the Sinhalese language can be represented by a śuddha letter or by a miśra letter, but normally only one of them is considered correct. This one-to-many mapping of phonemes onto graphemes is a frequent source of misspellings.[11]

While a phoneme can be represented by more than one grapheme, each grapheme can be pronounced in only one way. This means that the actual pronunciation of a word is always clear from its orthographic form.

Śuddha graphemes[edit]

The śuddha graphemes are the mainstay of the Sinhalese alphabet and are used on an everyday-basis. Every sequence of sounds of the Sinhalese language of today can be represented by these graphemes. Additionally, the śuddha set comprises graphemes for retroflex and , which are no longer phonemic in modern Sinhala. These two letters were needed for the representation of Eḷu, but are now obsolete from a purely phonemic view. However, words which historically contain these two phonemes are still often written with the graphemes representing the retroflex sounds.


The śuddha alphabet comprises 8 plosives, 2 fricatives, 2 affricates, 2 nasals, 2 liquids and 2 glides. Additionally, there are the two graphemes for the retroflex sounds /ɭ/ and /ɳ/, which are not phonemic in modern Sinhala, but which still form part of the set. These are shaded in the table.

The voiceless affricate (ච [t͡ʃa]) is not included in the śuddha set by purists since it does not occur in the main text of the Sidatsan̆garā. The Sidatsan̆garā does use it in examples though, so this sound did exist in Eḷu. In any case, it is needed for the representation of modern Sinhala.[3]

The basic shapes of these consonants carry an inherent /a/ unless this is replaced by another vowel or removed by the hal kirīma.

voiceless voiced
Unicode translit. IPA Unicode translit. IPA
velar 0D9A ka [ka] 0D9C ga [ɡa] velar
retroflex 0DA7 ṭa [ʈa] 0DA9 ḍa [ɖa] retroflex
dental 0DAD ta [t̪a] 0DAF da [d̪a] dental
labial 0DB4 pa [pa] 0DB6 ba [ba] labial
Other letters
Unicode translit. IPA Unicode translit. IPA
fricatives 0DC3 sa [sa] 0DC4 ha [ha] fricatives
affricates (ච) (0DA0) (ca) ([t͡ʃa]) 0DA2 ja [d͡ʒa] affricates
nasals 0DB8 ma [ma] 0DB1 na [na] nasals
liquid 0DBD la [la] 0DBB ra [ra] liquid
glide 0DC0 va [ʋa] 0DBA ya [ja] glide
retroflex 0DAB ṇa [ɳa] 0DC5 ḷa [ɭa] retroflex
Display this table as an image


The vocalic diacritics for u and ū vary according to the consonant to which they are attached.

Vowels come in two shapes: independent and diacritic. The independent shape is used when a vowel does not follow a consonant, e.g. at the beginning of a word. The diacritic shape is used when a vowel follows a consonant. Depending on the vowel, the diacritic can attach at several places. The diacritic for i attaches above the consonant, the diacritic for u attaches below, the diacritic for ā follows, while the diacritic for e precedes. o finally is marked by the combination of preceding e and following ā.

While <a,e,i,o> are regular, the diacritic for u takes a different shape according to the consonant it attaches to. The most common one is represented on the image on the right for the consonant ප (p). The k-shape is used for some consonants ending at the lower right corner (ක (k),ග (g), ත(t), but not න(n) or හ(h)). Combinations of ර(r) or ළ() with u have idiosyncratic shapes.[12]

short long
independent diacritic independent diacritic
0D85 a [a] inherent a [a, ə] 0D86 ā [aː] 0DCF ā [aː]
0D91 e [e] 0DD9 e [e] 0D92 ē [eː] 0DDA ē [eː]
0D89 i [i] 0DD2 i [i] 0D8A ī [iː] 0DD3 ī [iː]
0D94 o [o] 0DDC o [o] 0D95 ō [oː] 0DDD ō [oː]
0D8B u [u] 0DD4 u [u] 0D8C ū [uː] 0DD6 ū [uː]
0D87 æ/ä [æ] 0DD0 æ [æ] 0D88 ǣ [æː] 0DD1 ǣ [æː]
Display this table as an image

Prenasalized consonants[edit]

The prenasalized consonants resemble their plain counterparts. m̆b is made up by the left half of m and the right half of b, while the other three are just like the grapheme for the plosive with a little stroke attached to their left.[13] Vowel diacritics attach in the same way as they would to the corresponding plain plosive.

Prenasalized consonants
nasal obstruent prenasalized
Unicode translit. IPA
velar 0D9F n̆ga [ⁿɡa] velar
retroflex 0DAC n̆ḍa [ⁿɖa] retroflex
dental 0DB3 n̆da [ⁿd̪a] dental
labial 0DB9 m̆ba [ᵐba] labial
Display this table as an image

Non-vocalic diacritics[edit]

The two shapes of the hal kirīma for p (left) and b (right).

The anusvara (often called binduva 'zero' ) is represented by one small circle ං (Unicode 0D82),[14] and the visarga (technically part of the miśra alphabet) by two ඃ (Unicode 0D83). The inherent vowel can be removed by a special diacritic, the hal kirīma (්), which varies in shape according to the consonant it attaches to. Both are represented in the image on the right side. The first one is the most common one, while the second one is used for letters ending at the top left corner.

Miśra set[edit]

The miśra alphabet is a superset of śuddha. It adds letters for aspirates, retroflexes and sibilants, which are not phonemic in today's Sinhala, but which are necessary to represent non-native words, like loanwords from Sanskrit, Pali or English. The use of the extra letters is mainly a question of prestige. From a purely phonemic point of view, there is no benefit in using them, and they can be replaced by a (sequence of) śuddha letters as follows: For the miśra aspirates, the replacement is the plain śuddha counterpart, for the miśra retroflex liquids the corresponding śuddha coronal liquid,[15] for the sibilants, s.[16] ඤ (ñ) and ඥ (gn) cannot be represented by śuddha graphemes but are found only in fewer than 10 words each. ෆ fa can be represented by ප pa with a Latin f inscribed in the cup.

