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For the Naglfar album, see Sheol (album).
The parable of the Rich man and Lazarus depicting the rich man in hell asking for help to Abraham by James Tissot

She'ol (/ˈʃl/ SHEE-ohl or /ˈʃəl/ SHEE-əl; Hebrew שְׁאוֹל Šʾôl), in the Hebrew Bible, is a place of darkness to which all the dead go, both the righteous and the unrighteous, regardless of the moral choices made in life, a place of stillness and darkness cut off from life and from the Hebrew God.[1]

The inhabitants of Sheol are the "shades" (rephaim), entities without personality or strength.[2] Under some circumstances they are thought to be able to be contacted by the living, as the Witch of Endor contacts the shade of Samuel for Saul, but such practices are forbidden (Deuteronomy 18:10).[3]

While the Old Testament writings describe Sheol as the permanent place of the dead, in the Second Temple period (roughly 500 BC–70 AD) a more diverse set of ideas developed. In some texts, Sheol is considered to be the home of both the righteous and the wicked, separated into respective compartments; in others, it was considered a place of punishment, meant for the wicked dead alone.[4] When the Hebrew scriptures were translated into Greek in ancient Alexandria around 200 BC, the word "Hades" (the Greek underworld) was substituted for Sheol, and this is reflected in the New Testament where Hades is both the underworld of the dead and the personification of the evil it represents.[5]

Judaism[edit]

According to Herbert C. Brichto, writing in Hebrew Union College Annual,[6] the family tomb is the central concept in understanding biblical views of the afterlife. Brichto states that it is "not mere sentimental respect for the physical remains that is...the motivation for the practice, but rather an assumed connection between proper sepulture and the condition of happiness of the deceased in the afterlife".

According to Brichto, the early Israelites apparently believed that the graves of family, or tribe, united into one, and that this unified collectivity is to what the Biblical Hebrew term Sheol refers, the common Grave of humans. Although not well defined in the Tanakh, Sheol in this view was a subterranean underworld where the souls of the dead went after the body died. The Babylonians had a similar underworld called Aralu, and the Greeks had one known as Hades. For biblical references to Sheol see Genesis 42:38, Isaiah 14:11, Psalm 141:7, Daniel 12:2, Proverbs 7:27 and Job 10:21,22, and 17:16, among others. According to Brichto, other Biblical names for Sheol were: Abaddon (ruin), found in Psalm 88:11, Job 28:22 and Proverbs 15:11; Bor (the pit), found in Isaiah 14:15, 24:22, Ezekiel 26:20; and Shakhat (corruption), found in Isaiah 38:17, Ezekiel 28:8.[7]

The Hebrew Scriptures themselves have few references to existence after death. The notion of resurrection appears in two late biblical sources, Daniel 12 and Isaiah 25-26.[8]

Sheol as a deity in the Old Testament[edit]

