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For other uses, see Simony (disambiguation).
Dante speaks to Pope Nicholas III, committed to the Inferno for his simony, in Gustave Doré's wood engraving, 1861. (portrait of the Third Bolgia of the Eighth Circle of Hell)
Abbot practising simony (France, 12th century)

Simony (pron. [ˈsaɪ.mə.ni] or [ˈsɪ.mə.ni]) is the act of selling church offices and roles. (Sherman & Salisbury, 2011) The practice is named after Simon Magus,[1] who is described in the Acts of the Apostles 8:9–24 as having offered two disciples of Jesus, Peter and John, payment in exchange for their empowering him to impart the power of the Holy Spirit to anyone on whom he would place his hands. The term also extends to other forms of trafficking for money in "spiritual things".[2][3] Simony was also one of the important issues during the Investiture Controversy.

History[edit]

Simony is an offence against the law of the church. In the canon law, the word bears a more extended meaning than in English law. Simony according to the canonists, says John Ayliffe in his Parergon,

"...is defined to be a deliberate act or a premeditated will and desire of selling such things as are spiritual, or of anything annexed unto spirituals, by giving something of a temporal nature for the purchase thereof; or in other terms it is defined to be a commutation of a thing spiritual or annexed unto spirituals by giving something that is temporal."

In the Corpus Juris Canonici the Decretum[4] and the Decretals [5] deal with the subject. The offender whether simoniacus (one who had bought his orders) or simoniace promotus (one who had bought his promotion), was liable to deprivation of his benefice and deposition from orders if a secular priest, or to confinement in a stricter monastery if a regular. No distinction seems to have been drawn between the sale of an immediate and of a reversionary interest. The innocent simoniace promotus was, apart from dispensation, liable to the same penalties as though he were guilty.[clarification needed]

Certain matters were simoniacal by the canon law which would not be so regarded in English law.[6] So grave was the crime of simony considered that even infamous persons could accuse of it. English provincial and legatine constitutions continually assailed simony.

Church of England[edit]

The Church of England also struggled with the practice after its separation from Rome. For the purposes of English law, simony is defined by William Blackstone as the corrupt presentation of any person to an ecclesiastical benefice for money, gift or reward.[7] While English law recognized simony as an offence,[8] it treated it as merely an ecclesiastical matter, rather than a crime, for which the punishment was forfeiture of the office or any advantage from the offence and severance of any patronage relationship with the person who bestowed the office. Both Edward VI of England and Elizabeth I promulgated statutes against simony. The cases of Bishop of St. David's Thomas Watson in 1699[9] and of Dean of York William Cockburn in 1841 were particularly notable.[10]

By the Benefices Act 1892, a person guilty of simony is guilty of an offence for which he may be proceeded against under the Clergy Discipline Act 1892. An innocent clerk is under no disability, as he might be by the canon law. Simony may be committed in three ways – in promotion to orders, in presentation to a benefice, and in resignation of a benefice. The common law (with which the canon law is incorporated, as far as it is not contrary to the common or statute law or the prerogative of the Crown) has been considerably modified by statute. Where no statute applies to the case, the doctrines of the canon law may still be of authority.

As of 2011, simony remains an offence.[3][11] An unlawfully bestowed office can be declared void by the Crown, and the offender can be disabled from making future appointments and fined up to £1000.[12] Clergy are no longer required to make a declaration as to simony on ordination, but offences are now likely to be dealt with under the Clergy Discipline Measure 2003,[13] r.8.[11]

Girolamo and cardinal Marco Corner investing Marco, abbot of Carrara, with his benefice, Titian, ca 1520

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Reader's Encyclopedia (1965), New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, vol.2, p.932, "Simon."
  2. ^ Smith (1880)
  3. ^ a b Halsbury 832
  4. ^ Pt. ii. cause i. quest. 3
  5. ^ Bk. v. tit. 3.
  6. ^ For example, the sale of tithes, the taking of a fee for confession, absolution, marriage or burial, the concealment of one in mortal sin or the reconcilement of an impenitent for the sake of gain, and the doing of homage for spiritualities.
  7. ^ Cf. Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England
  8. ^ 3 Coke's Institutes 153–156
  9. ^ Handley, S. (2004) "Watson, Thomas (1637–1717)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 August 2007 (subscription required)
  10. ^ The Times, 10 April 1841, p.6 col.b, reprinted from the Cambridge Advertiser
  11. ^ a b Halsbury 1359
  12. ^ Simony Act 1588, s.4
  13. ^ 2003 No.3