Extra miśra plosives
voiceless voiced
Unicode translit. IPA Unicode translit. IPA
velar 0D9B kha [ka] 0D9D gha [ɡa] velar
retroflex 0DA8 ṭha [ʈa] 0DAA ḍha [ɖa] retroflex
dental 0DAE tha [t̪a] 0DB0 dha [d̪a] dental
labial 0DB5 pha [pa] 0DB7 bha [ba] labial
Other additional miśra graphemes
Unicode translit. IPA Unicode translit. IPA
sibilants 0DC1 śa [sa] 0DC2 ṣa [sa] sibilants
aspirate affricates 0DA1 cha [t͡ʃa] 0DA3 jha [d͡ʒa] aspirate affricates
nasals 0DA4 ña [ɲa] 0DA5 gna [ɡna] nasals
other 0D9E ṅa [ŋa] 0DC6 fa [fa, ɸa, pa] other
other 0DA6 n̆ja[17] [nd͡ʒa] fප n/a fa [fa, ɸa, pa] other
Display this table as an image

There are six additional vocalic diacritics in the miśra alphabet. The two diphthongs are quite common, while the "syllabic" is much rarer, and the "syllabic" is all but obsolete. The latter are almost exclusively found in loanwords from Sanskrit.[18]

The miśra can be also be written with śuddha r+u or u+r, which corresponds to the actual pronunciation. The miśra syllabic is obsolete, but can be rendered by śuddha l+i.[19] Miśra au is rendered as śuddha awu, miśra ai as śuddha ayi.

Vocalic diacritics
independent diacritic independent diacritic
diphthongs 0D93 ai [ai] 0DDB ai [ai] 0D96 au [au] 0DDE au [au] diphthongs
syllabic r 0D8D [ur] 0DD8 [ru, ur] 0D8E [ruː] 0DF2 [ruː, uːr] syllabic r
syllabic l 0D8F [li] 0DDF [li] 0D90 [liː] 0DF3 [liː] syllabic l
Display this table as an image

Note that the transliteration of both ළ් and is . This is not very problematic as the second one is extremely scarce.

Names of the graphemes[edit]

The letters of the English alphabet have more or less arbitrary names, e.g. em for the letter m or bee for the letter b. The Sinhala śuddha graphemes are named in a uniform way adding -yanna to the sound produced by the letter, including vocalic diacritics.[14][20] The name for the letter අ is thus ayanna, for the letter ආ āyanna, for the letter ක kayanna, for the letter කා kāyanna, for the letter කෙ keyanna and so forth. For letters with hal kirīma, an epenthetic a is added for easier pronunciation: the name for the letter ක් is akyanna. Another naming convention is to use al- before a letter with suppressed vowel, thus alkayanna.

Since the extra miśra letters are phonetically not distinguishable from the śuddha letters, proceeding in the same way would lead to confusion. Names of miśra letters are normally made up of the names of two śuddha letters pronounced as one word. The first one indicates the sound, the second one the shape. For example, the aspirated ඛ (kh) is called bayanu kayanna. kayanna indicates the sound, while bayanu indicates the shape: ඛ (kh) is similar in shape to බ (b) (bayunu = like bayanna).

Another method is to qualify the miśra aspirates by mahāprāna (ඛ: mahāprāna kayanna) and the miśra retroflexes by mūrdhaja (ළ: mūrdhaja layanna).

Consonant conjuncts[edit]


Certain combinations of graphemes trigger special ligatures. Special signs exist for an ර (r) following a consonant (inverted arch underneath), a ර (r) preceding a consonant (loop above) and a ය (y) following a consonant (half a ය on the right). [15] [21] [22] Furthermore, very frequent combinations are often written in one stroke, like ddh, kv or . If this is the case, the first consonant is not marked with a hal kirīma. [15] [18] [22] The image on the left shows the glyph for śrī, which is composed of the letter ś with the vowel ī marked above and a ligature indicating the r below. The image on the right shows ligatures of ද(d)+ය(y) and ක(k)+ෂි (ṣi) on the Political science course advertisement. Most other conjunct consonants are made with an explicit virama, called al-lakuna, as shown in the following table, some of which may vary between fonts.

