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She'ol (/ˈʃl/ SHEE-ohl or /ˈʃəl/ SHEE-əl; Hebrew שְׁאוֹל Šʾôl), translated as "grave", "pit", or "abode of the dead", is the underworld of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible. It is a place of darkness to which all the dead go, both the righteous and the unrighteous, regardless of the moral choices made in life, a place of stillness and darkness cut off from God.[1]

The inhabitants of Sheol were the "shades" (rephaim), entities without personality or strength.[2] Under some circumstances they could be contacted by the living, as the Witch of Endor contacts the shade of Samuel for Saul, but such practices are forbidden (Deuteronomy 18:10).[3] While the Old Testament writings describe Sheol as the permanent place of the dead, in the Second Temple period (roughly 500 BCE-70 CE) a more diverse set of ideas developed: in some texts, Sheol is the home of both the righteous and the wicked, separated into respective compartments; in others, it was a place of punishment, meant for the wicked dead alone.[4] When the Hebrew scriptures were translated into Greek in ancient Alexandria around 200 BC the word "Hades" (the Greek underworld) was substituted for Sheol, and this is reflected in the New Testament where Hades is both the underworld of the dead and the personification of the evil it represents.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rainwater 1996, p. 819
  2. ^ Longenecker 2003, p. 188
  3. ^ Knobel 2011, pp. 205–206
  4. ^ Longenecker 2003, p. 189
  5. ^ Longenecker 2003, p. 189

Bibliography[edit]

  • Aune, David E. (2003). "Cosmology". Westminster Dictionary of the New Testament and Early Christian Literature. Westminster John Knox Press. 
  • Bernstein, Alan E. (1996). The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Cornell University Press. 
  • Hess, Richard S. (2007). Israelite Religions: An Archeological and Biblical Survey. Baker Academic Press. 
  • Kelly, Henry A. (2010). "Hell with Purgatory and two Limbos". In Moreira, Isabel; Toscano, Margaret. Hell and Its Afterlife: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Ashgate Publishing. 
  • Knobel, Peter (2011). "Death". In Berlin, Adele; Grossman, Maxine. The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Oxford University Press. 
  • Longenecker, Richard N. (2003). "Cosmology". In Gowan, Donald E. The Westminster theological wordbook of the Bible. Westminster John Knox Press. 
  • Mabie, F.J (2008). "Chaos and Death". In Longman, Tremper; Enns, Peter. Dictionary of the Old Testament. InterVarsity Press. 
  • O'Dowd, R. (2008). "Creation imagery". In Longman, Tremper; Enns, Peter. Dictionary of the Old Testament. InterVarsity Press. 
  • Rainwater, Robert (1990). "Sheol". In Watson E. Mills (General Editor). Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. 
  • Reike, Bo (2001). "Hell". In Metzger, Bruce Manning; Coogan, Michael David. The Oxford guide to ideas & issues of the Bible. Oxford University Press. 

External links[edit]

  • Sheol entry in Jewish Encyclopedia

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheol — Please support Wikipedia.
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LubbockOnline.com
Thu, 17 Apr 2014 22:14:21 -0700

St. Andrew Greek Orthodox Church — 6001 81st St. Vesperal Liturgy for the Emptying of Sheol (St. Basil) at 10 a.m., including reception of John-Paul Stell into Holy Orthodoxy, chanting of the book of Acts at 10:30 p.m., Nocturns at 11:30 p.m ...
 
LubbockOnline.com
Wed, 16 Apr 2014 22:15:00 -0700

St. Andrew Greek Orthodox Church — 6001 81st St. Vesperal Liturgy for the Emptying of Sheol (St. Basil) at 10 a.m., including reception of John-Paul Stell into Holy Orthodoxy, chanting of the book of Acts at 10:30 p.m., Nocturns at 11:30 p.m ...

First Things (blog)

First Things (blog)
Tue, 15 Apr 2014 11:22:30 -0700

The words of the Psalmist that “you will not abandon my soul to Sheol” become the words of Christ in Acts 2 thereby linking Jesus' cry of dereliction with a descent into the darkness of death. For John Chrysostom, the Pauline testimony that Christ ...
 
CNN (blog)
Sat, 12 Apr 2014 05:57:33 -0700

"Eternal life" is a non-Biblical idea. It's also a nonsensical idea. It requires spacetime. There is no spacetime outside this universe. Oops. The Jews in the OT did not believe in "eternal life" The Christians invented that concept much later. Sheol ...
 
USA TODAY
Tue, 08 Apr 2014 22:02:05 -0700

The Sons of Sheol will stop at nothing to prevent Dri and Ronan from rescuing anyone sympathetic to the Remnants' cause. And as the Remnants attempt to battle the demonic forces, other enemies close in. Dangers intensify, but so do Dri's feelings for ...
 
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Sat, 05 Apr 2014 09:21:03 -0700

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Mon, 31 Mar 2014 09:17:15 -0700

Troy S. Braswell Circleville Presbyterian Church Circleville Herald. “Then Jonah prayed to the Lord his God from the belly of the fish, saying, 'I called to the Lord out of my distress, and he answered me; out of the belly of Sheol I cried, and you ...

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