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Simeon Borisov Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Tsar Simeon II or Simeon II of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Симеон Борисов Сакскобургготски, transl. Simeon Borisov Sakskoburggotski or Цар Симеон II; German: Simeon von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha or Simeon von Wettin; Italian: Simeone di Sassonia-Coburgo-Gotha) (born 16 June 1937) is an important political and royal figure in Bulgaria. During his reign as the Tsar of Bulgaria from 1943 to 1946 he was a minor, the monarchical authority being exercised over the kingdom on his behalf by a regency. The regents were Simeon's uncle Prince Kiril, General Nikola Mihov and the prime minister, Bogdan Filov. In 1946 the monarchy was overthrown as a consequence of a referendum, and Simeon was forced into exile. He returned to his home country in 1996. He resumed the role of leader of the nation upon taking office as Prime Minister of the Republic of Bulgaria from July 2001 until August 2005.
As of 2014, Simeon is one of the three last living heads of state from World War II (the others are former King Michael of Romania and Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet), the only living person who has borne the title "Tsar", and one of only two monarchs in history to have become the head of government through democratic elections (Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia is the other).
- 1 Royal history
- 2 Towards exile
- 3 Education and business career
- 4 Monarch in exile
- 5 Marriage and family
- 6 Political return
- 7 Views on restoration of the Bulgarian monarchy
- 8 Autobiography
- 9 Heir to the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Koháry
- 10 Titles, styles, honours, and arms
- 11 Ancestors
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Bibliography
- 15 External links
Simeon was born the son of Boris III and Giovanna of Italy. Following his birth, Boris III sent an air force officer to the River Jordan to obtain water for Simeon's baptism in the Orthodox faith. He became tsar on 28 August 1943 on the death of his father, who had just returned to Bulgaria from a meeting with Adolf Hitler. Since Tsar Simeon was only six years old when he ascended the throne, his uncle Prince Kyril, Prime Minister Bogdan Filov, and Lieutenant-General Nikola Mihailov Mihov of the Bulgarian Army were appointed regents.
On 5 September 1944 the Soviet Union declared war on Bulgaria and three days later the Red Army entered the country without encountering resistance. On the next day, 9 September 1944, Prince Kyril and the other regents were deposed by a Soviet-backed coup and arrested. The three regents, all members of the last three governments, Parliament deputies, heads of the army and eminent journalists were executed by the Communists in February 1945.
The royal family (Queen Giovanna, Simeon II, and his sister Maria-Louisa) remained at Vrana Palace near Sofia, while three new regents were appointed (Todor Pavlov, Venelin Ganev and Tsvyatko Boboshevski). On 15 September 1946, a referendum was held in the presence of the Soviet army. It resulted in a 97% "approval" for republic and abolishment of the monarchy. On 16 September 1946, the royal family was exiled from Bulgaria. Simeon II has never signed any abdication papers—neither at that moment when he was nine years old, nor later. The royal family first went to Alexandria, Egypt, where Queen Giovanna's father Victor Emanuel III, King of Italy, lived in exile. There, Simeon II finished Victoria College (along with Crown Prince Leka of Albania). In July 1951, the Spanish government granted asylum to the family.
Education and business career
In Madrid, Simeon studied at the Lycée Français, but did not graduate. On 16 June 1955, upon turning 18, in accordance with the Tarnovo Constitution Simeon II read his proclamation to the Bulgarian people as the Tsar of Bulgaria, confirming his will to be king of all Bulgarians and follow the principles of the Tarnovo Constitution and free Bulgaria. In 1958, he enrolled at Valley Forge Military Academy and College in the United States, where he was known as "Cadet Rylski No. 6883", and graduated as a second lieutenant. Once again in Spain (between 1959 and 1962), Simeon studied law and business administration.
He became a businessman. For thirteen years, he was chairman of the Spanish subsidiary of Thomson, a French defence and electronics group. He was also an adviser in the banking, hotel, electronics, and catering sectors.
Monarch in exile
Simeon issued several political declarations during his exile through his "chancellery" in Madrid directed at the Communist regime in Bulgaria and his exiled compatriots. His early attempts at forming an official government in exile did not come to fruition, however.
Marriage and family
In 1962 Simeon married a Spanish aristocrat, doña Margarita Gómez-Acebo y Cejuela. The couple have five children – four sons (Kardam, Kiril, Kubrat and Konstantin) and a daughter, Kalina, all of whom subsequently married Spaniards. All of his sons received names of Bulgarian kings.