්ක ්ඛ ්ග ්ඝ ්ඞ ්ඟ ්ච ්ඡ ්ජ ්ඣ ්ඤ ්ඥ ්ඦ ්ට ්ඨ ්ඩ ්ඪ ්ණ ්ඬ ්ත ්ථ ්ද ්ධ ්න ්ඳ ්ප ්ඵ ්බ ්භ ්ම ්ඹ ්ය ්ර ්ල ්ව ්ශ ්ෂ ්ස ්හ ්ළ ්ෆ
ක්‍ක ක්‍ඛ ක්‍ග ක්‍ඝ ක්‍ඞ ක්‍ඟ ක්‍ච ක්‍ඡ ක්‍ජ ක්‍ඣ ක්‍ඤ ක්‍ඥ ක්‍ඦ ක්‍ට ක්‍ඨ ක්‍ඩ ක්‍ඪ ක්‍ණ ක්‍ඬ ක්‍ත ක්‍ථ ක්‍ද ක්‍ධ ක්‍න ක්‍ඳ ක්‍ප ක්‍ඵ ක්‍බ ක්‍භ ක්‍ම ක්‍ඹ ක්‍ය ක්‍ර ක්‍ල ක්‍ව ක්‍ශ ක්‍ෂ ක්‍ස ක්‍හ ක්‍ළ ක්‍ෆ
ඛ්‍ක ඛ්‍ඛ ඛ්‍ග ඛ්‍ඝ ඛ්‍ඞ ඛ්‍ඟ ඛ්‍ච ඛ්‍ඡ ඛ්‍ජ ඛ්‍ඣ ඛ්‍ඤ ඛ්‍ඥ ඛ්‍ඦ ඛ්‍ට ඛ්‍ඨ ඛ්‍ඩ ඛ්‍ඪ ඛ්‍ණ ඛ්‍ඬ ඛ්‍ත ඛ්‍ථ ඛ්‍ද ඛ්‍ධ ඛ්‍න ඛ්‍ඳ ඛ්‍ප ඛ්‍ඵ ඛ්‍බ ඛ්‍භ ඛ්‍ම ඛ්‍ඹ ඛ්‍ය ඛ්‍ර ඛ්‍ල ඛ්‍ව ඛ්‍ශ ඛ්‍ෂ ඛ්‍ස ඛ්‍හ ඛ්‍ළ ඛ්‍ෆ
ග්‍ක ග්‍ඛ ග්‍ග ග්‍ඝ ග්‍ඞ ග්‍ඟ ග්‍ච ග්‍ඡ ග්‍ජ ග්‍ඣ ග්‍ඤ ග්‍ඥ ග්‍ඦ ග්‍ට ග්‍ඨ ග්‍ඩ ග්‍ඪ ග්‍ණ ග්‍ඬ ග්‍ත ග්‍ථ ග්‍ද ග්‍ධ ග්‍න ග්‍ඳ ග්‍ප ග්‍ඵ ග්‍බ ග්‍භ ග්‍ම ග්‍ඹ ග්‍ය ග්‍ර ග්‍ල ග්‍ව ග්‍ශ ග්‍ෂ ග්‍ස ග්‍හ ග්‍ළ ග්‍ෆ
ඝ්‍ක ඝ්‍ඛ ඝ්‍ග ඝ්‍ඝ ඝ්‍ඞ ඝ්‍ඟ ඝ්‍ච ඝ්‍ඡ ඝ්‍ජ ඝ්‍ඣ ඝ්‍ඤ ඝ්‍ඥ ඝ්‍ඦ ඝ්‍ට ඝ්‍ඨ ඝ්‍ඩ ඝ්‍ඪ ඝ්‍ණ ඝ්‍ඬ ඝ්‍ත ඝ්‍ථ ඝ්‍ද ඝ්‍ධ ඝ්‍න ඝ්‍ඳ ඝ්‍ප ඝ්‍ඵ ඝ්‍බ ඝ්‍භ ඝ්‍ම ඝ්‍ඹ ඝ්‍ය ඝ්‍ර ඝ්‍ල ඝ්‍ව ඝ්‍ශ ඝ්‍ෂ ඝ්‍ස ඝ්‍හ ඝ්‍ළ ඝ්‍ෆ
ඞ්‍ක ඞ්‍ඛ ඞ්‍ග ඞ්‍ඝ ඞ්‍ඞ ඞ්‍ඟ ඞ්‍ච ඞ්‍ඡ ඞ්‍ජ ඞ්‍ඣ ඞ්‍ඤ ඞ්‍ඥ ඞ්‍ඦ ඞ්‍ට ඞ්‍ඨ ඞ්‍ඩ ඞ්‍ඪ ඞ්‍ණ ඞ්‍ඬ ඞ්‍ත ඞ්‍ථ ඞ්‍ද ඞ්‍ධ ඞ්‍න ඞ්‍ඳ ඞ්‍ප ඞ්‍ඵ ඞ්‍බ ඞ්‍භ ඞ්‍ම ඞ්‍ඹ ඞ්‍ය ඞ්‍ර ඞ්‍ල ඞ්‍ව ඞ්‍ශ ඞ්‍ෂ ඞ්‍ස ඞ්‍හ ඞ්‍ළ ඞ්‍ෆ
ඟ්‍ක ඟ්‍ඛ ඟ්‍ග ඟ්‍ඝ ඟ්‍ඞ ඟ්‍ඟ ඟ්‍ච ඟ්‍ඡ ඟ්‍ජ ඟ්‍ඣ ඟ්‍ඤ ඟ්‍ඥ ඟ්‍ඦ ඟ්‍ට ඟ්‍ඨ ඟ්‍ඩ ඟ්‍ඪ ඟ්‍ණ ඟ්‍ඬ ඟ්‍ත ඟ්‍ථ ඟ්‍ද ඟ්‍ධ ඟ්‍න ඟ්‍ඳ ඟ්‍ප ඟ්‍ඵ ඟ්‍බ ඟ්‍භ ඟ්‍ම ඟ්‍ඹ ඟ්‍ය ඟ්‍ර ඟ්‍ල ඟ්‍ව ඟ්‍ශ ඟ්‍ෂ ඟ්‍ස ඟ්‍හ ඟ්‍ළ ඟ්‍ෆ
ච්‍ක ච්‍ඛ ච්‍ග ච්‍ඝ ච්‍ඞ ච්‍ඟ ච්‍ච ච්‍ඡ ච්‍ජ ච්‍ඣ ච්‍ඤ ච්‍ඥ ච්‍ඦ ච්‍ට ච්‍ඨ ච්‍ඩ ච්‍ඪ ච්‍ණ ච්‍ඬ ච්‍ත ච්‍ථ ච්‍ද ච්‍ධ ච්‍න ච්‍ඳ ච්‍ප ච්‍ඵ ච්‍බ ච්‍භ ච්‍ම ච්‍ඹ ච්‍ය ච්‍ර ච්‍ල ච්‍ව ච්‍ශ ච්‍ෂ ච්‍ස ච්‍හ ච්‍ළ ච්‍ෆ
ඡ්‍ක ඡ්‍ඛ ඡ්‍ග ඡ්‍ඝ ඡ්‍ඞ ඡ්‍ඟ ඡ්‍ච ඡ්‍ඡ ඡ්‍ජ ඡ්‍ඣ ඡ්‍ඤ ඡ්‍ඥ ඡ්‍ඦ ඡ්‍ට ඡ්‍ඨ ඡ්‍ඩ ඡ්‍ඪ ඡ්‍ණ ඡ්‍ඬ ඡ්‍ත ඡ්‍ථ ඡ්‍ද ඡ්‍ධ ඡ්‍න ඡ්‍ඳ ඡ්‍ප ඡ්‍ඵ ඡ්‍බ ඡ්‍භ ඡ්‍ම ඡ්‍ඹ ඡ්‍ය ඡ්‍ර ඡ්‍ල ඡ්‍ව ඡ්‍ශ ඡ්‍ෂ ඡ්‍ස ඡ්‍හ ඡ්‍ළ ඡ්‍ෆ
ජ්‍ක ජ්‍ඛ ජ්‍ග ජ්‍ඝ ජ්‍ඞ ජ්‍ඟ ජ්‍ච ජ්‍ඡ ජ්‍ජ ජ්‍ඣ ජ්‍ඤ ජ්‍ඥ ජ්‍ඦ ජ්‍ට ජ්‍ඨ ජ්‍ඩ ජ්‍ඪ ජ්‍ණ ජ්‍ඬ ජ්‍ත ජ්‍ථ ජ්‍ද ජ්‍ධ ජ්‍න ජ්‍ඳ ජ්‍ප ජ්‍ඵ ජ්‍බ ජ්‍භ ජ්‍ම ජ්‍ඹ ජ්‍ය ජ්‍ර ජ්‍ල ජ්‍ව ජ්‍ශ ජ්‍ෂ ජ්‍ස ජ්‍හ ජ්‍ළ ජ්‍ෆ