Bibliography[edit]

  •  "Ayliffe, John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  • Lord Mackay of Clashfern (ed.) (2002) Halsbury's Laws of England, 4th ed. Vol.14, "Ecclesiastical Law", 832 'Penalties and disability on simony'; 1359 'Simony' (see also current updates)
  • Smith, W. (1880). A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities: Being a Continuation of the 'Dictionary of the Bible'. J.B. Burr Pub. Co. pp. "Simony". 
  • Weber, N. A. (1913) "Simony", Catholic Encyclopaedia'

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simony — Please support Wikipedia.
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ENTREVISTA DE SIMONY NO PROGRAMA SABÁDO TOTAL PARTE 01/02

Simony fala sobre ensaio nu: 'hoje não faço nem por R$ 20 milhões' Exclusivo! Gilberto Barros conversa com Simony sobre carreira, sucesso, família e outras p...

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Simony e o filho recebem alta da maternidade: 'estou muito feliz'

Simony e o namorado mostram o filho Anthony na maternidade antes de receberam alta. VEJA MAIS NO BLOG SIMONY STAR: http://simonystar.blogspot.com.br/

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Para a pessoa mais linda do mundo!!! Bruno...te amo!!!

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24651 videos foundNext > 

933 news items

 
Metal Underground
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 12:41:15 -0700

The Curse Of Millhaven has a new video clip out now for "Simony," a song from taken from the band's upcoming record "Vestibule of Hell," which will be released next week through Genet Records. The Curse Of Millhaven consists of: Jasper Lobelle - Vocals

PBAgora - A Paraíba o tempo todo

Alagoas 24 Horas
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:42:23 -0700

Simony não gostou nada do que leu e ficou furiosa. "Você não tem obrigação nenhuma de achar meus filhos bonitos. Afinal, gosto não dá pra discutir. Agora, educação vem de berço. Respeito pelo próximo não tem plástica que dê jeito. Sinto muito por você, ...
 
Washington Post (blog)
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 09:19:12 -0700

... that fits even my definition of plagiarism: Johnson lifted this line verbatim from About.com: “Technically, any Catholic male who has reached the age of reason, is not a heretic, is not in schism, and is not 'notorious' for simony can be elected ...
 
Revista Quem
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 23:43:31 -0700

A cantora Simony visitou, na segunda-feira (28), o ateliê do estilista Lucca Vasconcellos, em São Paulo, e posou para uma sessão de fotos de divulgação de seu novo DVD. saiba mais. Simony comemora 38 anos ao lado dos filhos e do namorado.
 
Washington Post (blog)
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 12:30:00 -0700

In the same piece, Weingarten concedes that, in one instance, Johnson did pull something of intrinsic value, from About.com: “Technically, any Catholic male who has reached the age of reason, is not a heretic, is not in schism, and is not 'notorious ...

Ofuxico

iG Gente
Thu, 03 Jul 2014 04:26:44 -0700

Com um vestido justinho, Simony comemorou seu aniversário de 38 anos ao lado do namorado, Patrick Silva, e dos filhos, Anthony, Ryan, Aysha e Pyetra, na noite dessa quarta-feira (2), em São Paulo. Sob o olhar do público desde muito pequena, a cantora ...
 
Globo.com
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 19:47:51 -0700

Simony festeja seus 38 anos com a família. Ao lado do namorado e dos filhos, cantora comemorou seu aniversário na noite desta quarta-feira, 2, em São Paulo. Do Ego. Simony em sua festa de aniversário em São Paulo Iwi Onodera/ EGO. Simony em sua ...
 
R7
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 14:45:00 -0700

Simony não é mulher que leva desaforo para casa. Na tarde desta quinta-feira (24), a cantora bateu boca com uma usuária na rede social. O motivo? Após compartilhar uma imagem da filha Aysha no Instagram, ela recebeu um comentário que criticava a ...
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