- Kardam (born 1962) married Miriam de Ungría y López. They have two sons, Boris and Beltran.
- Kiril (born 1964) married María del Rosario Nadal y Fuster-Puigdórfila. They have two daughters, Mafalda and Olimpia, and one son, Tassilo.
- Kubrat (born 1965) married Carla María de la Soledad Royo-Villanova y Urrestarazu. They have three sons: Mirko, Lukás and Tirso.
- Konstantin-Assen (born 1967) married María García de la Rasilla y Gortázar. They have twins, Umberto and Sofia.
- Kalina (born 1972) married Antonio José "Kitín" Muñoz y Valcárcel. They have one son, Simeon Hassan.
In 1990, a few months after the fall of Communism, Simeon was issued a new Bulgarian passport. In 1996, 50 years after the abolition of the monarchy, Simeon returned to Bulgaria and was met in many places by crowds cheering: "We want our King!" He did not, at that point, make any political announcements or moves.
Various estates in Bulgaria that had been nationalized during the Communist era were returned to Simeon and his family. In 2001, Simeon, who had by this time taken the name Simeon Borisov Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, announced he would return to Bulgaria to form a new political party, the National Movement Simeon II (NMSII), dedicated to "reforms and political integrity." Simeon promised that in 800 days the Bulgarian people would feel tangible positive effects of his government and would enjoy significantly higher standards of living.
- For details on his cabinet, see: Sakskoburggotski Government
NMSII won a large victory in the parliamentary elections held on 17 June 2001, capturing 120 of the 240 seats in Parliament and defeating the two main pre-existing political parties. Simeon gave an oath as Prime Minister of Bulgaria on 24 July, forming a coalition with the ethnic Turkish party Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF). He gave ministerial positions in his government mainly to technocrats and Western-educated economic specialists. In 2002, his efforts were recognized by his receiving the 2002 Path to Peace Award from the Path to Peace Foundation. During his time in power, Bulgaria joined EC and NATO.
In the 2005 elections, Simeon's party ranked second and participated in the grand coalition government led by the Bulgarian Socialist Party and including the Movement for Rights and Freedoms. Simeon II was given the unofficial ceremonial post of Chairman of the Coalition Council.
Views on restoration of the Bulgarian monarchy
Simeon II has never formally renounced his claim to the Bulgarian throne. He used the title "Tsar of the Bulgarians" in his political statements during his exile. Since his return to Bulgaria, however, Simeon has consistently declined to reveal his views on the restoration of the Bulgarian monarchy, notwithstanding the name of his party. Upon taking office as prime minister, he took an oath to protect the country's republican constitution.
Simeon II wrote an autobiography in French under the title Simeon II de Bulgarie, un destin singulier that was released in Bulgaria on 28 October 2014. It was first presented at the headquarters of the UNESCO in Paris on 22 October 2014.
Heir to the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Koháry
After the death of his distant cousin Prince Johannes Heinrich of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in April 2010 and due to the exclusion of the late prince's uncle Philipp Josias Maria Joseph Ignatius Michael Gabriel Raphael Gonzaga (Walterskirchen, 18 August 1901 – 31 December 1994) children and descendants from his morganatic marriage with Sarah Aurelia Halasz, Simeon became the Head of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Koháry, former Magnates of Hungary, and heir to the castles of Čabraď and Sv. Anton, both in modern day Slovakia. In early 2012, he nominally ceded his rights to the headship of the princely house of Koháry to his sister Princess Marie Louise of Bulgaria.
Titles, styles, honours, and arms
|Reference style||His Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
- His Royal Highness The Prince of Turnovo, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony (1937–1943)
- His Majesty The Tsar of the Bulgarians (1943–1946)
- His Majesty Tsar Simeon II of the Bulgarians (pretender, 1946–present)
- Simeon Sakskoburggotski (used in Bulgaria)
- His Majesty King Simeon II of the Bulgarians (used outside Bulgaria)
- His Excellency Mr. Simeon Sakskoburggotski (as Prime Minister of Bulgaria, 2001–2005)
- Belgium: Grand Cross of Order of the Crown (Belgium)
- France: Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur
- Spain: Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (1 October 2004) 
- Jordan: Grand Cordon of the Order of Independence
- Kingdom of Bulgaria: Grand Cross (or Collar) of the Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius
- House of Savoy: Knight of the Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
- Two Sicilies: Knight Grand Cross of Justice of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George
- Two Sicilies: Knight of the Order of Saint Januarius
- The Boy Who Was a King
- List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 20th and 21st centuries
- House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
- Kate Connolly, "Once upon a time in Bulgaria", The Guardian, 20 June 2001.