ඣ්‍ක ඣ්‍ඛ ඣ්‍ග ඣ්‍ඝ ඣ්‍ඞ ඣ්‍ඟ ඣ්‍ච ඣ්‍ඡ ඣ්‍ජ ඣ්‍ඣ ඣ්‍ඤ ඣ්‍ඥ ඣ්‍ඦ ඣ්‍ට ඣ්‍ඨ ඣ්‍ඩ ඣ්‍ඪ ඣ්‍ණ ඣ්‍ඬ ඣ්‍ත ඣ්‍ථ ඣ්‍ද ඣ්‍ධ ඣ්‍න ඣ්‍ඳ ඣ්‍ප ඣ්‍ඵ ඣ්‍බ ඣ්‍භ ඣ්‍ම ඣ්‍ඹ ඣ්‍ය ඣ්‍ර ඣ්‍ල ඣ්‍ව ඣ්‍ශ ඣ්‍ෂ ඣ්‍ස ඣ්‍හ ඣ්‍ළ ඣ්‍ෆ
ඤ්‍ක ඤ්‍ඛ ඤ්‍ග ඤ්‍ඝ ඤ්‍ඞ ඤ්‍ඟ ඤ්‍ච ඤ්‍ඡ ඤ්‍ජ ඤ්‍ඣ ඤ්‍ඤ ඤ්‍ඥ ඤ්‍ඦ ඤ්‍ට ඤ්‍ඨ ඤ්‍ඩ ඤ්‍ඪ ඤ්‍ණ ඤ්‍ඬ ඤ්‍ත ඤ්‍ථ ඤ්‍ද ඤ්‍ධ ඤ්‍න ඤ්‍ඳ ඤ්‍ප ඤ්‍ඵ ඤ්‍බ ඤ්‍භ ඤ්‍ම ඤ්‍ඹ ඤ්‍ය ඤ්‍ර ඤ්‍ල ඤ්‍ව ඤ්‍ශ ඤ්‍ෂ ඤ්‍ස ඤ්‍හ ඤ්‍ළ ඤ්‍ෆ
ඥ්‍ක ඥ්‍ඛ ඥ්‍ග ඥ්‍ඝ ඥ්‍ඞ ඥ්‍ඟ ඥ්‍ච ඥ්‍ඡ ඥ්‍ජ ඥ්‍ඣ ඥ්‍ඤ ඥ්‍ඥ ඥ්‍ඦ ඥ්‍ට ඥ්‍ඨ ඥ්‍ඩ ඥ්‍ඪ ඥ්‍ණ ඥ්‍ඬ ඥ්‍ත ඥ්‍ථ ඥ්‍ද ඥ්‍ධ ඥ්‍න ඥ්‍ඳ ඥ්‍ප ඥ්‍ඵ ඥ්‍බ ඥ්‍භ ඥ්‍ම ඥ්‍ඹ ඥ්‍ය ඥ්‍ර ඥ්‍ල ඥ්‍ව ඥ්‍ශ ඥ්‍ෂ ඥ්‍ස ඥ්‍හ ඥ්‍ළ ඥ්‍ෆ
ඦ්‍ක ඦ්‍ඛ ඦ්‍ග ඦ්‍ඝ ඦ්‍ඞ ඦ්‍ඟ ඦ්‍ච ඦ්‍ඡ ඦ්‍ජ ඦ්‍ඣ ඦ්‍ඤ ඦ්‍ඥ ඦ්‍ඦ ඦ්‍ට ඦ්‍ඨ ඦ්‍ඩ ඦ්‍ඪ ඦ්‍ණ ඦ්‍ඬ ඦ්‍ත ඦ්‍ථ ඦ්‍ද ඦ්‍ධ ඦ්‍න ඦ්‍ඳ ඦ්‍ප ඦ්‍ඵ ඦ්‍බ ඦ්‍භ ඦ්‍ම ඦ්‍ඹ ඦ්‍ය ඦ්‍ර ඦ්‍ල ඦ්‍ව ඦ්‍ශ ඦ්‍ෂ ඦ්‍ස ඦ්‍හ ඦ්‍ළ ඦ්‍ෆ
ට්ක ට්ඛ ට්ග ට්ඝ ට්ඞ ට්ඟ ට්ච ට්ඡ ට්ජ ට්ඣ ට්ඤ ට්ඥ ට්ඦ ට්ට ට්ඨ ට්ඩ ට්ඪ ට්ණ ට්ඬ ට්ත ට්ථ ට්ද ට්ධ ට්න ට්ඳ ට්ප ට්ඵ ට්බ ට්භ ට්ම ට්ඹ ට්‍ය ට්‍ර ට්ල ට්ව ට්ශ ට්ෂ ට්ස ට්හ ට්ළ ට්ෆ
ඨ්ක ඨ්ඛ ඨ්ග ඨ්ඝ ඨ්ඞ ඨ්ඟ ඨ්ච ඨ්ඡ ඨ්ජ ඨ්ඣ ඨ්ඤ ඨ්ඥ ඨ්ඦ ඨ්ට ඨ්ඨ ඨ්ඩ ඨ්ඪ ඨ්ණ ඨ්ඬ ඨ්ත ඨ්ථ ඨ්ද ඨ්ධ ඨ්න ඨ්ඳ ඨ්ප ඨ්ඵ ඨ්බ ඨ්භ ඨ්ම ඨ්ඹ ඨ්‍ය ඨ්‍ර ඨ්ල ඨ්ව ඨ්ශ ඨ්ෂ ඨ්ස ඨ්හ ඨ්ළ ඨ්ෆ
ඩ්ක ඩ්ඛ ඩ්ග ඩ්ඝ ඩ්ඞ ඩ්ඟ ඩ්ච ඩ්ඡ ඩ්ජ ඩ්ඣ ඩ්ඤ ඩ්ඥ ඩ්ඦ ඩ්ට ඩ්ඨ ඩ්ඩ ඩ්ඪ ඩ්ණ ඩ්ඬ ඩ්ත ඩ්ථ ඩ්ද ඩ්ධ ඩ්න ඩ්ඳ ඩ්ප ඩ්ඵ ඩ්බ ඩ්භ ඩ්ම ඩ්ඹ ඩ්‍ය ඩ්‍ර ඩ්ල ඩ්ව ඩ්ශ ඩ්ෂ ඩ්ස ඩ්හ ඩ්ළ ඩ්ෆ
ඪ්ක ඪ්ඛ ඪ්ග ඪ්ඝ ඪ්ඞ ඪ්ඟ ඪ්ච ඪ්ඡ ඪ්ජ ඪ්ඣ ඪ්ඤ ඪ්ඥ ඪ්ඦ ඪ්ට ඪ්ඨ ඪ්ඩ ඪ්ඪ ඪ්ණ ඪ්ඬ ඪ්ත ඪ්ථ ඪ්ද ඪ්ධ ඪ්න ඪ්ඳ ඪ්ප ඪ්ඵ ඪ්බ ඪ්භ ඪ්ම ඪ්ඹ ඪ්‍ය ඪ්‍ර ඪ්ල ඪ්ව ඪ්ශ ඪ්ෂ ඪ්ස ඪ්හ ඪ්ළ ඪ්ෆ
ණ්ක ණ්ඛ ණ්ග ණ්ඝ ණ්ඞ ණ්ඟ ණ්ච ණ්ඡ ණ්ජ ණ්ඣ ණ්ඤ ණ්ඥ ණ්ඦ ණ්ට ණ්ඨ ණ්ඩ ණ්ඪ ණ්ණ ණ්ඬ ණ්ත ණ්ථ ණ්ද ණ්ධ ණ්න ණ්ඳ ණ්ප ණ්ඵ ණ්බ ණ්භ ණ්ම ණ්ඹ ණ්‍ය ණ්‍ර ණ්ල ණ්ව ණ්ශ ණ්ෂ ණ්ස ණ්හ ණ්ළ ණ්ෆ
ඬ්ක ඬ්ඛ ඬ්ග ඬ්ඝ ඬ්ඞ ඬ්ඟ ඬ්ච ඬ්ඡ ඬ්ජ ඬ්ඣ ඬ්ඤ ඬ්ඥ ඬ්ඦ ඬ්ට ඬ්ඨ ඬ්ඩ ඬ්ඪ ඬ්ණ ඬ්ඬ ඬ්ත ඬ්ථ ඬ්ද ඬ්ධ ඬ්න ඬ්ඳ ඬ්ප ඬ්ඵ ඬ්බ ඬ්භ ඬ්ම ඬ්ඹ ඬ්‍ය ඬ්‍ර ඬ්ල ඬ්ව ඬ්ශ ඬ්ෂ ඬ්ස ඬ්හ ඬ්ළ ඬ්ෆ
