digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For the Naglfar album, see Sheol (album).
The parable of the Rich man and Lazarus depicting the rich man in hell asking Abraham for help, by James Tissot

She'ol (/ˈʃl/ SHEE-ohl or /ˈʃəl/ SHEE-əl; Hebrew שְׁאוֹל Šʾôl), in the Hebrew Bible, is a place of darkness to which all the dead go, both the righteous and the unrighteous, regardless of the moral choices made in life, a place of stillness and darkness cut off from life and from the Hebrew God.[1]

The inhabitants of Sheol are the "shades" (rephaim), entities without personality or strength.[2] Under some circumstances they are thought to be able to be contacted by the living, as the Witch of Endor contacts the shade of Samuel for Saul, but such practices are forbidden (Deuteronomy 18:10).[3]

While the Old Testament writings describe Sheol as the permanent place of the dead, in the Second Temple period (roughly 500 BC–70 AD) a more diverse set of ideas developed. In some texts, Sheol is considered to be the home of both the righteous and the wicked, separated into respective compartments; in others, it was considered a place of punishment, meant for the wicked dead alone.[4] When the Hebrew scriptures were translated into Greek in ancient Alexandria around 200 BC, the word "Hades" (the Greek underworld) was substituted for Sheol, and this is reflected in the New Testament where Hades is both the underworld of the dead and the personification of the evil it represents.[5]

Rapid Transit to Sheol - Where We Are All Going According to the Reverend Dr. Morgan Dix, by Joseph Keppler, 1888.

Judaism[edit]

According to Herbert C. Brichto, writing in Hebrew Union College Annual,[6] the family tomb is the central concept in understanding biblical views of the afterlife. Brichto states that it is "not mere sentimental respect for the physical remains that is...the motivation for the practice, but rather an assumed connection between proper sepulture and the condition of happiness of the deceased in the afterlife".

According to Brichto, the early Israelites apparently believed that the graves of family, or tribe, united into one, and that this unified collectivity is to what the Biblical Hebrew term Sheol refers, the common Grave of humans. Although not well defined in the Tanakh, Sheol in this view was a subterranean underworld where the souls of the dead went after the body died. The Babylonians had a similar underworld called Aralu, and the Greeks had one known as Hades. For biblical references to Sheol see Genesis 42:38, Isaiah 14:11, Psalm 141:7, Daniel 12:2, Proverbs 7:27 and Job 10:21,22, and 17:16, among others. According to Brichto, other Biblical names for Sheol were: Abaddon (ruin), found in Psalm 88:11, Job 28:22 and Proverbs 15:11; Bor (the pit), found in Isaiah 14:15, 24:22, Ezekiel 26:20; and Shakhat (corruption), found in Isaiah 38:17, Ezekiel 28:8.[7]

The Hebrew Scriptures themselves have few references to existence after death. The notion of resurrection appears in two late biblical sources, Daniel 12 and Isaiah 25-26.[8]

Sheol as a deity in the Old Testament[edit]

