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Secondary articulation refers to co-articulated consonants where the two articulations are not of the same manner. The approximant-like secondary articulation is weaker than the primary, and colors it rather than obscuring it. For example, the voiceless labialized velar plosive [kʷ] has only a single stop articulation, velar [k], with a simultaneous [w]-like rounding of the lips, and is usually heard as a kind of [k]. This is in contrast to the doubly articulated labial-velar consonant [k͡p], which has two equal stop articulations at the velum and lips.

Richard Maledo (2011) further defines secondary articulation as the superimposition of lesser stricture upon a primary articulation. These sounds are affected by the environment in which they occur and it is largely anticipatory of the preceding or succeeding sound. Secondary articulation according to him is largely potent in English among other languages, e.g., Arabic. There are a number of secondary articulations. The most frequently encountered are labialization (such as [kʷ]), palatalization (such as the Russian “soft” consonant [pʲ]), velarization (such as the English “dark” L [lˠ]), nasalization, and pharyngealization (such as the Arabic “emphatic” consonant [tˤ]).

Although the symbol for secondary articulation is a superscript written after the primary consonant, this is misleading, as they are pronounced simultaneously. Since secondary articulation has a strong effect on surrounding vowels, it will often seem that it precedes the consonant, or both precedes and follows it. For this reason, the IPA symbols for labialization and palatalization were for a time placed directly under the consonant (as [k̫] and [ƫ]), and there is still an alternate symbol for velarization or pharyngealizaton that is superposed across the consonant (as in [ɫ] for dark L).

See also[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secondary_articulation — Please support Wikipedia.
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Madison Courier
Sat, 13 Dec 2014 07:09:48 -0800

He will also represent the college to students, parents, professional organizations, secondary and post-secondary articulation partners, business and industry, and other relevant constituencies. "I am honored to be selected as the vice chancellor of ...

Ferris State Torch

Ferris State Torch
Wed, 22 May 2013 23:56:15 -0700

Secondary articulation agreements are formal pacts between secondary and postsecondary institutions designed to help students pursue higher education. The MDE notes that articulation agreements “provide a systematic, seamless transition process from ...
 
Inside Higher Ed
Tue, 08 Jan 2013 00:22:43 -0800

The Widget Theory of Higher Education is widely accepted, but curiously enough it is never articulated, except perhaps indirectly. However, it can be deduced from the practices that spring from it. The growing application of the unstated theory ...
 
Ghana News
Wed, 23 Jul 2008 00:00:00 -0700

The organization headed by Dr. George Copa has developed a model for the integration of academic and technical education curriculums. The New Designs model also emphasizes service learning, strong parent participation, post-secondary articulation and ...
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