ත්‍ක ත්‍ඛ ත්‍ග ත්‍ඝ ත්‍ඞ ත්‍ඟ ත්‍ච ත්‍ඡ ත්‍ජ ත්‍ඣ ත්‍ඤ ත්‍ඥ ත්‍ඦ ත්‍ට ත්‍ඨ ත්‍ඩ ත්‍ඪ ත්‍ණ ත්‍ඬ ත්‍ත ත්‍ථ ත්‍ද ත්‍ධ ත්‍න ත්‍ඳ ත්‍ප ත්‍ඵ ත්‍බ ත්‍භ ත්‍ම ත්‍ඹ ත්‍ය ත්‍ර ත්‍ල ත්‍ව ත්‍ශ ත්‍ෂ ත්‍ස ත්‍හ ත්‍ළ ත්‍ෆ
ථ්ක ථ්ඛ ථ්ග ථ්ඝ ථ්ඞ ථ්ඟ ථ්ච ථ්ඡ ථ්ජ ථ්ඣ ථ්ඤ ථ්ඥ ථ්ඦ ථ්ට ථ්ඨ ථ්ඩ ථ්ඪ ථ්ණ ථ්ඬ ථ්ත ථ්ථ ථ්ද ථ්ධ ථ්න ථ්ඳ ථ්ප ථ්ඵ ථ්බ ථ්භ ථ්ම ථ්ඹ ථ්‍ය ථ්‍ර ථ්ල ථ්ව ථ්ශ ථ්ෂ ථ්ස ථ්හ ථ්ළ ථ්ෆ
ද්ක ද්ඛ ද්ග ද්ඝ ද්ඞ ද්ඟ ද්ච ද්ඡ ද්ජ ද්ඣ ද්ඤ ද්ඥ ද්ඦ ද්ට ද්ඨ ද්ඩ ද්ඪ ද්ණ ද්ඬ ද්ත ද්ථ ද්ද ද්ධ ද්න ද්ඳ ද්ප ද්ඵ ද්බ ද්භ ද්ම ද්ඹ ද්‍ය ද්‍ර ද්ල ද්ව ද්ශ ද්ෂ ද්ස ද්හ ද්ළ ද්ෆ
ධ්ක ධ්ඛ ධ්ග ධ්ඝ ධ්ඞ ධ්ඟ ධ්ච ධ්ඡ ධ්ජ ධ්ඣ ධ්ඤ ධ්ඥ ධ්ඦ ධ්ට ධ්ඨ ධ්ඩ ධ්ඪ ධ්ණ ධ්ඬ ධ්ත ධ්ථ ධ්ද ධ්ධ ධ්න ධ්ඳ ධ්ප ධ්ඵ ධ්බ ධ්භ ධ්ම ධ්ඹ ධ්‍ය ධ්‍ර ධ්ල ධ්ව ධ්ශ ධ්ෂ ධ්ස ධ්හ ධ්ළ ධ්ෆ
න්‍ක න්‍ඛ න්‍ග න්‍ඝ න්‍ඞ න්‍ඟ න්‍ච න්‍ඡ න්‍ජ න්‍ඣ න්‍ඤ න්‍ඥ න්‍ඦ න්‍ට න්‍ඨ න්‍ඩ න්‍ඪ න්‍ණ න්‍ඬ න්‍ත න්‍ථ න්‍ද න්‍ධ න්‍න න්‍ඳ න්‍ප න්‍ඵ න්‍බ න්‍භ න්‍ම න්‍ඹ න්‍ය න්‍ර න්‍ල න්‍ව න්‍ශ න්‍ෂ න්‍ස න්‍හ න්‍ළ න්‍ෆ
ඳ්‍ක ඳ්‍ඛ ඳ්‍ග ඳ්‍ඝ ඳ්‍ඞ ඳ්‍ඟ ඳ්‍ච ඳ්‍ඡ ඳ්‍ජ ඳ්‍ඣ ඳ්‍ඤ ඳ්‍ඥ ඳ්‍ඦ ඳ්‍ට ඳ්‍ඨ ඳ්‍ඩ ඳ්‍ඪ ඳ්‍ණ ඳ්‍ඬ ඳ්‍ත ඳ්‍ථ ඳ්‍ද ඳ්‍ධ ඳ්‍න ඳ්‍ඳ ඳ්‍ප ඳ්‍ඵ ඳ්‍බ ඳ්‍භ ඳ්‍ම ඳ්‍ඹ ඳ්‍ය ඳ්‍ර ඳ්‍ල ඳ්‍ව ඳ්‍ශ ඳ්‍ෂ ඳ්‍ස ඳ්‍හ ඳ්‍ළ ඳ්‍ෆ
ප්ක ප්ඛ ප්ග ප්ඝ ප්ඞ ප්ඟ ප්ච ප්ඡ ප්ජ ප්ඣ ප්ඤ ප්ඥ ප්ඦ ප්ට ප්ඨ ප්ඩ ප්ඪ ප්ණ ප්ඬ ප්ත ප්ථ ප්ද ප්ධ ප්න ප්ඳ ප්ප ප්ඵ ප්බ ප්භ ප්ම ප්ඹ ප්‍ය ප්‍ර ප්ල ප්ව ප්ශ ප්ෂ ප්ස ප්හ ප්ළ ප්ෆ
ඵ්ක ඵ්ඛ ඵ්ග ඵ්ඝ ඵ්ඞ ඵ්ඟ ඵ්ච ඵ්ඡ ඵ්ජ ඵ්ඣ ඵ්ඤ ඵ්ඥ ඵ්ඦ ඵ්ට ඵ්ඨ ඵ්ඩ ඵ්ඪ ඵ්ණ ඵ්ඬ ඵ්ත ඵ්ථ ඵ්ද ඵ්ධ ඵ්න ඵ්ඳ ඵ්ප ඵ්ඵ ඵ්බ ඵ්භ ඵ්ම ඵ්ඹ ඵ්‍ය ඵ්‍ර ඵ්ල ඵ්ව ඵ්ශ ඵ්ෂ ඵ්ස ඵ්හ ඵ්ළ ඵ්ෆ
බ්ක බ්ඛ බ්ග බ්ඝ බ්ඞ බ්ඟ බ්ච බ්ඡ බ්ජ බ්ඣ බ්ඤ බ්ඥ බ්ඦ බ්ට බ්ඨ බ්ඩ බ්ඪ බ්ණ බ්ඬ බ්ත බ්ථ බ්ද බ්ධ බ්න බ්ඳ බ්ප බ්ඵ බ්බ බ්භ බ්ම බ්ඹ බ්‍ය බ්‍ර බ්ල බ්ව බ්ශ බ්ෂ බ්ස බ්හ බ්ළ බ්ෆ
භ්ක භ්ඛ භ්ග භ්ඝ භ්ඞ භ්ඟ භ්ච භ්ඡ භ්ජ භ්ඣ භ්ඤ භ්ඥ භ්ඦ භ්ට භ්ඨ භ්ඩ භ්ඪ භ්ණ භ්ඬ භ්ත භ්ථ භ්ද භ්ධ භ්න භ්ඳ භ්ප භ්ඵ භ්බ භ්භ භ්ම භ්ඹ භ්‍ය භ්‍ර භ්ල භ්ව භ්ශ භ්ෂ භ්ස භ්හ භ්ළ භ්ෆ
ම්‍ක ම්‍ඛ ම්‍ග ම්‍ඝ ම්‍ඞ ම්‍ඟ ම්‍ච ම්‍ඡ ම්‍ජ ම්‍ඣ ම්‍ඤ ම්‍ඥ ම්‍ඦ ම්‍ට ම්‍ඨ ම්‍ඩ ම්‍ඪ ම්‍ණ ම්‍ඬ ම්‍ත ම්‍ථ ම්‍ද ම්‍ධ ම්‍න ම්‍ඳ ම්‍ප ම්‍ඵ ම්‍බ ම්‍භ ම්‍ම ම්‍ඹ ම්‍ය ම්‍ර ම්‍ල ම්‍ව ම්‍ශ ම්‍ෂ ම්‍ස ම්‍හ ම්‍ළ ම්‍ෆ
