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For 1994 film, see Shrunken Heads (film).
Shrunken head from the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford

A shrunken head is a severed and specially prepared human head that is used for trophy, ritual, or trade purposes.

Headhunting has occurred in many regions of the world. But the practice of headshrinking has only been documented in the northwestern region of the Amazon rain forest,[1] and the only tribes known to have shrunken human heads are of the Jivaroan tribes. These include the Shuar, Achuar, Huambisa and Aguaruna tribes, found in Ecuador and Peru. The Shuar call a shrunken head a tsantsa,[2] also transliterated tzantza.

Process[edit]

Shrunken head from the Shuar people, on display in the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford

The process of creating a shrunken head begins with removing the skull from the head. An incision is made on the back of the neck and all the skin and flesh is removed from the cranium. Red seeds are placed underneath the eyelids and the eyelids are sewn shut. The mouth is held together with three palm pins. Fat from the flesh of the head is removed. It is here that a wooden ball is placed in order to keep the form. The flesh is then boiled in water that has been saturated with a number of herbs containing tannins. The head is then dried with hot rocks and sand, while molding it to retain its human features. The skin is then rubbed down with charcoal ash. Decorative beads may be added to the head.

In the head shrinking tradition, it is believed that coating the skin in ash keeps the muisak, or avenging soul, from seeping out.

Shrunken heads are known for their mandibular prognathism, facial distortion and shrinkage of the lateral sides of the forehead; these are artifacts of the shrinking process.

Among the Shuar and Achuar, the reduction of the heads was followed by a series of feasts centered on important rituals.

Significance[edit]

Shrunken head exhibited at the Lightner Museum in St. Augustine, Florida.

The practice of preparing shrunken heads originally had religious significance; shrinking the head of an enemy was believed to harness the spirit of that enemy and compel him to serve the shrinker. It was said to prevent the soul from avenging his death.[3]

Shuar believed in the existence of three fundamental spirits:

  • Wakani - innate to humans thus surviving their death.
  • Arutam - literally "vision" or "power", protects humans from a violent death.
  • Muisak - vengeful spirit, which surfaces when a person carrying an arutam spirit is murdered.

To block a Muisak from using its powers, they severed their enemies' heads and shrank them. The process also served as a way of warning their enemies. Despite these precautions, the owner of the trophy did not keep it for long. Many heads were later used in religious ceremonies and feasts that celebrated the victories of the tribe. Accounts vary as to whether the heads would be discarded or stored.

Trade in shrunken heads[edit]

When Westerners created an economic demand for shrunken heads there was a sharp increase in the rate of killings in an effort to supply tourists and collectors of ethnographic items.[4][5] The terms headhunting and headhunting parties come from this practice.

Guns were usually what the Shuar acquired in exchange for their shrunken heads, the rate being one gun per head. But weapons were not the only items exchanged. Around 1910, shrunken heads were being sold by a curio shop in Lima for one Peruvian gold pound, equal in value to a British gold sovereign.[6] In 1919, the price in Panama's curio shop for shrunken heads had risen to £5.[6] By the 1930s, when heads were freely exchanged, a person could buy a shrunken head for about twenty-five U.S. dollars. A stop was put to this when the Peruvian and Ecuadorian governments worked together to outlaw the traffic in heads.

Also encouraged by this trade, people in Colombia and Panama unconnected to the Jívaros began to make counterfeit tsantsas. They used corpses from morgues, or the heads of monkeys or sloths. Some even used goatskin. Kate Duncan wrote in 2001 that "It has been estimated that about 80 percent of the tsantsas in private and museum hands are fraudulent," including almost all that are female or which include an entire torso rather than just a head.[3]

Thor Heyerdahl recounts in Kon-Tiki (1947) the various problems of getting into the Jívaro (Shuar) area in Ecuador to get balsa wood for his expedition raft. Local people would not guide his team into the jungle for fear of being killed and having their heads shrunk. In 1951 and 1952 sales of such items in London were being advertised in The Times, one example being priced at $250, a hundredfold appreciation since the early twentieth century. [6]