The traditional biblical interpretations explain that Sheol is a grim and desolated land below, occupied by the dead who continue their colorless existence irrespective of their earthly conduct. Contrary to this exposition however, the Hebrew Bible supports the descriptions of Sheol which suggest that it is something more than just a place. In terms of sheer numbers the amount of anthropomorphic descriptions is significant.[9] Sheol is either portrayed by means of human qualities (ערום, Job 26:6;קשה , Canticles 8:6) or attributed with the elements of human anatomy: womb (בטן, Jonah 2:3), hand (יד, Psalms 49:15; 89:48; Hosea 13:14) or throat (נפש, Isaiah 5:14) and mouth (פה, Psalms 141:7; Isaiah 5:14). In addition, Psalm 49:15 praises the Elohim, who are said to ransom one’s soul from the hand of Sheol, Proverbs 27:20 acknowledges Sheol’s insatiability, whereas Isaiah 5:14 depicts Sheol as a gargantuan monster.[9] Some additional support for this hypothesis comes from the ancient Near Eastern literary materials. For example, the Akkadian plates mention the name shuwalu or suwala in reference to a deity responsible for ruling the abode of the dead. As such it might have been borrowed by the Hebrews and incorporated into their early belief system.[10] What is more, some scholars argue that Sheol understood anthropomorphically fits the semantic complex of the other ancient Near Eastern death deities such as Nergal, Ereshkigal or Mot.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rainwater 1996, p. 819
  2. ^ Longenecker 2003, p. 188
  3. ^ Knobel 2011, pp. 205–206
  4. ^ Longenecker 2003, p. 189
  5. ^ Longenecker 2003, p. 189
  6. ^ The Hebrew Union College Annual is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of Jewish and historical studies. It was established in 1924 and is published by the Hebrew Union College.
  7. ^ Herbert Chanon Brichto "Kin, Cult, Land and Afterlife – A Biblical Complex", Hebrew Union College Annual 44, p.8 (1973)
  8. ^ Life After Death - My Jewish Learning - Retrieved 10 July 2014.
  9. ^ a b Kosior, Wojciech (2014). "The Underworld or its Ruler? Some Remarks on the Concept of Sheol in the Hebrew Bible". Polish Journal of Biblical Research. Vol 13 No. 1-2 (25-26/2014): 35–36. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  10. ^ P.S. Johnston, Shades of Sheol. Death and Afterlife in the Old Testament, Illinois 2002, p. 78. See also: L.B. Paton, The Hebrew Idea of the Future Life. III. Babylonian Influence in the Doctrine of Sheol, “The Biblical World”, Vol. 35, No. 3, Chicago 1910, p. 160.
  11. ^ H. M. Barstad, Sheol, in: K. van der Toom, B. Becking, P.W. van der Horst (eds.), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, 2nd ed., Leiden – Boston – Köln, 1999, p. 768-770.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Sheol entry in Jewish Encyclopedia

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheol — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

1427 news items

Catholic World Report (blog)

Catholic World Report (blog)
Wed, 03 Feb 2016 15:41:35 -0800

For example, the filmmakers add an additional “spirit world” reminiscent of the Greek concept of sheol and try to somehow connect it with chi. The spiritual laws of the film keep changing and have no underlying consistency. Worst of all, there is an ...

Jerusalem Post Israel News

Jerusalem Post Israel News
Wed, 17 Jun 2015 09:57:30 -0700

A Hungarian Holocaust film relies on the imagination of viewers to reconstruct a collective tragedy that cannot be reconstructed visually. Lászlo Nemes Géza Röhrig. 'Son of Saul' director Lászlo Nemes (left) together with lead actor Géza Röhrig during ...

Irish Independent

Irish Independent
Sat, 30 Jan 2016 18:42:13 -0800

Also the day my Roscommon mother would raise her strong voice and banish the winter blues with a blast of Cill Aodain. "Anois teacht an Earraig/Beidh an la dull chun sineadh/Is tareis na Feile Bride/Ardoidh me mo sheol. "Now with the coming of spring ...

Patheos (blog)

Patheos (blog)
Fri, 29 Jan 2016 12:48:45 -0800

If I make my bed in Sheol, you are there! If I take the wings of the morning and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there your hand shall lead me, and your right hand shall hold me” (Psalm 139:8-10). In other words Jonah, forget about it ...
 
Napa Valley Register
Tue, 19 Jan 2016 19:05:02 -0800

You said Sheol as a place of death is non-punishing. Jesus speaks of of two compartments where the dead go: Abraham's bosom, and Hades (a place of torment), Luke 16:19-31. Was He wrong? Jesus also said in Matthew 25:46 “And these will go away into ...

Juneau Empire (subscription)

Juneau Empire (subscription)
Sun, 24 Jan 2016 01:00:00 -0800

It is the translation in the Bible for Sheol (the place of shades), Gehenna (the cursed valley outside Jerusalem) and Hades (the underworld). It comes to means a place of either torture or the sometimes worse affliction of numbness. Without starting ...

Patheos (blog)

Patheos (blog)
Mon, 25 Jan 2016 10:58:59 -0800

... the Book of Psalms (137 times) so God is highly interested in praising Him because “in death there is no remembrance of you; in Sheol who will give you praise” (Psalm 6:5) and so we are commanded to “Sing praises to the Lord, who sits enthroned in ...

San Diego Reader

San Diego Reader
Wed, 20 Jan 2016 03:37:30 -0800

Based in Mira Mesa, Brendan Prout began playing in local bands in the early 1990s and toured with the Shelter, Sheol Vine, December's Tragic Drive, Closure, the Standing Ovations, Jonah's Sign, and Book of Paul. As of 2015, he was performing regularly ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight