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Ginkaku-ji's Tōgu- is the oldest extant example of shoin-zukuri

Shoin-zukuri (書院造?) is a style of Japanese residential architecture used in the mansions of the military, temple guest halls, and Zen abbot's quarters of the Azuchi-Momoyama (1568-1600) and Edo periods (1600-1868). It forms the basis of today's traditional-style Japanese house. Characteristics of the shoin-zukuri development were the incorporation of square posts and floors completely covered with tatami.[1] The style takes its name from the shoin, a term that originally meant a study and a place for lectures on the sūtra within a temple, but which later came to mean just a drawing room or study.[2]


The shiro-shoin at Nishi Hongan-ji

The foundations for the design of today's traditional Japanese residential houses with tatami floors were established in the late Muromachi period and refined during the ensuing Momoyama period.[3][4] Shoin-zukuri, a new architectural style influenced by Zen Buddhism, developed during that time from the shinden-zukuri of the earlier Heian period's palaces and the subsequent residential style favored by the warrior class during the Kamakura period.[3][5][6] The term shoin (書院?), meaning study or drawing room has been used to denote reception rooms in residences of the military elite as well as study rooms at monasteries.[3][7] A shoin has a core area surrounded by aisles, and smaller areas separated by fusuma sliding doors, or shōji partitions constructed of paper on a wooden frame or wooden equivalents, mairado (舞良戸?) and sugido (杉戸?).[5] The main reception room is characterized by specific features: a recessed alcove (tokonoma); staggered shelves; built-in desks; and ornate sliding doors.[3][5] Generally the reception room is covered with wall-to-wall tatami, has square beveled pillars, a coved and/or coffered ceiling, and wooden shutters protecting the area from rain (雨戸 amado?).[3][5] The entrance hall (genkan) emerged as an element of residential architecture during the Momoyama period.[5] The oldest extant shoin style building is the Tōgu- at Ginkaku-ji dating from 1485. Other representative examples of early shoin style, also called shuden, include two guest halls at Mii-dera.[8] In the early Edo period, shoin-zukuri reached its peak and spread beyond the residences of the military elite.[4] The more formal shoin-style of this period is apparent in the characteristics of Ninomaru Palace at Nijō Castle as well as the shoin at Nishi Hongan-ji (see photos above).[4][9]

The simpler style used in the architecture of tea houses for the tea ceremony developed in parallel with shoin-zukuri. In the 16th century Sen no Rikyū established dedicated "grass hut" (草庵 sōan?) style teahouses characterized by their small size of typically two to eight mat, the use of natural materials, and rustic appearance.[10] This teahouse style, exemplified by the Joan and Taian teahouses, was influenced by Japanese farmhouse style and the shoin style[11] featuring tatami matted floors, recessed alcoves (tokonoma) and one or more ante chambers for preparations.[11]


Main article: Sukiya-zukuri

By the beginning of the Edo period, the features of the shoin and the teahouse styles began to blend.[12] The result was an informal version of the shoin style called sukiya-zukuri (数寄屋造?).[13][14] The sukiya-zukuri style has a characteristic decorative alcove and shelf, and utilizes woods such as cedar, pine, hemlock, bamboo, and cypress, often with rough surfaces including the bark.[14] Compared to the shoin style's, roof eaves in the sukiya style bend downward.[13] While the shoin style was suitable for ceremonial architecture, it became too imposing for residential buildings. Consequently, the less formal sukiya style was used for the mansions of the aristocracy and samurai after the beginning of the Edo period.[14][15]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, entry for "shoin-zukuri".
  2. ^ Iwanami Kōjien (広辞苑?) Japanese dictionary, 6th Edition (2008), DVD version
  3. ^ a b c d e Young & Young 2007, p. 80
  4. ^ a b c Young & Young 2007, p. 81
  5. ^ a b c d e "shoinzukuri". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  6. ^ Young & Young 2007, p. 79
  7. ^ "shoin". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  8. ^ Nishi & Hozumi 1996, p. 76
  9. ^ Nishi & Hozumi 1996, p. 75
  10. ^ "souan". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  11. ^ a b Young, Young & Yew 2004, p. 63
  12. ^ Young & Young 2007, p. 90
  13. ^ a b Young, Young & Yew 2004, p. 100
  14. ^ a b c "sukiyazukuri". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  15. ^ Nishi & Hozumi 1996, p. 78


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7 news items

Il Primato Nazionale

Il Primato Nazionale
Sun, 24 Jan 2016 04:11:15 -0800

Il primo era lo Shoin Zukuri: affermatosi sin dall'epoca medievale principalmente per le residenze dei samurai e per gli appartamenti dei ministri del culto dei templi: questo stile presenta un'estetica molto virile ed autoritaria, alla quale erano ...

Condé Nast Traveler

Condé Nast Traveler
Tue, 21 Jul 2015 05:11:15 -0700

Around every corner in Kyoto is another temple or traditional shoin-zukuri house, but Japan's former imperial capital is also home to some of the oldest sake brewers in the country. The rice wine has played a central role in Japanese life for over 1 ...

The Japan Times

The Japan Times
Sat, 24 Jan 2015 06:26:15 -0800

From the formal osetsuma (drawing room), done in the shoin-zukuri style modeled after sutra study rooms found in Buddhist temples, I follow Obayashi upstairs to the large meeting rooms. The artistry of Koen appears at every turn: autumn grasses secret ...

Stripes Korea

Stripes Korea
Thu, 09 Jan 2014 21:15:00 -0800

The large wooden structure was constructed in the “shoin-zukuri” style, which is a typical of the Momoyama Period (1573-1615). 's the temple's interior, however, that impresses the most, especially the brilliantly painted, gold-plated “fusuma” (sliding ...

Asahi Shimbun

Asahi Shimbun
Mon, 13 May 2013 06:29:04 -0700

Ornamental chigaidana,” or staggered shelves, line the walls--typical of the “Shoin-zukuri” residential architectural style. Takeda works out of a studio in his home in Kato, Hyogo Prefecture. The castle tower shares space with other impressive wooden ...

Asahi Shimbun

Asahi Shimbun
Wed, 24 Apr 2013 23:04:52 -0700

KYOTO--With its more than 1,000-year-old history, this ancient capital has numerous sacred treasures that are rarely unveiled for public viewing. However, centuries-old masterpieces from the city's temples and shrines will go on display from April 26 ...


Tue, 15 Dec 2015 01:00:00 -0800

El salón principal está diseñado siguiendo el estilo shoin-zukuri, que se caracteriza por tres elementos principales: el altar tokonoma (desde donde suelen colgar caligrafías y suele haber ikebana), las baldas o pequeños armarios chigaidana y las ...

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