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For the Naglfar album, see Sheol (album).

She'ol (/ˈʃl/ SHEE-ohl or /ˈʃəl/ SHEE-əl; Hebrew שְׁאוֹל Šʾôl), translated as "grave", "pit", or "abode of the dead", is the Hebrew term for the place of the dead, the common grave of humans, or underworld of the Old Testament/Hebrew Scriptures. It is a place of darkness to which all the dead go, both the righteous and the unrighteous, regardless of the moral choices made in life, a place of stillness and darkness cut off from life and from God.[1][2]

Traditional views[edit]

The inhabitants of Sheol were the "shades" (rephaim), entities without personality or strength.[3] Under some circumstances they are thought to able to be contacted by the living, as the Witch of Endor contacts the shade of Samuel for Saul, but such practices are forbidden (Deuteronomy 18:10).[4] While the Old Testament writings describe Sheol as the permanent place of the dead, in the Second Temple period (roughly 500 BCE-70 CE) a more diverse set of ideas developed: in some texts, Sheol is considered to be the home of both the righteous and the wicked, separated into respective compartments; in others, it was considered a place of punishment, meant for the wicked dead alone.[5] When the Hebrew scriptures were translated into Greek in ancient Alexandria around 200 BC the word "Hades" (the Greek underworld) was substituted for Sheol, and this is reflected in the New Testament where Hades is both the underworld of the dead and the personification of the evil it represents.[6]

Judaism[edit]

According to Herbert C. Brichto, writing in Reform Judaism's Hebrew Union College Annual, the family tomb is the central concept in understanding biblical views of the afterlife. Brichto states that it is "not mere sentimental respect for the physical remains that is...the motivation for the practice, but rather an assumed connection between proper sepulture and the condition of happiness of the deceased in the afterlife". According to Brichto, the early Israelites apparently believed that the graves of family, or tribe, united into one, and that this unified collectivity is to what the Biblical Hebrew term Sheol refers, the common Grave of humans. Although not well defined in the Tanakh, Sheol in this view was a subterranean underworld where the souls of the dead went after the body died. The Babylonians had a similar underworld called Aralu, and the Greeks had one known as Hades. For biblical references to Sheol see Genesis 42:38, Isaiah 14:11, Psalm 141:7, Daniel 12:2, Proverbs 7:27 and Job 10:21,22, and 17:16, among others. According to Brichto, other Biblical names for Sheol were: Abaddon (ruin), found in Psalm 88:11, Job 28:22 and Proverbs 15:11; Bor (the pit), found in Isaiah 14:15, 24:22, Ezekiel 26:20; and Shakhat (corruption), found in Isaiah 38:17, Ezekiel 28:8.[7]

Most Jewish ideas about the afterlife developed in post-biblical times. The Hebrew Scriptures themselves have few references to life after death. Sheol, the bowels of the earth, is portrayed as the place of the dead, but in most instances Sheol seems to be more a metaphor for oblivion than an actual place where the dead "live" and retain consciousness. The notion of resurrection appears in two late biblical sources, Daniel 12 and Isaiah 25-26.[8]

Anthropomorphic interpretation[edit]

The traditional biblical interpretations explain that Sheol is a grim and desolated land below, occupied by the dead who continue their colorless existence irrespective of their earthly conduct. Contrary to this exposition however, the Hebrew Bible supports the descriptions of Sheol which suggest that it is something more than just a place. In terms of sheer numbers the amount of anthropomorphic descriptions is significant. Sheol is either portrayed by means of human qualities (ערום, Job 26:6;קשה , Canticles 8:6) or attributed with the elements of human anatomy: womb (בטן, Jonah 2:3), hand (יד, Psalms 49:15; 89:48; Hosea 13:14) or throat (נפש, Isaiah 5,14) and mouth (פה, Psalms 141:7; Isaiah 5:14).

In addition, Psalm 49:16 praises Elohim who is said to ransom one’s soul from the hand of Sheol, Proverbs 27:20 acknowledges Sheol’s insatiability whereas Isaiah 5:14 depicts Sheol as a gargantuan monster. In sum, the verbs connected with Sheol can be divided into two sub-groups. The first one refers to the relation between Sheol, Yahveh and men: Sheol does not praise (ידה) Yahveh but Yahveh can ransom (פדה) from the hand of Sheol whereas men can make a deal (עשה חזה) with Sheol and one’s soul (nephesh) can escape (מלט) from Sheol’s hand. The second one comprises of verbs which present Sheol as a devouring monster: Sheol enlarges (רחב נפש) her throat, swallows (בלע) but cannot satiate (שבע). Moreover, the doubtful etymology of the word along with the fact that she’ol is never preceded by a definite article suggests its foreign origins.

Some additional support for this hypothesis comes from the ancient Near Eastern literary materials. For example, the Akkadian plates mention the name shuwalu or suwala in reference to a deity responsible for ruling the abode of the dead. As such it might have been borrowed by the Hebrews and incorporated into their early belief system.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rainwater 1996, p. 819
  2. ^ Philip P. Kapustaii - Sheol and hell in the Old Testament The Bible Study - bibletopics.com. Retrieved 10 July 2014
  3. ^ Longenecker 2003, p. 188
  4. ^ Knobel 2011, pp. 205–206
  5. ^ Longenecker 2003, p. 189
  6. ^ Longenecker 2003, p. 189
  7. ^ Herbert Chanon Brichto "Kin, Cult, Land and Afterlife – A Biblical Complex", Hebrew Union College Annual 44, p.8 (1973)
  8. ^ Life After Death - My Jewish Learning - Retrieved 10 July 2014.
  9. ^ Kosior, Wojciech (2014). "The Underworld or its Ruler? Some Remarks on the Concept of Sheol in the Hebrew Bible". Polish Journal of Biblical Research. Vol 13 No. 1-2 (25-26/2014): 29–37. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Aune, David E. (2003). "Cosmology". Westminster Dictionary of the New Testament and Early Christian Literature. Westminster John Knox Press. 
  • Bernstein, Alan E. (1996). The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Cornell University Press. 
  • Hess, Richard S. (2007). Israelite Religions: An Archeological and Biblical Survey. Baker Academic Press. 
  • Kelly, Henry A. (2010). "Hell with Purgatory and two Limbos". In Moreira, Isabel; Toscano, Margaret. Hell and Its Afterlife: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Ashgate Publishing. 
  • Knobel, Peter (2011). "Death". In Berlin, Adele; Grossman, Maxine. The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Oxford University Press. 
  • Longenecker, Richard N. (2003). "Cosmology". In Gowan, Donald E. The Westminster theological wordbook of the Bible. Westminster John Knox Press. 
  • Mabie, F.J (2008). "Chaos and Death". In Longman, Tremper; Enns, Peter. Dictionary of the Old Testament. InterVarsity Press. 
  • O'Dowd, R. (2008). "Creation imagery". In Longman, Tremper; Enns, Peter. Dictionary of the Old Testament. InterVarsity Press. 
  • Rainwater, Robert (1990). "Sheol". In Watson E. Mills (General Editor). Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. 
  • Reike, Bo (2001). "Hell". In Metzger, Bruce Manning; Coogan, Michael David. The Oxford guide to ideas & issues of the Bible. Oxford University Press. 

External links[edit]

  • Sheol entry in Jewish Encyclopedia

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheol — Please support Wikipedia.
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41 news items

Peninsula Pulse

Peninsula Pulse
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 23:11:15 -0700

The bands include Chump Service, hip hop; Victims of the American Dream (VAD), heavy metal; Ascending the Void, hard rock; Sheol Dynasty, hip hop; and Darcade, heavy metal – all based in and made up of musicians from Sturgeon Bay. Joining the local ...
 
Petoskey News-Review
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:45:43 -0700

“If I ascend to heaven, you are there; if I make my bed in Sheol, you are there.” Psalm 139.8 NRSV. Out of World War II comes the uplifting story of 8-year-old Jack Kelly. With the Germans bombing the cities of England, parents looked for ways to get ...
 
Pacific Daily News
Sun, 20 Jul 2014 08:36:06 -0700

In Hebrew scripture, the realm of the dead is "Sheol." In New Testament Greek, Sheol equals Hades. The Greek word "Gehenna" in the New Testament is hell. Other scriptures in the Old Testament indicated that Sheol/Hades is a temporary place where souls ...
 
Patheos
Tue, 15 Jul 2014 09:37:13 -0700

Of course, the truth is that Esau is furious and has threatened to kill his brother as soon as the old man finds his way to Sheol. Rebekah creates her lie about wives to protect Jacob from an enraged Esau. So, off he heads east toward Haran across the ...
 
Patheos
Sun, 06 Jul 2014 10:01:25 -0700

"The children struggled in her womb, and Rebecca said, 'If it is like this, then why in Sheol am I?'" (Gen. 25:22) What Rebekah actually says is notoriously difficult to translate: the NRSV reads, "If it is to be this way, why do I live?" That appears ...
 
Fountain Pen
Sun, 20 Jul 2014 04:48:45 -0700

"Oh that you would hide me in Sheol (the grave), that you would conceal me until your wrath be past. All the days of my service I would wait, till my renewal should come. You would call, and I would answer you; you would long for the work of your hands.
 
Green Bay Press Gazette
Tue, 15 Jul 2014 21:07:30 -0700

(920) 746-0700 or www.stoneharbor-resort.com. • HARD ROCK, 9 p.m. with Chump Service, Victims of the American Dream (VAD), Ascending the Void, The Brotherhood, and Sheol Dynasty. The Olde Opera House, 23 W. Oak St., Sturgeon Bay. No cover.

Sutherland Northern Times

Sutherland Northern Times
Mon, 14 Jul 2014 09:46:50 -0700

He has also written novels – An Oidhche Mus Do Sheol Sinn (The Night Before We Sailed), and Là a' Deanamh Sgeil Do Là (Day Speaketh Unto Day) in Gaelic, while 2006's Invisible Islands was written in English and last year's, The Girl On The Ferry Boat, ...
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