ඹ්ක ඹ්ඛ ඹ්ග ඹ්ඝ ඹ්ඞ ඹ්ඟ ඹ්ච ඹ්ඡ ඹ්ජ ඹ්ඣ ඹ්ඤ ඹ්ඥ ඹ්ඦ ඹ්ට ඹ්ඨ ඹ්ඩ ඹ්ඪ ඹ්ණ ඹ්ඬ ඹ්ත ඹ්ථ ඹ්ද ඹ්ධ ඹ්න ඹ්ඳ ඹ්ප ඹ්ඵ ඹ්බ ඹ්භ ඹ්ම ඹ්ඹ ඹ්‍ය ඹ්‍ර ඹ්ල ඹ්ව ඹ්ශ ඹ්ෂ ඹ්ස ඹ්හ ඹ්ළ ඹ්ෆ
ය්‍ක ය්‍ඛ ය්‍ග ය්‍ඝ ය්‍ඞ ය්‍ඟ ය්‍ච ය්‍ඡ ය්‍ජ ය්‍ඣ ය්‍ඤ ය්‍ඥ ය්‍ඦ ය්‍ට ය්‍ඨ ය්‍ඩ ය්‍ඪ ය්‍ණ ය්‍ඬ ය්‍ත ය්‍ථ ය්‍ද ය්‍ධ ය්‍න ය්‍ඳ ය්‍ප ය්‍ඵ ය්‍බ ය්‍භ ය්‍ම ය්‍ඹ ය්‍ය ය්‍ර ය්‍ල ය්‍ව ය්‍ශ ය්‍ෂ ය්‍ස ය්‍හ ය්‍ළ ය්‍ෆ
ර්‍ක ර්‍ඛ ර්‍ග ර්‍ඝ ර්‍ඞ ර්‍ඟ ර්‍ච ර්‍ඡ ර්‍ජ ර්‍ඣ ර්‍ඤ ර්‍ඥ ර්‍ඦ ර්‍ට ර්‍ඨ ර්‍ඩ ර්‍ඪ ර්‍ණ ර්‍ඬ ර්‍ත ර්‍ථ ර්‍ද ර්‍ධ ර්‍න ර්‍ඳ ර්‍ප ර්‍ඵ ර්‍බ ර්‍භ ර්‍ම ර්‍ඹ ර්‍ය ර්‍ර ර්‍ල ර්‍ව ර්‍ශ ර්‍ෂ ර්‍ස ර්‍හ ර්‍ළ ර්‍ෆ
ල්ක ල්ඛ ල්ග ල්ඝ ල්ඞ ල්ඟ ල්ච ල්ඡ ල්ජ ල්ඣ ල්ඤ ල්ඥ ල්ඦ ල්ට ල්ඨ ල්ඩ ල්ඪ ල්ණ ල්ඬ ල්ත ල්ථ ල්ද ල්ධ ල්න ල්ඳ ල්ප ල්ඵ ල්බ ල්භ ල්ම ල්ඹ ල්‍ය ල්‍ර ල්ල ල්ව ල්ශ ල්ෂ ල්ස ල්හ ල්ළ ල්ෆ
ව්ක ව්ඛ ව්ග ව්ඝ ව්ඞ ව්ඟ ව්ච ව්ඡ ව්ජ ව්ඣ ව්ඤ ව්ඥ ව්ඦ ව්ට ව්ඨ ව්ඩ ව්ඪ ව්ණ ව්ඬ ව්ත ව්ථ ව්ද ව්ධ ව්න ව්ඳ ව්ප ව්ඵ ව්බ ව්භ ව්ම ව්ඹ ව්‍ය ව්‍ර ව්ල ව්ව ව්ශ ව්ෂ ව්ස ව්හ ව්ළ ව්ෆ
ශ්ක ශ්ඛ ශ්ග ශ්ඝ ශ්ඞ ශ්ඟ ශ්ච ශ්ඡ ශ්ජ ශ්ඣ ශ්ඤ ශ්ඥ ශ්ඦ ශ්ට ශ්ඨ ශ්ඩ ශ්ඪ ශ්ණ ශ්ඬ ශ්ත ශ්ථ ශ්ද ශ්ධ ශ්න ශ්ඳ ශ්ප ශ්ඵ ශ්බ ශ්භ ශ්ම ශ්ඹ ශ්‍ය ශ්‍ර ශ්ල ශ්ව ශ්ශ ශ්ෂ ශ්ස ශ්හ ශ්ළ ශ්ෆ
ෂ්ක ෂ්ඛ ෂ්ග ෂ්ඝ ෂ්ඞ ෂ්ඟ ෂ්ච ෂ්ඡ ෂ්ජ ෂ්ඣ ෂ්ඤ ෂ්ඥ ෂ්ඦ ෂ්ට ෂ්ඨ ෂ්ඩ ෂ්ඪ ෂ්ණ ෂ්ඬ ෂ්ත ෂ්ථ ෂ්ද ෂ්ධ ෂ්න ෂ්ඳ ෂ්ප ෂ්ඵ ෂ්බ ෂ්භ ෂ්ම ෂ්ඹ ෂ්‍ය ෂ්‍ර ෂ්ල ෂ්ව ෂ්ශ ෂ්ෂ ෂ්ස ෂ්හ ෂ්ළ ෂ්ෆ
ස්ක ස්ඛ ස්ග ස්ඝ ස්ඞ ස්ඟ ස්ච ස්ඡ ස්ජ ස්ඣ ස්ඤ ස්ඥ ස්ඦ ස්ට ස්ඨ ස්ඩ ස්ඪ ස්ණ ස්ඬ ස්ත ස්ථ ස්ද ස්ධ ස්න ස්ඳ ස්ප ස්ඵ ස්බ ස්භ ස්ම ස්ඹ ස්‍ය ස්‍ර ස්ල ස්ව ස්ශ ස්ෂ ස්ස ස්හ ස්ළ ස්ෆ
හ්ක හ්ඛ හ්ග හ්ඝ හ්ඞ හ්ඟ හ්ච හ්ඡ හ්ජ හ්ඣ හ්ඤ හ්ඥ හ්ඦ හ්ට හ්ඨ හ්ඩ හ්ඪ හ්ණ හ්ඬ හ්ත හ්ථ හ්ද හ්ධ හ්න හ්ඳ හ්ප හ්ඵ හ්බ හ්භ හ්ම හ්ඹ හ්‍ය හ්‍ර හ්ල හ්ව හ්ශ හ්ෂ හ්ස හ්හ හ්ළ හ්ෆ
ළ්ක ළ්ඛ ළ්ග ළ්ඝ ළ්ඞ ළ්ඟ ළ්ච ළ්ඡ ළ්ජ ළ්ඣ ළ්ඤ ළ්ඥ ළ්ඦ ළ්ට ළ්ඨ ළ්ඩ ළ්ඪ ළ්ණ ළ්ඬ ළ්ත ළ්ථ ළ්ද ළ්ධ ළ්න ළ්ඳ ළ්ප ළ්ඵ ළ්බ ළ්භ ළ්ම ළ්ඹ ළ්‍ය ළ්‍ර ළ්ල ළ්ව ළ්ශ ළ්ෂ ළ්ස ළ්හ ළ්ළ ළ්ෆ
ෆ්ක ෆ්ඛ ෆ්ග ෆ්ඝ ෆ්ඞ ෆ්ඟ ෆ්ච ෆ්ඡ ෆ්ජ ෆ්ඣ ෆ්ඤ ෆ්ඥ ෆ්ඦ ෆ්ට ෆ්ඨ ෆ්ඩ ෆ්ඪ ෆ්ණ ෆ්ඬ ෆ්ත ෆ්ථ ෆ්ද ෆ්ධ ෆ්න ෆ්ඳ ෆ්ප ෆ්ඵ ෆ්බ ෆ්භ ෆ්ම ෆ්ඹ ෆ්‍ය ෆ්‍ර ෆ්ල ෆ්ව ෆ්ශ ෆ්ෂ ෆ්ස ෆ්හ ෆ්ළ ෆ්ෆ

