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For other uses, see Simony (disambiguation).
Dante speaks to Pope Nicholas III, committed to the Inferno for his simony, in Gustave Doré's wood engraving, 1861. (portrait of the Third Bolgia of the Eighth Circle of Hell)
Abbot practising simony (France, 12th century)

Simony (pron. [ˈsaɪ.mə.ni] or [ˈsɪ.mə.ni]) is the act of selling church offices and roles. The practice is named after Simon Magus,[1] who is described in the Acts of the Apostles 8:9–24 as having offered two disciples of Jesus, Peter and John, payment in exchange for their empowering him to impart the power of the Holy Spirit to anyone on whom he would place his hands. The term also extends to other forms of trafficking for money in "spiritual things".[2][3] Simony was also one of the important issues during the Investiture Controversy.

History[edit]

Simony is an offence against the law of the church. In the canon law, the word bears a more extended meaning than in English law. Simony according to the canonists, says John Ayliffe in his Parergon,

"...is defined to be a deliberate act or a premeditated will and desire of selling such things as are spiritual, or of anything annexed unto spirituals, by giving something of a temporal nature for the purchase thereof; or in other terms it is defined to be a commutation of a thing spiritual or annexed unto spirituals by giving something that is temporal."

In the Corpus Juris Canonici the Decretum[4] and the Decretals [5] deal with the subject. The offender whether simoniacus (one who had bought his orders) or simoniace promotus (one who had bought his promotion), was liable to deprivation of his benefice and deposition from orders if a secular priest, or to confinement in a stricter monastery if a regular. No distinction seems to have been drawn between the sale of an immediate and of a reversionary interest. The innocent simoniace promotus was, apart from dispensation, liable to the same penalties as though he were guilty.[clarification needed]

Certain matters were simoniacal by the canon law which would not be so regarded in English law.[6] So grave was the crime of simony considered that even infamous persons could accuse of it. English provincial and legatine constitutions continually assailed simony.

Church of England[edit]

The Church of England also struggled with the practice after its separation from Rome. For the purposes of English law, simony is defined by William Blackstone as the corrupt presentation of any person to an ecclesiastical benefice for money, gift or reward.[7] While English law recognized simony as an offence,[8] it treated it as merely an ecclesiastical matter, rather than a crime, for which the punishment was forfeiture of the office or any advantage from the offence and severance of any patronage relationship with the person who bestowed the office. Both Edward VI of England and Elizabeth I promulgated statutes against simony. The cases of Bishop of St. David's Thomas Watson in 1699[9] and of Dean of York William Cockburn in 1841 were particularly notable.[10]

By the Benefices Act 1892, a person guilty of simony is guilty of an offence for which he may be proceeded against under the Clergy Discipline Act 1892. An innocent clerk is under no disability, as he might be by the canon law. Simony may be committed in three ways – in promotion to orders, in presentation to a benefice, and in resignation of a benefice. The common law (with which the canon law is incorporated, as far as it is not contrary to the common or statute law or the prerogative of the Crown) has been considerably modified by statute. Where no statute applies to the case, the doctrines of the canon law may still be of authority.

As of 2011, simony remains an offence.[3][11] An unlawfully bestowed office can be declared void by the Crown, and the offender can be disabled from making future appointments and fined up to £1000.[12] Clergy are no longer required to make a declaration as to simony on ordination, but offences are now likely to be dealt with under the Clergy Discipline Measure 2003,[13] r.8.[11]

Girolamo and cardinal Marco Corner investing Marco, abbot of Carrara, with his benefice, Titian, ca 1520