The traditional biblical interpretations explain that Sheol is a grim and desolated land below, occupied by the dead who continue their colorless existence irrespective of their earthly conduct. Contrary to this exposition however, the Hebrew Bible supports the descriptions of Sheol which suggest that it is something more than just a place. In terms of sheer numbers the amount of anthropomorphic descriptions is significant. Sheol is either portrayed by means of human qualities (ערום, Job 26:6;קשה , Canticles 8:6) or attributed with the elements of human anatomy: womb (בטן, Jonah 2:3), hand (יד, Psalms 49:15; 89:48; Hosea 13:14) or throat (נפש, Isaiah 5:14) and mouth (פה, Psalms 141:7; Isaiah 5:14). In addition, Psalm 49:15 praises the Elohim, who are said to ransom one’s soul from the hand of Sheol, Proverbs 27:20 acknowledges Sheol’s insatiability, whereas Isaiah 5:14 depicts Sheol as a gargantuan monster.[9] Some additional support for this hypothesis comes from the ancient Near Eastern literary materials. For example, the Akkadian plates mention the name shuwalu or suwala in reference to a deity responsible for ruling the abode of the dead. As such it might have been borrowed by the Hebrews and incorporated into their early belief system.[10] What is more, some scholars argue that Sheol understood anthropomorphically fits the semantic complex of the other ancient Near Eastern death deities such as Nergal, Ereshkigal or Mot.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rainwater 1996, p. 819
  2. ^ Longenecker 2003, p. 188
  3. ^ Knobel 2011, pp. 205–206
  4. ^ Longenecker 2003, p. 189
  5. ^ Longenecker 2003, p. 189
  6. ^ The Hebrew Union College Annual is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of Jewish and historical studies. It was established in 1924 and is published by the Hebrew Union College.
  7. ^ Herbert Chanon Brichto "Kin, Cult, Land and Afterlife – A Biblical Complex", Hebrew Union College Annual 44, p.8 (1973)
  8. ^ Life After Death - My Jewish Learning - Retrieved 10 July 2014.
  9. ^ Kosior, Wojciech (2014). "The Underworld or its Ruler? Some Remarks on the Concept of Sheol in the Hebrew Bible". Polish Journal of Biblical Research. Vol 13 No. 1-2 (25-26/2014): 29–37. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  10. ^ P.S. Johnston, Shades of Sheol. Death and Afterlife in the Old Testament, Illinois 2002, p. 78. See also: L.B. Paton, The Hebrew Idea of the Future Life. III. Babylonian Influence in the Doctrine of Sheol, “The Biblical World”, Vol. 35, No. 3, Chicago 1910, p. 160.
  11. ^ H. M. Barstad, Sheol, in: K. van der Toom, B. Becking, P.W. van der Horst (eds.), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, 2nd ed., Leiden – Boston – Köln, 1999, p. 768-770.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Sheol entry in Jewish Encyclopedia

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689 news items

Patheos (blog)

Patheos (blog)
Sun, 30 Aug 2015 23:48:38 -0700

Hades (Hebrew, Sheol) is the netherworld where the dead await final judgment (see Luke 16 for a description). Those who are damned will go from Hades to hell. And those not written in the Book of Life will go there. This is not speculation. This is ...
 
Macon Telegraph (blog)
Sat, 29 Aug 2015 21:07:30 -0700

Sheol (often incorrectly translated as hell) is the place where everybody goes after death according to the Hebrew and Babylonian myths (Psalms 89:49) It's mentioned 65 times in the Hebrew bible and then becomes Hades and Gehenna in the New ...

Jerusalem Post Israel News

Jerusalem Post Israel News
Wed, 17 Jun 2015 09:52:30 -0700

A Hungarian Holocaust film relies on the imagination of viewers to reconstruct a collective tragedy that cannot be reconstructed visually. Lászlo Nemes Géza Röhrig. 'Son of Saul' director Lászlo Nemes (left) together with lead actor Géza Röhrig during ...

Pike County News Watchman

Pike County News Watchman
Mon, 24 Aug 2015 09:30:00 -0700

Sheol is the Greek word for grave. Revelation 20:15 "And anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire." We can block Heaven's gate by being indifferent toward soul winning. John 8:24 "Therefore I said to you that you will ...

Wizbang (blog)

Wizbang (blog)
Fri, 28 Aug 2015 18:09:49 -0700

The Hebrew translation of “sheol” means “a covered place” or a common grave that all mankind goes to at death regardless of being righteous or not. But, a traditional Jewish belief is that the sinful are cleansed somewhere, much like some spiritual ...
 
Charisma News
Tue, 25 Aug 2015 15:13:50 -0700

Hell. Most people go there but few preachers talk about it. "Therefore My people go into captivity because they have no knowledge; and their honorable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst. Therefore Sheol has enlarged itself and ...

Patheos (blog)

Patheos (blog)
Tue, 18 Aug 2015 14:00:00 -0700

We know for example that “The path of life leads upward for the prudent, that he may turn away from Sheol beneath” (Prov 15:24) but not everyone chooses that path. A foolish son “despises his father's instruction, but whoever heeds reproof is prudent ...

Patheos (blog)

Patheos (blog)
Fri, 14 Aug 2015 21:52:48 -0700

Thus it stands to reason that low places (i.e., valleys) would come to also symbolize Sheol and later, hell. The most unholy thing imaginable in the Jewish mind (including the mind of Jesus, we might surmise), was the sacrificing of one's own children ...
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