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This article is about the Mesopotamian Sun god. For the Canaanite Sun goddess, see Shapash (Canaanite goddess). For the role in a synagogue comparable to a Sexton, see gabbai. For the use in a Hanukkah menorah, see Menorah—Lighting.
Shamash (seated), depicted as handing symbols of authority to Hammurabi (relief on the upper part of the stele of Hammurabi's code of laws)
Version of the ancient star/Sun symbol of Shamash[1]
Male figure (possibly Shamash[dubious ] or Ashur) in an Assyrian winged Sun emblem (North-West Palace of Nimrud, 9th century BC; British Museum room B, panel 23). This iconography later gave rise to the Zoroastrian Faravahar symbol.

Shamash (Akkadian Šamaš "Sun"), was a native Mesopotamian deity and the Sun god in the Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian pantheons. Shamash was the god of justice in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. Akkadian šamaš is cognate to Syriac ܫܡܫܐ šemša or šimšu Hebrew שֶׁמֶשׁ šemeš and Arabic شمس šams.

History[edit]

Both in early and in late inscriptions Shamash is designated as the "offspring of Nannar"; i.e. of the Moon-god, and since, in an enumeration of the pantheon, Sin generally takes precedence of Shamash, it is in relationship, presumably, to the Moon-god that the Sun-god appears as the dependent power. Such a supposition would accord with the prominence acquired by the Moon in the calendar and in astrological calculations, as well as with the fact that the Moon-cult belongs to the nomadic and therefore earlier stage of civilization, whereas the Sun-god rises to full importance only after the agricultural stage has been reached.

The two chief centres of Sun-worship in Babylonia were Sippar, represented by the mounds at Abu Habba, and Larsa, represented by the modern Senkerah. At both places the chief sanctuary bore the name E-barra (or E-babbara) "the shining house"—a direct allusion to the brilliancy of the Sun-god. Of the two temples, that at Sippara was the more famous, but temples to Shamash were erected in all large centres – such as Babylon, Ur, Mari, Nippur, and Nineveh.

Position in the Mesopotamian pantheon[edit]

According to the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica the Shamash cults at Sippar and Larsa so overshadowed local Sun-deities elsewhere as to lead to an absorption of the minor deities by the predominating one. In the systematized pantheon these minor Sun-gods become attendants that do his service. Such are Bunene, spoken of as his chariot driver and whose consort is Atgi-makh, Kettu ("justice") and Mesharu ("right"), who were then introduced as attendants of Shamash. Other Sun-deities such as Ninurta and Nergal, the patron deities of other important centers, retained their independent existences as certain phases of the Sun, with Ninurta becoming the Sun-god of the morning and spring time and Nergal the Sun-god of the noon and the summer solstice. In the wake of such syncretism Shamash was usually viewed as the Sun-god in general.

Together with NannarSin and Ishtar, Shamash completes another triad by the side of Anu, Enlil and Ea. The three powers Sin, Shamash and Ishtar symbolized three great forces of nature: the Moon, the Sun, and the life-giving force of the earth, respectively. At times instead of Ishtar we find Adad, the storm-god, associated with Sin and Shamash, and it may be that these two sets of triads represent the doctrines of two different schools of theological thought in Babylonia that were subsequently harmonized by the recognition of a group consisting of all four deities.

The consort of Shamash was known as Aya. She is, however, rarely mentioned in the inscriptions except in combination with Shamash.

Another reference to Shamash is the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. When Gilgamesh and Enkidu travel to slay Humbaba, each morning they pray and make libation to shamash in the direction of the rising Sun for safe travels. Gilgamesh receives dreams from Shamash, which Enkidu then interprets, and at their battle with Humbaba, it is Shamash's favor for Gilgamesh that enables them to defeat the monster. Shamash gifted to the hero Gilgamesh three weapons (the axe of mighty heroes, a great sword with a blade that weighs six score pounds and a hilt of thirty pounds and the bow of Anshan).