In 1999, the National Museum of the American Indian repatriated the authentic shrunken heads in its collection to Ecuador.[3] Most other countries have also banned the trade. Currently, replica shrunken heads are manufactured as curios for the tourist trade. These are made from leather and animal hides formed to resemble the originals.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ National Geographic's SEARCH FOR THE AMAZON HEADSHRINKERS Documentary, National Geographic
  2. ^ Steven Rubenstein (2006) Circulation, Accumulation, and the Power of Shuar Shrunken Heads. Cultural Anthropology vol 22 issue 3 pp. 357-399
  3. ^ a b c Duncan 2001.
  4. ^ Bennett Ross, Jane. 1984 "Effects of Contact on Revenge Hostilities Among the Achuara Jívaro," in Warfare Culture, and Environment, ed. R.B. Ferguson, Orlando: Academic Press
  5. ^ Steel, Daniel 1999 “Trade Goods and Jívaro Warfare: The Shuar 1850-1956, and the Achuar, 1940-1978,” in Ethnohistory 46(4): 745-776.
  6. ^ a b c C. J. Eastaugh, ‘Shrunken Head For Sale,’ The Times (London, 17 July 1952), p. 7. ‘Sales By Auction,’ The Times (London, 4 Sept. 1951), p. 10.

References[edit]

  • Duncan, Kate C. (2001), 1001 Curious Things: Ye Olde Curiosity Shop and Native American Art, University of Washington Press, pp. 146–147, ISBN 0-295-98010-9 .

External links[edit]

Media related to Shrunken heads at Wikimedia Commons


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shrunken_head — Please support Wikipedia.
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Greenwich Time

Greenwich Time
Sat, 25 Oct 2014 18:30:00 -0700

Visitors to the Bruce Museum in downtown Greenwich before its renovation in the 1990s may recall the "shrunken head" that was on display. Today the piece remains part of the museum collection, but is housed out of sight, in secure, climate-controlled ...

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) International

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Fri, 03 Oct 2014 07:48:45 -0700

A joyful mother, a rejoicing family and village welcomed Ahmed to the world. Born to 21-year-old Halima Ashir, Ahmed looked healthy and happy. Halima's joy was however short-lived as just two weeks after delivery, she started observing an unusual ...

Daily Nexus

Daily Nexus
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 05:01:10 -0700

... the water inside to evaporate, which is why the apple shrinks and shrivels up, giving our shrunken heads the old wrinkled skin look. Also, making the apple drier on the inside will prevent it from growing mold, which is honestly scarier than a ...

Downtown Express

Downtown Express
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 11:00:00 -0700

Aves. B & C). To access the calendar and find other events, visit nuyorican.org. Puma Perl and Friends will perform at Otto's Shrunken Head (538 E. 14th St., btw. Aves. A & B) at 11 p.m. on Sun., Nov. 9, as part of the Nine Days of Wood Birthday ...

New York Daily News

New York Daily News
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 11:22:48 -0700

“I did a double-take, thinking it was a stupid little shrunken head you would hang as a Halloween thing.” Neighbors recalled Patricia Ward as a quiet soul whom they often saw walking a small white dog down the street. She and her son moved into the ...

Mirror.co.uk

Mirror.co.uk
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 11:17:19 -0700

3) Looks a bit like a shrunken head. Admit it, it looks a bit like a shrunken head. Don't have much more to add to that sentence other than that it looks a bit like a shrunken head. 4) Tastes better. Halloween melon carving is going well ...

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Wed, 29 Oct 2014 12:52:30 -0700

The weird: 50 vacuum-packed frogs, a full suit of armor, a camera from a space shuttle (returned to NASA), a missile-guidance system for a fighter jet (returned to the Air Force), a shrunken head, someone's ashes, and an engraved headstone (which ...
 
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... on his way home from a local casino, Kocalis was stopped at gunpoint in Forestville after a sheriff's deputy saw him driving a Porsche like the one seen in surveillance footage taken at the high school. The deputy immediately saw a shrunken-head ...
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