Similarities to other scripts[edit]

Sinhala is one of the Brahmic scripts, and thus shares many similarities with other members of the family, such as the Kannada, Malayalam, Telugu, Tamil script and Devanāgarī. As a general example, /a/ is the inherent vowel in all these scripts.[1] Other similarities include the diacritic for ai, which resembles a doubled e in all scripts (Sinhala e:ෙ, ai:ෛ; Malayalam െ, ൈ; Tamil e:ெ, ai:ை, Devanāgarī pe:पे, pai:पै). The combination of the diacritics for e and ā yields o in all these scripts:

  • Sinhala e: ෙ, Sinhala ā: ා, Sinhala o: ො
  • Malayalam e:െ, Malayalam ā: ാ, Malayalam o: ൊ
  • Tamil e:ெ, Tamil ā: ா, Tamil o: ொ
  • Devanāgarī e: `, Devanāgarī ā: ा, Devanāgarī o: ो

The diacritic for au is composed of preceding e and following in Sinhala (ෞ) Malayalam (ൌ) and Tamil (ௌ).

Sinhala transliteration[edit]

Sinhala transliteration (Sinhala: roma akurin liweema, literally "Roman letter writing) can be done in analogy to Devanāgarī transliteration. A problem is the transliteration of /ඇ/, not found in Devanāgarī. This is ä in the German tradition of Wilhelm Geiger, and æ in the Anglophone tradition (e.g. James Gair).

Layman's transliterations in Sri Lanka normally follow neither of these. Vowels are transliterated according to English spelling equivalences, which can yield a variety of spellings for a number of phonemes. /iː/ for instance can be ee, e, ea, i, etc. A transliteration pattern peculiar to Sinhala, and facilitated by the absence of phonemic aspirates, is the use of th for the voiceless dental plosive, and the use of t for the voiceless retroflex plosive. This is presumably because the retroflex plosive /ʈ/ is perceived the same as the English alveolar plosive /t/, and the Sinhala dental plosive /t̪/ is equated with the English voiceless dental fricative /θ/.[23] Dental and retroflex voiced plosives are always rendered as d, though, presumably because dh is not found as a representation of /ð/ in English orthography.


Sinhalese script was added to the Unicode Standard in September 1999 with the release of version 3.0. This character allocation has been adopted in Sri Lanka as the Standard SLS1134.