- "Bulgarian Rule Goes to Son, 6. Reports on 5-Day Illness Conflict", United Press dispatch of 28 August 1943, in a cutting from an unknown newspaper in the collection of historian James L. Cabot, Ludington, Michigan
- Theo Aronson, Crowns in Conflict, p.202. London: John Murray (Publishers) Ltd., 1986. ISBN 0-7195-4279-0
- Geoffrey Hindley, The Royal Families of Europe, p. 156. London: Lyric Books Ltd., 1979. ISBN 0-07-093530-0
- Lilov 2013, p. 89.
- Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha – Prime Minister of Bulgaria
- Lilov 2013, p. 91.
- Lilov 2013, p. 93.
- Path to Peace Foundation website
- "Симеон Сакскобургготски подаде оставка" (in Bulgarian). Труд. 6 July 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
-  - unesco.org
- Biography H.M. King Simeon II – Official website of the king (English)
- Noblesse et Royautés, Guillaume of Luxembourg's wedding : gala dinner, Photo of Margarita & Simeon II, showing him with the Golden Fleece around the neck, the sash and star of the Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius, the star of ? and the star of Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Belgium (the one at the bottom)
- Photo of King Simeon II and "Queen" Margarita at the wedding of Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden and Daniel Westling, Simeon wears around the neck, the necklet of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the collar of the Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius and its star on the left chest above the stars of the ? and the Légion d'honneur
- Spanish: Otras disposiciones BOE 07-10-02, Spanish Official Journal (accessed on 30 October 2008)
- Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George (2008). "Membership of the Constantinian Order". g/ Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- The Royal House of the Two Sicilies (2008). "MEMBERSHIP OF THE ROYAL ILLUSTRIUOS ORDER OF ST. JANUARIUS". g/ The Royal House of the Two Sicilies. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
- Ramon Perez-Maura, El rey posible: Simeon de Bulgaria, Belacqua, Madrid, 2002 (ISBN 8495894238)
- Simeon II de Bulgarie, Sébastien de Courtois , Un destin singulier, Flammarion, 2014 (ISBN 9782081314672)
In addition to the books listed in the References, the following may be mentioned:
- Walter J.R. Curley, Monarchs in Waiting. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1975. (pp. 23–25: "Bulgaria: His Majesty King Simeon II")
- Pashanko Dimitroff, Boris III of Bulgaria 1894–1943. London, 1986. ISBN 0-86332-140-2
- Charles Fenyvesi, Royalty in Exile. London: Robson Books, 1981. (pp. 153–171: "Czar Simeon of the Bulgars") ISBN 0-86051-131-6
- Stephane Groueff Crown of Thorns, Lanham MD. and London, 1987. ISBN 0-8191-5778-3
- Gregory Lauder-Frost, The Betrayal of Bulgaria, Monarchist League Policy Paper, London, 1989.
- Robert K. Massie and Jeffrey Firestone, The Last Courts of Europe. New York: Greenwich House, 1983. ISBN 0-517-41472-4
- The Daily Telegraph, Obituary for "HM Queen Ioanna of the Bulgarians", London, 28 February 2000.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Simeon II of Bulgaria.|
- King Simeon II
- The first website about Simeon II of Bulgaria focuses on his pre-1995 history
- Financial Times July 2001 Biography
- Saxe-Coburg-Gotha's address, 10 February 2005 concerning amending the constitution to bring it in line with EU requirements
- Saxe-Coburg-Gotha's statement, 5 July 2002 concerning Bulgaria's candidacy for NATO membership: "The role of the international community should be gradually transformed from crisis response to integration. Palliative measures intended to mitigate yet another crisis cannot bring stability and prosperity. The best solution is the region's integration into the European and Euroatlantic institutions."
Cadet branch of the House of WettinBorn: 16 June 1937
|Tsar of Bulgaria
as Tsar of Bulgaria
|Head of State of Bulgaria
as Tsar of Bulgaria
as Acting President of Bulgaria
|Prime Minister of Bulgaria
|Titles in pretence|
||— TITULAR —
Tsar of Bulgaria
HH Prince Alexander Ernst of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
|Line of succession to the Saxe-Coburg and Gotha throne
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