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Reader's Encyclopedia (1965), New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, vol.2, p.932, "Simon."
  2. ^ Smith (1880)
  3. ^ a b Halsbury 832
  4. ^ Pt. ii. cause i. quest. 3
  5. ^ Bk. v. tit. 3.
  6. ^ For example, the sale of tithes, the taking of a fee for confession, absolution, marriage or burial, the concealment of one in mortal sin or the reconcilement of an impenitent for the sake of gain, and the doing of homage for spiritualities.
  7. ^ Cf. Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England
  8. ^ 3 Coke's Institutes 153–156
  9. ^ Handley, S. (2004) "Watson, Thomas (1637–1717)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 August 2007 (subscription required)
  10. ^ The Times, 10 April 1841, p.6 col.b, reprinted from the Cambridge Advertiser
  11. ^ a b Halsbury 1359
  12. ^ Simony Act 1588, s.4
  13. ^ 2003 No.3

Bibliography[edit]

  •  "Ayliffe, John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  • Lord Mackay of Clashfern (ed.) (2002) Halsbury's Laws of England, 4th ed. Vol.14, "Ecclesiastical Law", 832 'Penalties and disability on simony'; 1359 'Simony' (see also current updates)
  • Smith, W. (1880). A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities: Being a Continuation of the 'Dictionary of the Bible'. J.B. Burr Pub. Co. pp. "Simony". 
  • Weber, N. A. (1913) "Simony", Catholic Encyclopaedia'

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simony — Please support Wikipedia.
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838 news items

Ofuxico

Globo.com
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 18:17:23 -0700

Simony grava DVD de 30 anos de carreira com presença de famosos em São Paulo. Mara Maravilha, Gaby Amarantos, entre outros, estiveram no show realizado na noite desta quarta-feira, 20. Do Ego ...

Cidadeverde.com

Regiao Noroeste
Sat, 23 Aug 2014 12:30:00 -0700

Brasil - A gravação do DVD de comemoração dos 30 anos de carreira de Simony, na última quarta (20), teve um grande barraco nos bastidores. A cantora demorou mais de duas horas para atender individualmente equipes de programas de TV. Minutos ...

Wirtualna Polska

Onet.pl
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 12:59:00 -0700

US Open: sensacyjna porażka Simony Halep. Simona Halep (2. WTA) wciąż musi czekać na swój pierwszy wielkoszlemowy łup. W trzeciej rundzie US Open Rumunka nieoczekiwanie przegrała z Chorwatką Mirjaną Lucic-Baroni (119. WTA) 6:7(6), 2:6. Poleć.
 
R7
Sun, 17 Aug 2014 15:07:24 -0700

A cantora Simony esteve presente no palco do Domingo Show deste fim de semana para cantar seus famosos sucessos dos anos de 1980 e encarar a polêmica Roleta da Morte. Entre as perguntas marcantes, ela falou sobre vida pessoal e profissional e ...

Ofuxico

Globo.com
Mon, 04 Aug 2014 13:59:52 -0700

Simony esteve na inauguração de uma marca de roupas em São Paulo nesta segunda-feira, 4, acompanhada da filha Aysha Benelli. As duas posaram para fotos juntas durante o evento. Na semana passada a cantora gospel comemorou seu aniversário de ...
 
SportoweFakty.pl
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 13:55:32 -0700

Simona Halep pokonała Janę Cepelovą i awansowała do III rundy wielkoszlemowego US Open rozgrywanego na kortach Flushing Meadows w Nowym Jorku. W I rundzie Simona Halep (WTA 2) straciła seta z anonimową Amerykanką Danielle Collins.
 
R7
Sun, 17 Aug 2014 11:22:30 -0700

A cantora Simony participou da Roleta da Morte do Domingo Show e foi confrontada com temas espinhosos de sua vida. Ela falou sobre síndrome do pânico, comentou os boatos de brigas dentro do Balão Mágico, respondeu sobre o preconceito que a filha ...
 
R7
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 04:14:58 -0700

De volta aos anos 80! Simony grava DVD de 30 anos de carreira ao lado de Fofão, MC Gui, Belo e convidados. No palco, Gaby Amarantos e Jair Oliveira também agitaram o mais novo trabalho da cantora. R7 Página Inicial ...
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