The main Unicode block for Sinhala is U+0D80–U+0DFF. Another block, Sinhala Archaic Numbers, was added to Unicode in version 7.0.0 in June 2014. Its range is U+111E0–U+111FF.

Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
1.^ As of Unicode version 7.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
Sinhala Archaic Numbers[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+111Ex 𑇡 𑇢 𑇣 𑇤 𑇥 𑇦 𑇧 𑇨 𑇩 𑇪 𑇫 𑇬 𑇭 𑇮 𑇯
U+111Fx 𑇰 𑇱 𑇲 𑇳 𑇴
1.^ As of Unicode version 7.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Computer support[edit]

Input of Sinhala characters into a terminal and Firefox on the xubuntu desktop using scim

Generally speaking, Sinhala support is less developed than support for Devanāgarī for instance. A recurring problem is the rendering of diacritics which precede the consonant and diacritic signs which come in different shapes, like the one for u.

Sinhala does not come built in with Windows XP, unlike Tamil and Hindi. However, all versions of Windows Vista come with Sinhala support by default, and do not require external fonts to be installed to read Sinhalese script.

For Mac OS X, Sinhala font and keyboard support can be found at web.nickshanks.com/typography/ and at www.xenotypetech.com/osxSinhala.html.

For Linux, the scim input method selector allows to use Sinhalese script in applications like terminals or web browsers.

Online resources[edit]

Image list for readers with font problems[edit]

  1. ^ Sinhala-suddhasinhala-img.png
  2. ^ Sinhala-misrasinhala-img.png
  3. ^ Sinhala-eluhodiya-img.png

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Daniels (1996), p. 408.
  2. ^ Gair and Paolillo 1997: 15f.
  3. ^ a b c d Gair and Paolillo 1997.
  4. ^ "Online edition of Sunday Observer - Business". Sunday Observer. Retrieved 21 September 2008. 
  5. ^ "Unicode Mail List Archive: Re: Sinhala numerals". Unicode Consortium. Retrieved 21 September 2008. 
  6. ^ Roland Russwurm. "Old Sinhala Numbers and Digits". Sinhala Online. Retrieved 23 September 2008. 
  7. ^ Daniels (1996), p. 380.
  8. ^ "Su Deraniyagala, Pre- And Protohistoric Settlement In Sri Lanka". Lankalibrary.com. 1996-09-14. Retrieved 2012-03-18. 
  9. ^ Geiger (1995) p. 2
  10. ^ Daniels (1996), p. 379.
  11. ^ Matzel (1983) p. 15, 17, 18
  12. ^ Jayawardena-Moser (2004) p. 11
  13. ^ Fairbanks et al. (1968), p. 126
  14. ^ a b Karunatillake (2004), p. xxxii
  15. ^ a b c Karunatillake (2004), p. xxxi
  16. ^ Daniels (1996), p. 410.
  17. ^ This letter is not used anywhere, neither in modern nor ancient Sinhala. Its usefulness is unclear, but it forms part of the standard alphabet <http://unicode.org/reports/tr2.html>.
  18. ^ a b Matzel (1983), p. 8
  19. ^ Matzel (1983), p. 14
  20. ^ Fairbanks et al. (1968), p. 366
  21. ^ Fairbanks et al. (1968), p. 109
  22. ^ a b Jayawardena-Moser (2004), p. 12
  23. ^ Matzel (1983), p. 16


  • Daniels, Peter T. (1996). "Sinhala alphabet". The World's Writing Systems. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507993-0. 
  • Fairbanks, G. W.; J. W. Gair, M. W. S. D. Silva (1968). Colloquial Sinhalese (Sinhala). Ithaca, NY: South Asia Programm, Cornell University. 
  • Gair, J. W.; John C. Paolillo (1997). Sinhala. München, Newcastle: South Asia Programm, Cornell University. 
  • Geiger, Wilhelm (1995). A Grammar of the Sinhalese Language. New Delhi: AES Reprint. 
  • Jayawardena-Moser, Premalatha (2004). Grundwortschatz Singhalesisch - Deutsch (3 ed.). Wiesbaden: Harassowitz. 
  • Karunatillake, W. S. (1992). An Introduction to Spoken Sinhala ([several new editions] ed.). Colombo. 
  • Matzel, Klaus (1983). Einführung in die singhalesische Sprache. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinhala_alphabet — Please support Wikipedia.
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Hiru News

Hiru News
Sat, 20 Sep 2014 01:09:07 -0700

Sinhala alphabet has been chosen as one of the 5 most beautiful alphabets in the world. A website dedicated for travel journalism called Matador Network has named the 5 most beautiful alphabets in the world where the Sinhala language used by a majority ...
Sunday Times.lk
Sat, 28 Nov 2009 11:50:42 -0800

The individual responsible for gaining the Sinhala alphabet this eminence among the written scripts of the world is J.B. Disanayaka, a former Professor of Sinhala at the University of Colombo who made an irrefutable case for placing the Sinhala ...

Hiru News

Hiru News
Thu, 05 Jun 2014 05:03:37 -0700

In addition, patches with the Sinhala alphabet printed with citronella ink were also issued to school children. These patches displayed the children's initials and acted as personal protection from the mosquito. Finally, on the last day of National ...
The Japan Times
Sat, 31 Aug 2013 06:58:31 -0700

Children enjoyed intercultural experiences ranging from Thai vegetable carving to learning Sri Lanka's Sinhala alphabet Saturday in Tokyo. Children's International Festa 2013, held at Yebisu Garden Place in Shibuya Ward, provided kids with ...
The Island.lk (subscription)
Fri, 04 May 2012 13:36:28 -0700

Narrating the development of the current 61-character Sinhala alphabet the Professor often sent the audience into fits of laughter. He said that as far as he knew the 'sangngakaya' of 'ja' was found only in the word 'inju', a vocative case word ...


Sun, 09 Jun 2013 15:02:51 -0700

It was this school's headmaster (Palaveni Mahattaya) who first read the Sinhala alphabet to me at age 3. Now the school stood closed although the main building remained intact. Vanished was the house that the headmaster's family lived. I wondered about ...
The Sunday Times Sri Lanka
Sat, 24 Nov 2012 12:00:31 -0800

Just as his tapestries keep evolving, so too his art – uniquely satirical, it is drawn from a vast panoply: the Sinhala alphabet to French cabaret, bullocks, devil dancers to cricket, the latter his most recent innovation coming in the form of a TV ...
Mon, 26 Sep 2011 13:18:25 -0700

“Who is to say that robbing a people of their language is less violent than war?” (Ray Gwyn Smith). Robbing a people of their language is not lessviolent than war; yes I agree.But at the same time I would say that it's also not lessbrutal than genocide ...

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