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Shudra is the fourth varna, as prescribed in the Purusha Sukta of the Rig veda, one of the sacred texts of Hinduism. This text defines society as comprising four groups, sometimes also called chaturvarna, of which the other three are Brahmins (priests), Kshatriya (those with governing functions) and Vaishya (agriculturalists, cattle rearers and traders). According to this ancient text, the Shudra perform functions of serving the other three varna.[1]

The varna system became rigid in the later Vedic period. In modern Indian society, the government is taking steps to end these distinctions.[2]

Ambedkar, a polymath and a Dalit (untouchable) activist, believed that there were initially only three varnas: the Brahmin, Kshatriya and Vaishya, and that the Shudras were the Kshatriyas who were denied the Upanayana, an initiation ritual, by the Brahmins. He said that "Owing to the denial of the Upanayana, the Shudras who were Kshatriyas became socially degraded, fell below the rank of the Vaishyas and thus came to form the fourth varna."[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mishra, Anil Dutta, ed. (1999). Gandhism After Gandhi. Mittal Publications. p. 101. ISBN 9788170997252. 
  2. ^ Naval, T. R. (2001). Law of prevention of atrocities on the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes. Concept Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 9788170228851. 
  3. ^ Ambedkar, B.R. (1970). Who were the Shudras. Bombay: Thackers. p. xiv. 

Further reading[edit]



Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shudra — Please support Wikipedia.
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31 news items

Rockombia

Rockombia
Mon, 11 Aug 2014 22:48:45 -0700

Con el sonido crudo y contundente que los caracteriza, la banda paisa "Shudra" vuelve estrenando el videoclip del tema “Último aliento”. Desde Medellín, los metaleros liderados por Juan Sebastian Duque, muestran una vez más esas temáticas que ...
 
Yorkshire Post
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 21:51:56 -0700

... S Savage 6 (2); T Saxton 9 (9); J Schofield 9 (3); B Scott 2 (1); H Sellars 7 (3); C Senior 11 (11); J Senior 7 (4); A Shaw 7 (4); A Shaw 7 (1); C Shaw 11 (11); J Shaw 11 (11); W Shaw 8 (7); V Shepherd 11 (11); C Shudra 11 (11); J Simcox 9 (7); K ...

Niticentral

Niticentral
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 19:25:48 -0700

Very intelligent analogy is given in one of the Hindu scripture, where it is described Brahmin as brain, Kshatriya as limb, Vaishya as belly and Shudra as impuritiy-removal body parts, imbalance in any of these endanger the life. Sword or deceit has ...
 
The Journal News / Lohud.com
Fri, 15 Aug 2014 15:18:45 -0700

At the top, Brahmins, as priests and teachers; at the bottom, Shudra, or servants. Even lower: the Dalits, the untouchable underclass of more than 160 million people. But Kaushik, a high-born Hindu, spent his life moving between worlds. As a youth, he ...
 
C O U N T E R V I E W
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 20:38:03 -0700

He says that motorcars were invented in India during the Vedic period (1500 to 500 BCE), that stem cell research was invented in India thousands of years ago, that Indian sages have been using television for centuries, and that the word “shudra” was ...
 
Insurance News Net
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 02:00:00 -0700

"We were approached by Michelle Culler , and this is the first time that we've participated in this particular contest," Shudra said. "It gives our kids an opportunity at the club, if Michelle wins, to see some species of animals that they've never ...
 
Outlook
Sat, 16 Aug 2014 00:05:52 -0700

Actually, the most populous Shudra band of castes also should be beef-eaters, though many of them seem to have emulated dwija habits after their post-1960s prosperity.” Yet, for all the numbers, there was a pushback from the state and from the dominant ...
 
The Hindu
Fri, 15 Aug 2014 12:18:12 -0700

These were texts of a legal and normative nature that were specifically about shudra-dharma: the rituals, duties and constraints associated with shudras, the social category that constitutes the fourth stratum of the orthodox brahminical fourfold varna ...
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