God of law, justice and salvation[edit]

The attribute most commonly associated with Shamash is justice. Just as the Sun disperses darkness, so Shamash brings wrong and injustice to light. Hammurabi attributes to Shamash the inspiration that led him to gather the existing laws and legal procedures into code, and in the design accompanying the code the king represents himself in an attitude of adoration before Shamash as the embodiment of the idea of justice. Several centuries before Hammurabi, Ur-Engur of the Ur dynasty (c. 2600 BC) declared that he rendered decisions "according to the just laws of Shamash."

Mesopotamian limestone cylinder seal and impression: worship of Shamash, (Louvre)

It was a logical consequence of this conception of the Sun-god that he was regarded also as the one who released the sufferer from the grasp of the demons. The sick man, therefore, appeals to Shamash as the god who can be depended upon to help those who are suffering unjustly. This aspect of the Sun-god is vividly brought out in the hymns addressed to him, which are, therefore, among the finest productions in the entire realm of Babylonian literature.

Identification with Saturn[edit]

Shamash was historically associated with the planet Saturn. Morris Jastrow, Jr. identifies Shamash with the planet Saturn.[2]

Association with the lion[edit]

Seea also: Lion and Sun, Leo (astrology)

Shamash is frequently associated with the lion, both in mythology and artistic depictions.[3] In Palestine tradition, a "son of Ba'al Shamash" is known for slaying a lion (the son himself possibly an aspect of the god), and Shamash himself is depicted as a lion in religious iconography.[3][4]

In popular culture[edit]

In both the manga and animated series Shaman King, Shamash is the god-class spirit of Iron Maiden Jeanne, the leader of the X-Laws. In the Swedish roleplaying game Drager och Demoner, "Shamash" is a god of truth, very important to the plotline in "Konflux sviten" a large and very popular scenario.

Usage today[edit]

The name is still found as a last name among Assyrians and Jews and is the Hebrew name of the capital candle in Hanukkah.[citation needed]

The Hebrew word for the Sun is written the same, although pronounced differently.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gods, Demons, and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary by Jeremy Black and Anthony Green (1992, ISBN 0-292-70794-0), p. 168.
  2. ^ "Jastrow, M., Jr., Sun and Saturn, Revue D'Assyriologie et d'Archéologie Orientale, Volume VII, 1910". Catastrophism.com. Retrieved 2013-07-04. 
  3. ^ a b (Krappe 1945)
  4. ^ [1]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamash — Please support Wikipedia.
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Wed, 20 Aug 2014 11:00:00 -0700

Joseph Shamash and Andrew Lustig are two of those friends, and their and Jeff Handel's One Wish Project is such an incredible work. What began as three friends talking to strangers on the streets of Jerusalem about wishes has grown into a global ...
 
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Sat, 26 Jul 2014 11:15:10 -0700

As judge, Shamash justifies or condemns, shows favor or turns a dark face toward the accused. Shamash could release a person from an ill fate, and ensure a prosperous future. To turn to the sun was to seek a favorable verdict. Perhaps this is what some ...
 
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Mon, 04 Aug 2014 13:15:00 -0700

In another, Moshe stands on a stool beside Hugo, who has just lit the third night's candle and replaced the shamash. Grotte wrote below the image: “Grandpa's Dream.” Another postcard shows a birthday celebration of a man named Jacques, apparently ...
 
Huffington Post
Thu, 31 Jul 2014 19:29:45 -0700

Shamash, married only five months ago, who went to Haiti to help rebuild after the earthquake of 2010. Steinberg, the Lone Soldier from Woodland Hills. The always optimistic Biton. Because it's a small nation and serving in the IDF is obligatory, every ...
 
Beliefnet
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 03:07:30 -0700

Her other name, Shams, along with her attributes became associated with a male sun god, Shams-On. The Babylonian sun god was Shamash, clearly related. The Hebrew word for sun, as well as the appellation of the biblical character Samson, were also ...

Cotidianul

Cotidianul
Mon, 04 Aug 2014 04:15:00 -0700

Recent, la “Christie's” din Londra, a fost achiziţionată, pentru 15,76 milioane de lire sterline (20 de milioane de euro), statuia Scribului Sekhemka, datând din jurul anului 2300 î.Ch., pusă în vânzare de Primăria din Northampton. Noul proprietar a ...
 
Almomento.net
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 05:00:00 -0700

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